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Memorials to Serve for a History of the 
Parish of St Mary, Rotherhithe in the ... 

Edward Josselyn Beck, Thomas George Bonney 





HARVARD 
COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 



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MEMORIALS 

TO SERVE FOR 

A HISTORY OF THE PARISH 

OF 

ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE 




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CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE, 

C F. CLAY, Manager. 

«4llll01i: FETTER LANE, EC. 

•iMftto: 50k WELLfNOTON STREET. 



^^ 




Ec<p>^: P. A. BROCKHAUS. 

Ilcte lerk: G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS. 

BmRkm i«b CilniHa: MACMILLAN AND CO.. Lnx 



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FEB 6 193^ 



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MEMORIALS 

TO SERVE FOR 

A ^HISTORY OF THE PARISH 

OF 

ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE^ 

IN THE COUNTY OF SURREY AND IN THE 
ADMINISTRATIVE COUNTY OF LONDON 

BY 

EDWARD JOSSELYN ggCK^'M.A. 

Rector of Rotherhithe and Honorary Canon of Southwark ; 

late Frilow and Dean of Clare College, Cambridge; 

O 

JVITH A CHAPTER ON THE GEOLOGT OF THE 
THAMES VALLEY AND OF ROTHERHITHE 

BY 

The Rbvbrend T. G. gONNEY, 

SaD,, LL.D., F.R^^ F.O^., «cc.; 

Fellow of St John'k College, Cambridge; Honorary Canon of Maiichester; 

and Emeritttt P ro f enor of Gedogy in Univernty College, London 



9nTH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRjmONS 



CAMBRIDGE 

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

1907 



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PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A. 
AT THE UNIVBESmr PRESS. 



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TO 

THE RIGHT REV. EDWARD STUART TALBOT, D.D. 
LORD BISHOP OF SOUTHWARK; 

MRS EMILY BLANCHE CARR^OMM, 
LADY OF THE MANOR OF ROTHERHITHE; 

THE MASTER, FELLOWS AND SCHOLARS OF 

CLARE COIXEGE, CAMBRIDGE, 

PATRONS OF THE BENEFICE ; 

AND 

THE CHURCHWARDENS, SIDESMEN AND 

PARISHIONERS OF THE PARISH OF ST MARY, 

ROTHERHITHE, 

THIS HISTORY OF OUR ANOENT PARISH 

IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED BY 

THE AUTHOR IN MEMORY OF 

HAPPY DAYS SPENT IN 

ITS COMPILATION 



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PREFACE. 



THE Memorials which are herein preserved and which, 
with some diffidence, I now oflfer to my readers, are 
the fruit of some thirty-five years' research, at such leisure 
moments as I could spare from more serious duties, in 
collecting materials for a History of the Parish of which I 
have been Rector since 1867. I had not long been resident 
in Rotherhithe before I conceived the idea of attempting to 
write its hbtory, for no one can be at all familiar with this 
place Mrithout seeing that it possesses a history well worth 
writing, but which no one up to the present time has thought 
it worth while to write. Indeed, after some ten years' work 
here, I ventured to announce that this History would before 
long be given to the world. 

I can only congratulate myself and those who may favour 
me by reading what I am now able to publish that I did not 
fulfil my purpose in 1877, for I should have given to my 
readers a very imperfect record of the history of a town 
whidi is of no common-place character, although it may be 
little known to the great world which lies so near to it, and 
which yet takes so little cognizance of its existence. When 
I say that modem London has been largely rebuilt with 
timber from our great Timber Docks, that the great 
granaries and wharves along our three miles of river frontage 
contribute no inconsiderable portion of the daily food of its 
inhabitants, and that in 1871, after the siege of Paris, many 
ship-loads of provisions were sent in haste across the Channel 



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vni PREFACE 

from this place to relieve the famine-stricken Parisians, I may 
claim that some record should be printed of the history of 
Rotherhithe. 

No such History has ever yet been written, although 
naturally the great Histories of London devote some space 
to the Parishes which lie outside the limits of the Cities of 
London and Westminster. Every Rector of an ancient 
English Parish owes a debt to his Parish to preserve its 
memorials from being forgotten, and I hereby endeavour 
to discharge my debt to Rotherhithe. 

I could not have discharged it in any satisfactory d^ree, 
had I not availed myself of the help of many friends, which 
I hereby gratefully acknowledge. Besides drawing on the 
ordinary sources of information which are open to all in the 
great Histories of the County of Surrey and of London, I 
have invoked the kind assistance of many friends whose 
personal recollections of by-gone days are incorporated in 
the following pages ; and of these I now gratefully mention, 
first and foremost, my old Cambridge friend, Dr Bonney, 
whose chapter on the Geology of the Thames Valley 
is a most valuable contribution to the pre-historic era 
of our ancient Parish ; next the Reverend Prebendary 
Wm. Hutchinson, Vicar of Blurton, near Stoke-on-Trent, 
who was from 1836 to 1850 the friend and colleague of the 
Reverend Edward Blick, when he began his great work 
of Church-building and School-building in Rotherhithe; 
Mr F. C. Carr-Gomm, who has kindly placed at my disposal 
his interesting volumes on the Manor of Rotheriiitbe, and 
on the earlier years of the life of Field-Marshal Sir Wm. 
Maynard Gomm, G.C.B. ; the Reverend Dr Atkinson, Master 
of Clare College, for valuable extracts from the Collie 
records ; and Mr Hector Munro Chad wick, Fellow of Clare, 
for revbing the Anglo-Saxon derivation of the name Rother- 
hithe. 

My cordial thanks are likewise due to the Library 
Committee of the Corporation of the City of London for 
permission to copy valuable prints and maps in the Guildhall 
Library. 



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PREFACE IX 

I have also to acknowledge with sincere thanks the 
permission given me by the proprietors of the Illustrated 
Lofidon News to use blocks of the Queen at the ship- 
breaker's yard — and of two of Whistler's sketches. 

I must also mention some copious MS., notes on Rother- 
hithc, prepared, apparently with a view to publication, by the 
late Mr Joseph Burn, M.R.C.S.*, who practised as a surgeon 
in Rotherhithe for many years, and whose daughter gave 
them to me at her father's death. They are very accurate 
transcripts from various sources, and I have made use of 
them freely. 

This book will be found to contain not only some anti- 
quarian and historical lore which may interest archaeologists, 
but much also of a more purely personal character, which 
will perhaps seem trivial to students of history, but which 
will none the less be found to be of real interest to old 
inhabitants of Rotherhithe for whom I have written what 
they would be sorry not to have had thus recorded. For 
Rotherhithe folk are very much attached to their old Parish, 
and if our neighbours in Bermondsey believe that there is 
''nothing like leather," we of the riverside Parish of Rother- 
hithe are of opinion that there is ''nothing like ships and 
barges and timber/' for by these things we have our living. 

Last, but not least, these pages will record a work for 
God's Glory, and for the advancement of Christ's Kingdom, 
which I venture to believe deserves to find a place in the 
Annals of Christian courage and devotion. 

Nisi Dominus aedificaverit domum: 
in vanum laboiaverunt qui aedificant earn. 

Nisi Dominus custodierit dvitaiem: 
frustra vigifau qui cuslodit earn. 

E. J. B. 
The Rictory, 

rotmbrhithb, s.e. 
Jmm. 36^ 1907. 

> MrBvawMaMUiveortlieUkcdirtrktaiidalritodoriUfftlcr 

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* 

IN PIAM MEMORIAM 

MARIiE COLERIDGE BECK 

IN HOC OPUSCULO CONFICIENDO 

ADJUTRICIS ASSIDU^ ATQUE 

INDEFATIGABILIS 

ANTEQUAM REQUIEVIT IN PACE 

S"^ DIE SEPTEMBRIS 

A.S. 1906 



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Parish Church of St Mary. Rotherhithe. as re-crccted in 1715. The new 
Tower erected 1738. Shipping in the river is seen on the left-hand. 



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Where'er I roam in this fair English land. 

The vision of a Temple meets my eyes : 

Modest without; within, all-glorious rise 
Its love-enduster'd columns, and expand 
Their slender arms. Like olive-plants they stand. 

Each answ'ring each, in home's soft sympathies, 

Sbters and brothers. At the altar sighs 
Parental fondness, and with anxious hand 
Tenders its oflering of young vows and prayers. 
The same, and not the same, go where I will. 
The vision beams! ten thousand shrines, all one 
Dear fertile soil ! Wliat foreign culture bears 
Such fruit? And I through distant climes may run 
My weary round, yet miss thy likeness stilL 

J. II. Nbwmak. 

WriUcfi at Oxibfd, Novcinljcff i6, 1831 

(pvbliibed 1867). 



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ADDENDUM TO /. 193. 

The Right Reverend George Henry Stanton, D.D., who was 
Curate of Christ Church, Rotherhithe, from 1858 to 1862, was 
consecrated Bishop of North Queensland on 24 June 187S and 
eventually became Bishop of Newcastle in New South Wales. He 
was devoted to missionary work and rarely came home to England 
He died at his post after 38 years of unremitting labour. 



CORRIGENDUM, 
p. 3529 1. 2%^ for river have rtad river has 



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CONTENTS. 

CHAPS. PAGIS 

I. Introductory i 

II. The Gfx)logy of Rotherhithe and of the 

Thames Valley 4 

III. Rotherhithe in Roman and Saxon Times . . 15 

IV. The Norman and Plantagbnet Period. Rother- 

hithe UNDER Monastic Rule . 21 

V. The Parish Church and its Rectors ... 34 

VI. Post-Reformation Rectors 41 

VII. The Curates and other Clergy of Rotherhithe 81 

VIII. The Parish Church Plate 98 

IX. The Parish Registers 102 

X. The Parish Church, its Monuments and In- 

scriptions 134 

XI. The Rebuilding of the Parish Church, 1714-15 159 

XII. Old Rotherhithe Families 164 

XIII. Physical Aspect of Rotherhithe in 1800 . 194 

XIV. The Shipbreakers 211 

XV. The Manor of Rotherhithe prom 1740 to the 

Present Day 214 

XVI. Prince Lee Boo 220 

XVII. The Thames Tunnel 224 

XVIII. The Timber Docks op London, and the Dry 

Docks op Rothkrhithb 326 

XIX. The Watbrmkm^ Stairs and Footways 230 

XX. The Municipal Government of Rothkrhithe 

AND THE Old Civil Force 232 

XXL A Chapter op Crimes 236 

XXIL Rothkrhithb op To-day . - MS 

Appendix 2$i 

Index 263 



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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

' The Fighting T^m^raire tugged to her last berth. 
(From the Painting by J. M. W. Turner in the 
National Gallery.) Frontispiece 

' Parish Church of St Mary, Rotherhithe, as re-erected 
in 1715. The new Tower erected 1738. Shipping 
in the river is seen on the left-hand • . . 7V> face /. xi 

^ Scene on the Pool of the Port of London, shewing the 
Tower of St Mary's Church, Rocherhhhe, and 
Wharves and Granaries on the Southern Bank 
of the River n i 

4 Ancient Wall near Platform Wharf, Rotherhithe, now 
in the workshops of Messrs WilmoCt and Gabon, 
Engineers „ 33 

^ Canon Beck, Rector of Rotherhithe • • • • „ 43 

* The Reverend Edward Blick, formeriy Rector of 

Rotherhithe, 1835— 1867 „ 56 

- Edward Blick „ 58 

V All Saints' Church and Vicarage, Roiherhithe »« 58 

V Memorial to the Reverend Edward Blick near the 

South Entrance to Rotherhithe Parish Church . „ 60 

* The Rev. Edward Josselyn Beck, M.A^ Rector of 

Rotherhithe „ 63 

# The Rectory, Rotherhithe, with School*Hoiite adjoiiriiig. 

Garden Front „ 64 

i St Barnabas' Church and Vicarage^ Pkmgli Road, 

Rotherhithe n 67 

• Interior of St Mary, Rotherhithe. Choir and Chancel . « 69 

V St PftuTs Chapd-of-Ease, Rotherhithe. (East End.) • „ 74 
^ Interior of St Mary, Rotherhithe. (Nave) • • • « 79 
^ The Rev. Wm. Hutchinson, M.An the first Minister of 

Holy Trinity, Rotherhithe w 81 

V Holy Trinity Church, Rotherhithe . • . • „ 94 



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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS XV 

V Silver Alms-dish, of foreign work To face p. loo 

*• A comer house in old Rotherhithe „ 102 

^ A View of the Thames, from Rotherhithe Stairs, during 

the frost in 1789. (Painted by G. Samuel, and 
engraved by W. Birch, Enamel Painter. Published 
August 1789 by W. Birch, Hampstead Heath, and 
sold by T. Thornton, Southampton Street, Covent 
Garden.) . „ 114 

V The Floating Dock in the Thames off Rotherhithe 

Church „ 124 

■" An old Cottage at Rotherhithe „ 134 

V Presentation Portrait of William Soper, Esq., Treasurer 

of the Parish of Rotherhithe, A.D. 1835 ... „ 140 

^ Rotherhithe Parish Church „ 159 

•'The Duke of Bedford's residence near Greenland Dock, 
inherited from the Howland family, long since pulled 
down „ 167 

V Samuel Gillam, Esq., J.P., Surgeon, of Rotherhithe „ 177 
^ Houses on the Mill-stream ^ I94 

•'On the Mill-stream, Jamaica Level . .\ 

»Morton Terrace, Jamaica Level, with Bridge across the}' n ^9^ 
Mill-stream ) 

t The Mill-stream, Jamaica Level, now Southwark Park\ 

Road [ „ 206 

V ** The Rectoi's Islands," Januuca Level, Rotherhithe .) 

. The Okl Mill Pond, Paradise Street, Rotherhithe, filled 

in 1902 M 208 

^ The "T^ro^raire" (104 guns) „ 211 

* The ** Queen" heeled over on the shore off the ship- 
breaker^s yard, Rotherhithe Street (From the 
* Illustrated London News.*) . Between pp. 2x2 and 2\z 

vThe late Fidd-Marshal Sir Wm. Maynaid Gomm, 
G.C.B., Constable of the Tower* Lord of the 
Manor of Rotherhithe • ' To face p 2\t 

4 The late Lady Gomm, Lady of the Manor of Rotherhithe „ 218 

« Mrs Carr-Gomm, Lady of the Manor of Rotherhithe n ^i^ 

V Hubert Wm. Carr-Gomm, M.P. for Rotherhithe . 

«AI>baThaUe,KtngofPelew 

4 Lndec^ one of the Wives of Ahba Tholle 
" Prince Lee Boo, Second Son of Abba Thulle 



318 

3JO 
320 
323 



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XVI LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

iThe Diving Bell at work over the Thames Tunnel To face p, 224 

vThc Great Howland Wet Dock, Rotherhithe, dug in or 
about the year 1599, subsequently called the Green- 
land Dock. (Several Dry Docks were abo provided 
on either side of the main entrance from the 
Thames. The extended view across the Marshes 
shews the Towers of Westminster Abbey and the 
Dome of St Paul's with other Churches in the City.) „ 226 

* Off Rotherhithe. Whistler. (From the '< Illustrated 

London News.") „ 230 

4 View taken during the severe frost of 1895, off Messrs 
Hay and Son's Wharf, looking West, shewing 
Brandram's Granaries, Grice's Wharf, Church 
Stairs and White's Rice Mills, with the spire of 
the Parish Church ' . „ 250 

^ View taken during the severe frost of 1895, off Hay 
and Son*^ Wharf, looking East, shewing the Lighter- 
barges blocked by the ice „ 250 

iThe Thames below London Bridge. Alter Whistler. 

(From the ** Illustrated London News.'O ,,250 

^ Free School m 252 

V A fictitious inhabiunt of old Rotherhithe ... ,,258 
\ A Map of the Parish of St Mary, Rotherhithe • „ 262 

V Map of Rotherhithe. (From a Volume in the Guildhall 

Library, London.) At end 



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•' CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCTORY. 

The parish of Kotherhithe lies somewhat apart from the 
main stream of the life of the metropolis by reason of its area 
occupying the space enfolded by one of the numerous bends 
of the river Thames, so that the main thoroughfares and 
great railway lines pass along the southern fringe of its 
boundaries and leave the parish itself almost untouched. 

Nevertheless it is and always has been a place of some 
importance, in consequence of its being situated on the Pool of 
the Port of London ; and the long sweep of river-frontage with 
its line of wharves, granaries and dry docks, together with the 
vast area of the Grand Surrey Commercial Docks, the centre 
of the timber trade of London, constitute its commercial 
wealth and importance in the mercantile world, and determine 
the character and govern the employment of its waterside 
inhabitants. 

Its ancient name is variously spelt in the books and 
records of olden time. We find it called Retherhith, Rother- 
hith or more commonly RedriflT, the name which it bears to 
this day in the parlance of its waterside inhabitants, as may 
be seen painted on the stem of the lighter-baiiges and 
watermen's boats (eg. "the Mary Jane of Rcdriff*X 

And the etymology of the name takes us back to the 
Saxon period of our English history; for it is formed of 
two Saxon words, Rethra (rArd) » a rower or mariner, and 
Hythi (I^)^9l landing-place or haven. Thus the name 
Redkra4ijtike well describes the place, which has always 
been a landing-place for watermen and mariners. The more 



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2 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

modem spelling of the name Rotherhithe has misled some 
writers into imagining a river "Rother," which we need 
hardly say does not exist in this county, although Rotheriield 
in Sussex does take its name from the river Rother, which 
runs out into the sea near Rye in that county^ 

The situation of Rotherhithe is on the southern bank of 
the river Thames, extending from the eastern boundaiy of 
the parish of Bermondsey at West Lane and following the 
bend of the river to the western boundary of the parish of 
Deptford in Kent, so that it is bounded on the north and east 
by the river, while on the south it is bounded by the parish of 
Camberwell and on the west by Bermondsey. 

Rotherhithe is in the Hundred of Brixton, or Brixstane. 
There is also a small portion of Rotherhithe which lies in the 
county of Kent 

" The Maner ** or Manor of Rotherhithe appears to have 
been from very early times included in the ** Maner of 
Bermondsey,'^ for no notice is taken of Rotherhithe in the 
Record of Domesday, and we must conclude that it was 
certainly not a distinct manor at the time of the general 
survey in the reign of William the Conqueror. 

The general aspect of Rotherhithe in the earliest ages is 
treated in the next chapter by the able geologist who has so 
kindly acceded to the request made to him to describe the 
physical geography of this place and neighbouiiiood in 
prehistoric times. 

It could scarcely have been inhabited by man until the 
great embankment or river-wall had shut out the tidal 
waters from overflowing its area, and these walls must have 
been the work of the Roman conquerors of Britain ; for the 
ancient Britons were too poor to undertake such a work, 
and the Saxons were too little acquainted with engineering 
problems. 

The whole area of Rotherhithe comprises an acreage of 
about 886 acres, and of this no less than 365 acres lie within 
the Dock Fence of the Surrey Commercial Dock Company ; 

' Othcrt have waggtaied ArifStrm 4/5sBplmce where oxea are landed, horn 
hriSeraaa ox. 



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l] INTRODUCTORY 3 

60 acres are within the Park Fence of the Southwark Park, 
leaving little more than half the entire acreage for the public 
roads and streets, and for the habitations of the parishioners, 
who are indeed in one part of the parish shut in between the 
river and the docks in a most inconveniently straitened 
fashion. 

Our parish history will naturally be divided into historical 
periods, comprising the Roman era ; the Saxon and Danish 
period; the Norman and Plantagenet period; the Monastic 
period, during which Rotherhithe was dominated by the 
monks of the great Abbey of St Saviour in Bermondsey, who 
were lords of half its manor and ecclesiastical patrons of the 
benefice, sending their own monks to be the rectors of our 
parish church* 

We shall next come to the Puritan period and the incum- 
bency of the great Puritan rector, the learned and pious 
Thomas Gataker. 

The Restoration period will tell us of some famous 
Royalists who lived here. 

The era of the great sea-captains will tell of many 
famous sons of RedriflT who fought for king and country. 

The peaceful developments which followed the Revolution 
of 1688 enabled our forefathers to rebuild the parish church 
which they loved and cared for with such dutiful pride. 

The great continental war will bring us to the Loyal 
Rotheriiithe Volunteers and to our famous Lord of the Manor 
Field Marshal Sir William Maynard Gomm, G.CB., Constable 
of the Tower, a Waterloo veteran, and ever a true friend of 
Rotheriiithe. 

The modarn period will bring us to Brunei and the 
making of the Thames Tunnel ; to the churdi and school- 
building age of the last rector, the Reverend Edward Blick, 
and lo down to the present day, when we are ^'makii^ hbtoiy ** 
and still building churches and schools for the 40/xx> inhabi- 
tants of our population in this twentieth century of the 
Christian era. 



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CHAPTER II. 

THE GEOLOGY OF ROTHERHITHE AND OF THE 
THAMES VALLEY. 

By Canon T. G. BONNEY, ScD., LL.D., F.R.S, &c. 

The valley of the Thames in the neighbourhood of London 
is bounded on either side by chalk hills, which towards the 
south rise to more than six hundred feet above the level of the 
sea. That rock is composed of calcareous marine organisms, 
plant and animal, often very minute, and much resembles the 
material now accumulating in some of the deeper parts of 
the Atlantic Ocean, so that when it was deposited only the 
highest parts of our islands, if even these, can have risen 
above the water. The total thickness of the chalk in some 
parts of the country exceeds eleven hundred feet, so ages 
must have passed while it was being formed. At last, how- 
ever, the downward motion of the earth's crust was replaced 
by an upward, and the higher part of this soft calcareous 
ooze was brought within reach of the waves. Some of it was 
removed, so that the present thickness of the chalk beneath 
the London area is less than seven hundred feet 

The material next in succession, and that after a long 
interval, for it belongs to the Eocene or first system of the 
Tertiary Series, consists of sands and clays deposited near 
the mouth of one or more large rivers, which probably were 
already in existence before the great submergence began, 
during which the chalk and beds immediately beneath it were 
deposited. The oldest Eocene deposit in this country is a 



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CH. II] GEOLOGY OF ROTHERHITHE 5 

sand, generally grey in colour and clean, named from the Isle 
of Thanet, which can be seen in the cliffs of Pegwell Bay, to 
the east of Heme Bay, in pits at Erith and Charlton, and at 
other places. This marine deposit is nowhere thick, and 
becomes thinner towards the west, seldom exceeding forty 
feet beneath the London area. It is followed by bedded clays 
and sands, variable in character, which must have been de- 
posited in the estuary of a large river, and seldom exceed 
70 feet in thickness. These are followed by the compact 
London Clay, which in some places attains a thickness of 
nearly 500 feet At its base a bed of well-rolled flint pebbles 
commonly occurs, which in some places, as at Blackheath, 
Chislehurst and the cast of Heme Bay, is rather more than 
30 feet thick; while in others, as under London, it has almost 
disappeared \ The London Clay has also been deposited in 
the sea though the material is itself a river mud, and above it 
come the clean Bagshot Sands, also marine, remnants of which 
cap the hills at Hampstead, Highgate and Harrow. 

The following facts give the first hint of a Thames valley. 
Beneath London, the united thickness of the deposits sepa- 
rating the pebble bed at the base of the London Clay from 
the top of the chalk is about too feet To the south of 
the metropolis, for example near Caterham waterworks, that 
pebble bed rests on the chalk, so this part of the North 
Downs must even then have been higher by that amount 
than the sea bed on which the Thanet Sand was first 
deposited 

For long ages after the deposit of the Bagshot Sands the 
history of the Thames valley is a blank. Whole chapters 
corresponding with the Ol^ooene*, Mk>oene and practically 
all the Pliocene periods have disappeared from the record. 
During this» the broader physical features of the district must 
have been shaped and the valley have been excavated, thou|^ 
to what extent we cannot yet determine. The deposits next 
in order of time are certain gravels on the higher ground 

* It hit beta HMMd the OldlMvoi or Markhctth Beds. 

* Tbe OUfoocae ii A awdcni MMM Ibr the lower half of Che Miocene and the 
top tliM pert of Ibc Eocene of Ibc older writen. 



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6 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

to the north, which are followed, apparently in immediate 
sequence, by a tough clay containing pebbles and fragments 
of various rocks, among which chalk and flint are common — 
the so-called boulder clay. This is spread like a mantle over 
no small part of England north of the Thames. It may be 
seen about Finchley and Muswell Hill, but is restricted to 
the higher ground, and may perhaps be intimately related 
to certain gravelly clays which occur on the upper parts of the 
North Downs. But the history and relation of these deposits 
are subjects so difficult and full of controversies that, in the 
present state of knowledge, we must be content to mention 
them, and pass on to take our stand on firmer ground. We 
can then picture the Thames flowing along a valley almost 
identical with the present one, except that its bed is at a 
higher level At the outset the diflerence may have amounted 
to a hundred feet But England itself then rose higher above 
the sea, and the coast of that epoch may have corresponded 
with the present hundred fathom line, so that our country, 
instead of being insulated, formed part of the continent The 
climate was then much colder, more like that of Labrador or 
possibly even the extreme south of Greenland ; there was 
more rain and a much greater accumulation of snow in winter. 
Thus the rivers ran, especially in the summer, with larger and 
stronger streams, sweeping along coarse gravel which was 
deposited in the slacker waters, while the main channels were 
deepened. These altered their courses as the waters rose or 
fell, and gradually lowered the river bed to about its present 
leveL This stage in the making of the Thames valley is 
commemorated by the bed of coarse gravd, which may often 
be traced in a series of rude terraces, and sometimes almost 
in a continuous sheet, from a height of about a hundred feet 
above high-water mark to sUghtly below the bottom of the 
present river. Resting upon the London Qay, these deposits 
determined the site of ancient London, which was built on 
the first laige shdf of gravel, overiooldi^ the river at the 
head of the great tract of marshland rendered uninhabiUble 
by its tklal waters. Gravel also was deposited both on the 
southern side and higher up the stream, but this we need not 



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II] GEOLOGY OF ROTHERHITHE J 

further describe. Forests probably clothed the slopes on 
both sides, as they did no small part of England. Many 
wild animals, which have now disappeared from Europe, and 
in some cases from the earth, then inhabited the country: 
man also had already arrived ; but to this subject we shall 
return. 

Slight changes occurred in the level of the land which 
are not so clearly indicated in this district as in some other 
parts of England, and ushered in the last epoch. The valley 
of the Thames had now been worked down to about its 
present depth and contours, but its waters during floods and 
high tides -spread freely over its bed, and all the level plain 
below the site of London Bridge was a marsh generally un- 
inhabitable, and only visited on occasion by the hunter and 
the fowler. But civilization advanced: some native tribe 
found a dwelling-place on the gravel terrace on the left bank 
of the river, and then the Roman came, to b^n the reclama- 
tion of the marshes and the history of the metropolis. 

That gravel terrace, as we have already said, determined 
the position of the future London. It was sufficiently high 
above the river to be safe from floods ; it was traversed by 
streams, which in one or- two places provided springs by 
cutting down to the underlying clay, and made men inde- 
pendent of the brackish river water, with an ample supply 
beneath their feet when they had learnt to sink wells^ But 
even while that gravel was being formed, men frequented the 
valley of the Thames. They were a race of hunters, clad, no 
doubt, like the Greenlanders, for the climate was cold, in the 
skins of wild beasts ; they made their cutting instruments of 
flint ruddy chipped into shape, and added to tbese» at any 
rate after a time, lances, harpoons, and smaller implements 
of antlers or strong bones. These people must have been 
long in the land, for it would take not a few centuries to 
deepen the Thames valley by a hundred feet During that 
time they seem to have advanced in dvilization, though this 

> Tbe writer i gro cu i b a i the puiqM h$ 8l GIki la iIm PfaUs OMVcliyaid, in 
Great I>eao*t Yid, Wdtmlmtcr, aad hi tbe CiMtffriiBMi ; the latt etill ivMiMd a 
few yean ago. 



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8 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

is shown, not so much by discoveries in river gravels, where 
only the stronger materials would remain, as by the examina- 
tion of rock shelters, especially those in the valleys of the 
Vezire, Dordogne and elsewhere in France. These caves, 
some of which were evidently inhabited for a considerable 
period, furnish better made implements and carvings on 
antler and bone, not without a certain skill, such as figures 
of animals and representations of hunting scenes, and in a 
few cases rude drawings on the rock. But work of the more 
finished type has not been found in the gravels of the Thames, 
or indeed of our other river valleys. 

Skulls or other bones of these Palaeolithic, or Old-stone 
men, as they are called, are rareties and do not sug^;est 
beings much higher In their intellectual capacity, at any 
rate in the earlier time, than the Australian or lower types of 
African natives^ But the bones and teeth of animals are 
much more abundant in both the graveb and the caves. The 
valley of the Thames and its tributaries was frequented, to 
mention only those which have disappeared, by the brown 
and the grizzly bears, the spotted hyaena, the lion and the wolf, 
by the bison and the aurochs, the giant stag, commonly called 
the Irish Elk, and the reindeer, by a wild horse, by two species 
of elephants of which the Mammoth was the commoner, by 
three of rhinoceros, the woolly species, R. antiquitatis^ being 
the most abundant, and by a hippopotamus, hardly distin- 
guishable from that still living on the Upper Nile*. 

We leave for a moment the relation of these gravels to 
Rotherhithe and pass on to the alluvial deposits, only 

> At Gdlcjr Hill, acAT NoctlOleet, a conridemblc ptftoC a skektoa, wcMiiv 
a tlndl, wat km/A in fiavtl aboat 90 fsct abova tba Umact fai i88t vkkli was 
docribad allarwaidt by Mr E. T. Nawtaa {Qtmrt. Jmt. GmL S$c. u. (1895). 
p. 505), aad cuatidtwrf by kiai to r ep t tact palaotttbk aun. Sooie aatboritka, 
bowcver. think that tboi^ tbe afe oC tbc giavd b indabitable the haaMB icnaiai 
WM!f be mofc laccat. 

* Tbe coa^4ctt Met oC tba finaui Iroai tbe river diffb oC tbe Londoa diitrict 
arUl be fbaad ia tbe g anl^pr t/ L$mdm (W. Wbitaka^, vol. I* pp. 335-a and 
•etreral ootliae drawiags of tbe lliot iaipleaienu are given iaiaiediatdy aftcrwardi. 
Tbe aniaMb anMt bavt w an dered aboat Rotberbitbe, for tbe nobtf tootb of a 
laaininlb and a rod deer^ antler vert Idand in 1 87 j in baildiag tbe dodc waU of 
Canada Dock. 



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II] GEOLOGY OF ROTHERHITHE 9 

remarking that the remains of both extinct animals and 
man have been found beneath London itself. Remnants 
of a mammoth were dug up in Pall Mall, two, probably 
a mother and calf, were discovered and partly destroyed 
just south of Endsleigh Gardens, and an " elephant's " tooth, 
with a well-made flint implement, was taken up twelve feet 
deep "as they were digging for gravel by the end of Grays 
Inn Lane" so long ago as about 1690, being the earliest 
palxolith on record. Of late years they have been found 
rather commonly near Stoke Newington, as well as the 
actual places, so it is believed, where the men of that age 
sat to chip them from the rough flint of the gravel-banks^ 

The latest prehistoric deposits, which, but for the restriction 
of the river channel, would still be forming on the wide flats 
bordering the Thames from Rotherhithe downwards, difler 
considerably, as we shall see, from the river gravels, and are 
probably separated from them by an unrecorded interval of 
some duration. They consist of rather tough grey clays 
parted by somewhat irr^ular peaty layers*, which represent 
the mud spread by the river when its waters extended with- 
out check during floods and high tides over its almost level 
bed, or marshy places traversed by creeks, dotted with 
stagnant pools and brackish lagoons. Here, as accumu- 
lation continued, shoals would become banks a little drier 
than the rest of the plain, and trees would take root on 

' Further pArticiiImrs and references will be found In the above named work, 
pages 343 to 357, and in Sir J. Evans' AmUni SUm ImpUmfmit rfCrmi Briimim 
(see especially pages 583 and 597, ed. 1897). 

' Mr Whitaker (G€$ltgy ff Latubm, vol. I. p. 459) mentions the following 
sectioos. Between Adam Street and Albion Street (near the entrance to the OM 
ThaflMS Tannel) Silt about 3 feet between Made GroMid and Gmvdly Sand (over 
6feet exposed). Further sooth, at the entrance to the tnnnel (siteof a station), the 
feUowiag section of the alliiviam by beneath the soil: Brown (Hay 3 feet. Peat 
with wood 4 or 5 leet. Green Clay; and then a few yards ferther sonth he saw 
between the soil and the gravel: (allnviom) Pleat j feet; Grey Clay with rootlets* 
greenish in parts, s feet or more; SsimI with fresh-water shells {Bttkjmis)^ abont 
a foot; Peat with loam at the bottom, over a foot. Other sections ate given 
proving the presence of at least one peaty layer, and in catting the Snriey 
Comaserdal Ducks a forest bed, with tree stmnps im jte, was exposed aboat 
M feet down, with a band of silty cbiy below, rich in mamnwlian 1 
below it the giavels. 



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lO ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

them, while it would be covered by a marshland v^etation — 
the home of wild animals and birds, but not often of men. 
Neither the one nor the other were the same as in the former 
days. The larger quadrupeds, the survivors of earlier times, 
had now disappeared, though the early British hunter had 
a wider choice of game than is possible at the present day. 
The woods and marshlands of the Thames estuary were 
then frequented by both the Irish and the true elk, by 
the rein, the red, and the fallow deer, by the roe, the horse, 
and the boar, by the beaver, wolf, and bear, by the bison, 
aurochs, and the Celtic shorthorn {Bos bngifrans). The last, 
with the goat, sheep and dog, may represent domesticated 
animals. The Irish elk and the aurochs do not now exist, 
though the latter lingered in the German forests till the 
earlier Middle Ages, but the wild horse still lives in the 
deserts of Central Asia, though this may be a different 
species from that which once inhabited our islands, and 
could be found west of the Urals in the later part of the 
eighteenth century. 

Proof that some of these animals actually wandered over 
the site of Rotherhithe was obtained, in 1875, by the dis- 
covery of a number of bones in the alluvial deposit during 
excavations for the Canada Dock in the area of the Surrey 
Commercial Dock. These were fortunately secured by the 
author of this volume, and are now preserved in the Public 
Free Library, Bermondsey. They have been examined by 
Mr E. T. Newton, F.R.S., at that time PaUeontologist to the 
Geological Survey, who has kindly sent the following list of 
the bones, dated Feb. 13, 1905. 

(1) Horse (Efmms eabailus). A namber of bones of horses of 

different size and belonging to at least four animals ; 
including skulls, pelvic bones, scapuke and limb-bones. 

(2) Ox (Bos iamrusy Several fragments of ox-bones, indi- 

cating a larger and a smaller fonn. 

(3) Red Deer {Orvms etafhms). Two limb-bones of a red 

deer, both broken, but indicating a large animal 

(4) Sheep {Ovis arks). A skull with outwardly directed 



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II] GEOLOGY OF ROTHERHITHE II 

horn cores, and a number of bones from other parts 
of the skeleton. 

(5) I5og {Canis familiaris). Portion of two skulls of dogs of 

dissimilar size. 

(6) Pig {Stis scrofd). The pig is only represented by a 

single humerus of a young animal 
Also fragments of wood. 

The men of this age belonged to more than one race, but 
even the earliest among them were much more civilized 
than their predecessors. They had not then discovered the 
use of metals, but often put a smooth surface on their stone 
instruments, instead of leaving them rough-chipped, from 
which they are called the Neolithic or New-stone people. 
They were agriculturists as well as hunters, cultivated cereals, 
domesticated animals, made pottery, could spin, weave and 
shape canoes. The first comers were rather short, the men 
not exceeding five feet six inches in height, and their skulls 
are of the longer oval type. They were dark in hair, 
eyes and complexion, being represented at the present day 
by the Basques and other remnants of a similar race 
recognizable in Europe, as for instance in Brittany, Wales, 
the Western Highlands, and south-west Ireland^ This race, 
often called the Iberic, was followed by the Celtic, whose 
representatives may not have reached these islands till they 
had discovered how to make bronze, to which afterwards 
iron was added. These were tall, fair and blue-eyed*, with 
rounder skulls, and they occupied when the Romans came 
(etlmok>gists recognize more than one immigration) all but 
the onore nigged parts of England 

Relics of both the Later Stone and the Bronze age have 
been found in the valley of the Thaoies or on the surrounding 
slopes*. Hut circles or shallow pits, marking the site of 

> See Boyd Dawkins, Emriy Mam m BHimim^ ch. IX. 

• Identical with thoee deicribed by Tadtvt {Cirmmmim. c IT.), trmm §t 
ttmun 0aui% mHUi i9wut% wuiftttk €9trp9t^tu 

* For the Neolithic tfc tee Sir John Evans, Af^cUmi Simn ItmfUmmii tf 
Crmi Briimm. References in Index j; r. Thames down to pa^47f (and editioo, 
1S97). 



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12 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

Wigwams, and camps fortified by earthworks belonging to 
the former are far from rare ; they buried their dead, com- 
monly in a crouching posture, in cists (boxes made of 
stone slabs) or in dolmens (chambers formed with larger 
blocks) beneath circular mounds of stone or earth ; the 
Bronze age men, who followed the same mode of life, 
generally burnt their dead and buried the ashes in vases 
beneath a " long barrow " or mound of oval shape. The use 
of iron was introduced in still later times, but before the 
coming of the Romans. Remains of this Prehistoric Iron 
or Neo-Celtic age, as it is sometimes called, havie been 
found in the Thames valley, as in other parts of England ; 
near Glastonbury, for instance, a village of some size has 
been recently explored. This age probably was not a long 
one in Britain, for the use of iron seems to have spread 
northwards through Europe from the south-east In Greece 
the metal was known, though still far from common, about 
twelve centuries B.C., but it had become familiar in the days 
of Hesiod, who lived in the middle of the ninth. The metal 
work of this age, gold, silver and iron, exhibits a higlier 
finish than that of its predecessor, and is ornamented with 
spirals, volutes and other rather elaborate patterns; some- 
times also with enamel; the burial places show that while 
cremation was still practised, interment at full length was 
more usual. This branch of the Celtic race occupied the 
south-east, if not the major port of the British lowlands, 
and was the first attacked by the Roman invaders. 

With their coming written history begins in these islands, 
and the first efforts were made to festrict the Thames from 
wandering at will over the alluvial plmfai which boiders its 
lower reaches. Here the geologist leaves the field to the 
antiquarian, because since that date the changes made l>y 
unaided nature have been so small as to be almost negligilile. 
But we may conclude by a brief sketch of the Thames vallqr, 
more especially in the immediate neighbourhood of Rotber- 
hithe, as we may infer it to have been from well sinkings and 
other investigations. During the Pabeolithic age, as we 
pointed out, the whole r^on must have been at a higher 



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II] GEOLOGY OF ROTHERHITHE 1 3 

level than it is at the present day. The Thames, while 
depositing the gravels already mentioned, continued to 
deepen its main channel, so that at the end of this age 
Its bed in the neighbourhood of the Charing Cross railway 
bridge was about fifty feet lower than that of the present 
river*. Since these gravels were deposited there must have 
been a subsidence of more than that amount, which appears 
to have been carried so far that early in the Neolithic age 
England was actually depressed to a little below its present 
level This is shown by the presence of clays containing 
marine fossils and formed on the whole below the low tide 
limit, and by the raised beaches well developed on our 
northern and western coasts; on the eastern, as in the 
Thames valley, the changes have been less, so that the 
present level has not been materially altered, except by 
deposition from tidal or flooded waters since Neolithic times. 
As in the Cambridgeshire fens, though on a much smaller 
scale, the gravel here and there formed shoals or very low 
islands in the swampy river plain. Bermondsey, as its name 
implies, was one of them, the gravel beneath it, which rests 
on the London Clay or the underlying Woolwich Beds, being 
sometimes nearly ten yards in thickness. Rotherhithe, 
though gravel is usually found beneath it at some little 
depth from the surface, is on the alluvial plain and must 
often have been under water; indeed as old maps show us, 
not a little of the broad peninsula round which the Thames 
takes its course to Deptford, was occupied by shallow meres, 



> I am indebted for this infomuUion to Dr J. J. H. Teall, F.R.S., Director of 
the Geological Survey, who writes, "The Baker Street and Waterloo Railway 
croMCt tbc Thames dote to the Charing Crom Railway Bridge. At both shore 
ends it is driven in London Clay, bat for some 350 feet, a little to the south of the 
centre of the present coarse, it passes through the Old Thames valley gravels, 
lying in an eroded hollow in the cUy. On the north side of the centre oif the river 
the tube emefges from the clay almost exactly under the deepest point of the 
pfesent bed, but the deepest part of the old channel lies some 350 feet south-east 
of this point and is about 80 feet below Ordnance datum and some 50 Icet below 
the base of the preMUt channel." (See Prgeudm^ tf imstiiult §/ Civii Enginttrt^ 
voL 150^ Pi. it. (1901-sy.) 



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14 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. II 

of which the great Commercial Docks are to a certain extent 
the successors and memorials ^ 

^ For sections in this part of the Thames valley see Gtology of London (W. 
Whitaker), toL ii. The following (p. 187) may serve as an example of Bermond- 
sey. Crimscott Street : 1 1 feet above O.D. Sand and Gravel 99 feet resting on 
London Clay, the hase of which was 14 feet below O.D. Gravel, generally not less 
than 30 feet thick, was pierced at Blue Anchor Road, Drummond Road, Grange 
Road, Homey Lane, Market Street, New Weston Street and other places. At 
Rotherhithe (see pages a i7» 118, 31a, 313, 333) the alluvial deposit is thicker — 
perhaps a dozen feet. Good sections of this and the underlying gravel were foand 
in the recent excavations for the mouth of the Rotherhithe and Shadwell tonnel 
which is In course of construction by the London County Council under the 
Thames; the fonner deposit consisting of clay (river mud) with occasional streaks 
of peat or peaty earth. 



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CHAPTER III. 

ROTHERHITHE IN ROMAN AND SAXON TIMES. 

Our belief is that the great river wall or embankment 
which exists on both sides of the river Thames is the work of 
the Romans. 

If this belief be correct we may assume that the first 
human inhabitants of this place settled in it during the period 
of the Roman occupation of Britain, viz. from B.C. 54, the 
date of the landing of Julius Caesar, to AD. 411. 

When men began to settle here it must have been, at first, 
along the river bank, for no other part of Rotherhithe could 
have been habitable for many years till the swamps and 
marshy ground had been gradually drained and brought 
under cultivation. The traces of Roman occupation, apart 
from Roman engineering enterprise, are almost entirely 
wanting. 

Coins, pottery and other Roman relics, which are found 
in such great abundance in London itself, and in places like 
York, Lincoln, or Colchester where the Roman l^ons en- 
camped and built strongholds, have, with one exception ^ not 
been found in Rotherhithe, and we can therefore only feel 
thankful to that great conquering nation for our Rotherhithe 
wall, the bulwark which prevents us from being inundated 
twice in every twenty-four hours by the tides, and which 
protects our low-lying districts south of the Thames, the whole 
of which are well below high-water mark. 

* la VUmfjtk Road, daring the cxcftvatioiit for the large Jute Warebonset whidi 
were craelcd tlwre in or abcmi i867, an earthenware veisel was dog vp coo- 
tainii^ a great qnaality of Roman coins, tome 1300 in all, taid to l)e of the reign of 
the Emperor Hadrian. This ** Crock** with MNae of the coint bat the dodc offices. 



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1 6 ST MARV, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

Rotherhithe wall is a continuation of Bermondsey wall, 
and the latter is a continuation of a similar river embankment 
both below and above Lx)ndon Bridge, including the well- 
known Bank-side and the Lambeth district. On the northern 
shore of the Thames the river walls were not so essential ; 
for the land rises steeply from the water's edge up Gravel 
Lane to the Ratcliff (or Red-Cliff) Highway. 

Yet Wapping wall was built to protect the " long-shore " 
district of Wapping, and no doubt traces of the Roman wall 
could be found elsewhere ; and the preservation of the em- 
bankment all along the course of the river, past Deptford 
and Greenwich, is a matter of life and death to us, as the 
subsequent history of Rotherhithe will show, when the care- 
lessness of riverside owners at various epochs allowed the 
incoming tide to cause a breach in the river wall, spreading 
distress and entailing almost irreparable damage to property. 

Passing to the Saxon period, A.D. 449-1016, we infer from 
the name which our parish bears that it was by Saxon 
mariners and settlers that RedrifT was first practically in- 
habited and became a township and parish. 

At what date these Saxons built a church here we have 
no record'. But assuredly when the mission of St Augustine 
in A.D. 596 had begun the work of evangelization in Kent, it 
would not have been long before the light of the Gospel 
would have penetrated into this part of England. It was we 
know in A.D. 604, just 1300 years ago, that St Augustine, then 
Archbishop of Canterbury, founded the See of London, send- 
ing his companion Mellitus to be the first Bishop and to 
erect St Paul's Cathedral on Ludgate Hill. 

Rotherhithe, like the other south London parishes, was 
once in the Diocese of Winchester, whose first Bishop was 
St Birinus, consecrated Bishop of Dorchester A.D. 634. 

The story of the foundation of Westminster Abbey in 
Thorney Island, and the gift by St Peter of a tithe of the 
fish caught in the Thames to his abbot and convent, has a 

' Indeed if tbqr did baild m charch here at ftU» it most hare been a Tery 
bamble tlractofe; peiliapt only a chapd; for RotheiliiUie was a part of iIm 
greater parbh of Bennoodfej. 



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Ill] ROTHERHITHE IN ROMAN AND SAXON TIMES 1 7 

curious interest for the rector and parishioners of Rotherhithe 
which may well find mention in this chapter of Saxon 
memories. 

And from Dean Stanley's memorials of Westminster 
Abbey* we are able to extract the fascinating legend of 
Edric the Fisherman. - 

Legend of Edric the Fislumtan. 

The great and famous Abbey of St Peter, founded by the 
last of our Saxon kings St Edward the Confessor in 1050, 
had among its earliest legends one which assured to the 
abbot a tithe of the fish caught in the Thames. 

The I%end runs thus : On a certain Sunday night in the 
reign of King Sebert (circa 616), on the eve of the day fixed 
by Mellitus, first Bishop of London, for the consecration of 
the original monastery in the Isle of Thorns, a fisherman 
named Edric was casting his net from the shore of the island 
into the Thames. 

On the other side of the river, where Lambeth now stands, 
a bright light attracted his notice. 

He crossed, and found a venerable personage in foreign 
attire calling for some one to ferry him over the dark stream. 
Edric consented. The stranger landed and proceeded at 
once to the church. 

On his way he evoked with his stafT the two springs of 
the island. The air suddenly became bright with a celestial 
splendour. The building stood out clear '' without darkness 
or shadow.*' A host of angels, descending and re-ascending 
with sweet odours and flaming candles, assisted, and the 
cbufch was dedicated with the usual solemnities. The fisher- 
man remained in his boat^ so awestnirk by the sight, that 
when the mysterious visitant returned and asked for food he 
was obliged to reply that he had not caught a single fish. 

Then the stranger revealed his name : ^I am Peter, keeper 
of the keys of heaven. When Mdlitus arrives to-morrow tell 
him what you have seen: and show him the token that 

* Chapter i. p. sa 



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1 8 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

I St Peter have consecrated my own church of St Peter, 
Westminster, and have anticipated the Bishop of London. 
For yourself, go out into the river ; you will catch a plentiful 
supply of fish, whereof the larger part shall be salmon. This 
I have granted on two conditions — first, that you never fish 
again on Sundays ; secondly, that you pay a tithe of them to 
the Abbey of Westminster." 

Thus Mellitus next morning found himself forestalled. 

But herein is contained the claim established by the 
Convent of Westminster on the tithe of the Thames fisheries 
from Gravesend to Staines. 

In 1282 a law-suit was successfully carried by the Abbot 
of Westminster against the Rector of Rotherhithe, who for his 
part claimed the tithe of all fish caught off the shore of his 
parish. . 

It went against the Rector on the ground that St Peter 
had granted to the Abbot the first haul 

• ••••••• 

Once a year, as late as 1382, one of the Thames fishermen, 
as representative of Edric, took his place beside the Prior, and 
brought in a salmon for St Peter. It was carried in state 
through the middle of the refectory. The Prior and the 
whole fraternity rose as it passed up to the high table, and 
then the fisherman received ale and bread from the cellarer 
in return for the fish's tsAlK 

Canute's Dyke. 

The Saxon Chronicle tells us that in 1016 Canute the 
Dane brought his ships to Greenwich, and after stopping 
there a short time proceeded up the river to London, ^ where 
they sank a deep ditch on the south side, and dragged their 
ships to the west side of the bridge.** 

The meaning of this sUtement seems to be that the 
Danes towed their war-ships past the bridge through a trench 
or canal which they dug on the Surrey side of the river for 
that purpose. 

> See WcitBioAcr •*CitstoiiiU7** \L 103 (Henry Bfidshaw Society). 



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Ill] ROTHERHITHE IN ROMAN AND SAXON TIMES I9 

It is traditionally believed that "Canute's Dyke" began 
in the parish of Rotherhithe. 

The following is the account given by Maitland in 1739 
of his attempt to trace the course of the canal or trench, dug 
by Canute in 1016, to get his ships past London Bridge: 

" By a diligent search of several days," he says, ** I dis- 
covered the vestigia and length of this artificial water-course : 
its outflux from the river Thames was where the Great Wet 
Dock below Rotherhithe is situate; whence, running due 
west by the seven houses in Rotherhithe fields, it continues 
its course by a gentle winding to the Drain Wind-mill ; and 
with a west-north-west course passing St Thomas of Water- 
ing's, by an easy turning it crosses the Dcptford [Kent] Road, 
a little to the south-east of the Lock Hospital, at the lower 
end of Kent Street, and proceeding to Newington Butts, 
intersects the fx>ad a little south of the turnpike; whence, 
continuing its course by the 'Black Prince,' in Lambeth 
Road, on the north of Kennington, it runs west-and-by-south, 
through the Spring Garden at Vauxhall, to its influx into the 
Thames at the lower end of Chelsea Reach V 

This was written more than 165 years ago; and even at 
that time the ingenious and painstaking investigator admits 
that part of the line which he so minutely described was not 
very discernible to ordinary eyes. But we fear that in the 
work of obliteiation the last century has done more than all 
the seven that preceded it 

Maitland adds, in confirmation of bis view, that he enquired 
of a carpenter named Webster, who had been employed in 
making the Great Wet Dock at Rotherhithe in 1694, and 
learned from him that in the course of that work "^ there was 
dug up in the bank of the river a great quantity of hazel, 
willowsi and other small wood of a considerable height, laid 
close together endways^ pointing northward, with rows of 
stakes drove in to fasten them**; whence Maitland came to 
the conduskm that here had been the south bank of the 
mouth of the canal 

> lUltltad^ Lmdm, cd. 1739. p. t6. 

3 — 8 



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20 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. Ill 

There are several other theories as to the course of 
"Canute's Dyke," as it may well be believed that a much 
shorter cut would have served his turn ; but it is beyond our 
province to enter into these theories. We will only remark 
that Canute had to avoid the fortified outworks of Southwark 
as well as the Bridge. The actual course of his trench was 
probably guided by the natural inundations from the river 
over the low-lying marshy ground. 

It should be added that there is preserved in the Guildhall 
Museum a wooden pile which was dug up in St George's 
Fields, and this pile Is believed to have been one of those 
which lined the course of the famous Dyke^ 

' The course of Canute's Djke as described bj MaiUand begins with the 
Howland ''Great Wet Dock,** and passes "the Seven Houses'* which stand at 
present opposite Trinity Church with their back yards abutting upon the chnrdi* 
yard. The road whidi bounds the Parish of Rotherhithe where it touches the 
Parish of Bermondsey on the south is called the ''Galley-Wall Road.** The 
name is certainly a strange one ; and it seems to lend itself to the conjecture that 
the war galleys of Canute might have passed that way in the Dyke whidi was 
dug between two "walls" or embankments, perhaps deepening an existuig 
dtpwiiion in the ground. 



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CHAPTER IV. 

THE NORMAN AND PLANTAGENET PERIOD. 
ROTHERHITHE UNDER MONASTIC RULE. 

Not long after the Norman Conquest a new influence made 
itself felt in this part of South London. In 1082 A.D. the 
great Benedictine Priory of St Saviour, Bermondsey, was 
founded, and in 1399 Pope Boniface the Ninth, at the request 
of King Richard the Second, erected it into an abbey. For 
no less than 453 jrears, i.e. from its foundation in 1082 till its 
dissolution on January i, 1535, the parishes of Bermondsey 
and Rotherhithe were more or less under the sway both 
temporal and spiritual of the prior and convent, which had 
acquired much wealth and influence by the endowments of 
sovereigns and nobles in successive ages. 

There was indeed a still more ancient foundation in 
Southwark, St Mary Overie, which owed its coll^'ate 
character to St Swithun, Bishop of Winchester from 852 to 
862, and later on Canons Regular of the Order of St Augustine 
were established in the place of the college of priests. But 
great as was the Priory of St Mary Overie, it was the Abbey 
of St Saviour^ Bermondsey^ which dominated soothfast 
London. The Benedictine Order encouraged study and 
learning, as well as ascetidsm and devotion, and we may well 
be thankful that in an age of much ignorance and violence 
and tyranny anci^ oppression the light of learning and piety 
shone out from the monasteries over the darkness of the 
land 

The Manor of Rotherhithe* as disUnct from that of Ber- 
mondsey, of which it appears to have been originally a part. 



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22 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

was vested in the crown. For we find that William Rufus in 
the seventh year of his reign (A.D. 1094) reserved it to himself 
when he granted the Bermondsey Manor to the newly-erected 
Priory of St Saviour, and Rotherhithe Manor remained in the 
crown as parcel of the royal demesne till the time of Henry I, 
when that king gave one moiety thereof to Robert, his natural 
son ; and the other moiety in the twenty-seventh year of his 
reign (a,D. i 127) to the Priory of Bermondsey. It was in this 
way that half of the Manor of Rotherhithe came to form part 
of the endowments of the great abbey, and it will be im- 
portant to trace the history of the two moieties of the manor 
through succeeding ages. 



Manor of the Honour of Gloucester. 

The moiety of the Manor of Rotherhithe, which was given 
to Robert by his father King Henry the First, became 
associated with the great Manor of the Honour of Gloucester; 
for Robert, by his marriage with Mabel, daughter of Robert 
Fitz-Hamon, was in possession of the Honour of Gloucester, 
and to it he annexed his Rotherhithe Manor. 

This Robert was created Eari of Gloucester in 1 1 Henry I. 

He was a very important personage; for being brother, by 
his father, to the Empress Maud, he was one of the foremost 
among the assertors of her right to the crown. He conducted 
her to England in July, 1 138 (3 Stephen), and it was he who 
took Stephen prisoner after the battle of Lincoln, 2nd Feb., 
1140-1. He died 31st Oct, 12 Stephen, AJ>. 1147. 

William, the son and successor of Robert, married Hawise^ 
daii^ter of Robert, sumamed Botsu, Eari of Ldoester, and 
died 23rd Nov., 20 Henry II, A.a 1173, without male issue, 
when the king seised his earidom and Honour of Gloucester 
into his own hands. 

Amida, daughter of William, and at length sole heir of his 
estates, married Richard, Lord of Clare and Eari of Hertford, 
and thus the half Manor of Rotherhithe passed into the pos- 
session of the great mediaeval family of de Clare, who owned 
manors and advowsons in OAOtl of the counties of England. 



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IV] THE NORMAN AND PLANTAGENET PERIOD 23 

This family took its name from the Honour of Clare, an 
ancient town in the county of Suffolk. 

Gilbert, her son, was seised in her right of the Honour of 
Gloucester in 2 Henry III, and was also afterwards invested 
with the earldom of that county. 

Gilbert, grandson of Gilbert aforesaid, to whom the Honour 
and earldom descended on the death of his father Richard in 
1262 (46 Henry HI), was likewise seised of the half Manor of 
Rotherhithe, which was holden of him by Robert Bumel, 
Bishop of Bath and Wells, by the service of half a knight's 
fee, 2s. 2dt annual rent and suit of the court of the said 
Gilbert at his Manor of Camerwell. This Bishop Robert 
Bumel will appear again when we trace the history of the 
other moiety (see p. 24). 

Gilbert, the son of Richard, was sumamed "The Red.** 
He was 7th Earl of Hertford and 3rd Earl of Gloucester, and 
married Joan of Acre, daughter of Edward I. 

His son was yet another Gilbert, who was slain at the 
battle of Bannockbum on 25th June, 1314(7 Edward HXdying 
without issue, and his three surviving sisters became his co- 
heiresses. The third sister, Elizabeth de Burgh, was a woman 
of great piety and enlightenment. To this illustrious lady, 
herself a scion of the great de Clare family, and likewise 
of royal descent, for her mother was Joan of Acre, daughter 
of King Edward the First, we owe the refoundation of the 
college which bears her honoured name in the University of 
Cambridge — ^"the Collie, Hall or House of Clare." It is 
interesting to know that her brother Gilbert was lord of the 
moiety of the Manor of Rotherhithe, and that 400 years later, 
in 1730, the Master, Fellows and Scholars of her college 
became patrons of the advowson of the benefice of St Mary, 
Rotherhithe, in right whereof they have ever since presented 
the rectors of Rotherhithe to this living till the present day. 

Manor of the Priory of Bermondsey. 

We must now revert to the moiety of the Manor of 
Rotherhithe, which was given by King Henry the First to the 
Priory of Bermondscy. 



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24 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

Of that moiety Robert Burnel, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 
held one messuage, 6 acres of arable land, 13 acres of meadow, 
and £1. iss. per annum of assised (i.e. assessed) duty, by the 
yearly service of i+r. id. and suit of their court at Bermondsey. 
These amounted, according to the survey of 21 Edward I, 
to the clear value of £3. ss. 3^/., and as he likewise held of 
the Honour of Gloucester 2 messuages, 52 acres of arable 
land, and 32 acres of meadow, all together of the clear 
annual value £7. gs. 10^., Robert Bumel's total holding in 
Rotherhithe was ;fio. i^s. id. 

This Robert Bumel was of the family of that name of 
Acton Bumel in the county of Salop ; and he was a person of 
great eminence and authority in the court of King Edward I. 
He was Lord Treasurer of England, and afterwards (2i8t Sept, 
1274) made Chancellor, in which office he continued till his 
death. In 18 Edward I he had a grant from the prior and 
convent ^to him and to his heirs of a way in the Vill of 
Retherhith to drive their cattle to water in the Prior's Park 
adjoining to the Thames at Retherhith Wall" But shortly 
after, attending the king into Scotland as one of the com- 
missioners for settling the claims of Balliol and Bruce, he died 
at Berwick 25th October, 1292, leaving Philip his nephew and 
heir; who, being then twenty-five years of age and doing 
his homage, had livery of these and other the said Robert's 
estates. He died in 22 Edward I, leaving by Maud, bis wife, 
daughter of Richard, Earl of Arundel, Edward his son and 
heir, at that time only twelve years of age; and a daughter 
Maud, wife of Lx>rd Lovel of Tichmarsh. 

As we read these old manorial records we are struck with 
many thoughts. 

(i) The rapid succession oTownetB and tenants. 

(2) The connection of earis» barons, bishops, and gentle- 
men of high degree with our parish of Rolberhitbe. 

(3) The early marriages of both tons and daughters in 
these medixval families, where the frequent wars and troubkxis 
times made it necessary for young ladies of high birth to 
have the protection of powerful husbands to maintain their 
rights. 



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IV] THE NORMAN AND PLANTAGENET PERIOD 2$ 

(4) The side lights thrown upon the outward aspect of 
our vill or township, e.g. ** the Prior's Park " leading down to 
the watering place by Rotherhithe wall. 

Edward, the heir of Philip, making proof of his age in 
I Edward II, had livery of his lands ; and having been sum- 
moned to parliament as a baron of the realm from 5 to 8 
Edward II, died without issue 9 Edward II, 1315, leaving 
Maud, his sister, his heir, and Aliva, his wife, daughter of 
Hugh Despenser, Earl of Winchester, surviving. He held his 
estate here, as his ancestors had done, by the service of an 
annual rent and suit of the prior's court at Bermondsey. 

Maud, sometime the wife of Lord Lovel, lost her husband 
by death 8 Edward II, but was soon married to her second 
husband, John de Handlou, who doing his fealty had livery 
of all the lands of Edward Bumel, his wife's brother, such 
only excepted as Aliva his widow held in dower, of which 
this Manor of Rotherhithe seems to have been one. 

This John de Handlou died on 5th August, 20 Edward III, 
1346, leaving his grandson, Edmund de Handlou, his next 
heir. But the estates of which he died seised in Rotherhithe, 
with most of those that belonged to the family of Bumel, 
were by fine levied hereof in 18 Edward II settled upon and 
descended to Nicholas, a second son of John by Maud 
aforesaid, at that time twenty-three years of age, who there- 
upon took the surname of Bumel, and in 22 Edward II had 
lively of his lands (those in Rotherhithe are described as 
13 acres of arable worth 4//. an acre when ploughed and 
sowedX and he, on the death of Aliva, relict of Edward 
aforesaid, had livery of this and other estates which she had 
boMen in dower. 

He died in 1382-3, and left Hugh, his son and heir, 
thirty-six years of age ; who doing his homage had livery of 
his lands. This Hugh had been reputed a principal favourite 
of Richard II, and as such was banished the court among the 
evil counsellors of that weak prince in the eleventh year of 
his reign. Yet so popular was he become at the time the 
king was deposed as to be one of the lords then sent to the 
Tower to receive his resignation of the crown in form. 



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26 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

He died 27th Nov., 8 Henry V. His only son Edward 
having predeceased him without male issue this manor, 
with the rest of the Bumel estates brought into the Handlou 
family by Maud, his great-grandmother, reverted to her right 
heir, viz. William, great-great-grandson of the said Maud by 
John Lord Lavel, her first husband, at that time twenty-one 
years of age. 

While Hugh, the father of Edward, was in possession of 
this estate, viz. 21 Richard II, the Priory of Bermondsey, of 
whom he held it as capital lords of the fee, became seised of 
the feudal property of die other moiety of the manor holden of 
the Honour of Gloucester, by demise from the abbat and 
convent of St Mary de Gratiis in the manner already related. 

From this time therefore they are to be considered as 
proprietors of the whole manor^ viz. one moiety in demesne\ 
and the other in demesne as of fee. (1398.) 

But to return — WilHam^ descended from John Lord Lavel 
aforesaid, who held the former moiety of the convent, married 
Alice, sister and co-heir of William Lord d'Eincourt (widow 
of Ralph Boteler, Lord Sudley), and died seised of this 
manor 13th June, 33 Henry VI, A* 1455, leaving John his 
son and heir, and William a younger son. 

John, the eldest son, being firmly attached to the house of 
Lancaster, was one of those who, on the landing of the Earl 
of March at Sandwich in 38 Henry VI, A* 1460^ accompanied 
the Lord Scales to London in order to gain over the city to 
the king. Failing in their attempt, they threw themselves into 
the Tower, which, after the battle of Northampton, July ^th, 
the Lord Scales was obliged to give up, when he hinotadf 
was slain in attempting to escape in di^fuiae, and many of 
his adherents put to death. What became of Sir John Lovel 
on this occasion we are not told. He had married Joan, sister 
and hdr of William Viscount Beaumont, by whom be left 
Francis his son and heir, then nine years old 

Francis the son of John in 23 Edward IV attended the 

^ Demisne. Tluit part of Che laiids of a Buuior wliidi the lofd hat boC paMcd 
oat ia Cenaaqr, bat which it reicnred lor hit owa we ead ocoiiMrtioa. 



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IV] THE NORMAN AND PLANTAGENET PERIOD 2J 

Duke of Gloucester (then Lieutenant-General of the Army) 
into Scotland ; and on the 4th of January following was 
promoted to the dignity of Viscount. On the advancement 
of the Duke to the crown he was made knight of the garter 
and lord chamberlain of the king's household, and fought 
under his standard at the battle of Bosworth. On the defeat 
of Richard he escaped into Burgundy, whence he returned 
with the forces raised by the Duchess for the service of the 
house of York, whose pretensions he continued to uphold, 
and in support of which he fell at the battle of Stoke, near 
Newark, i6th July, 1487. 

By the attainder of Francis in the parliament which met at 
Westminster soon after the battle of Bosworth, viz. 7th Nov., 
I Henry VII, A* 1485, his estates became forfeited to the 
Crown, 

Among these was the remainder of this estate expectant 
on the death of Henry Lard Morley^ his first cousin. For 
William the grandfather of Francis had given this to William, 
his younger son, with remainder to his own right heir, and 
from him it descended to Henry Lord Morley, his son, who was 
now seised thereof in fee tail with remainder to Francis and 
his heirs, which remainder now became forfeited to the king. 

Henry died without issue about four years after, being 
slain at the si^e of Dixmede 13th June, 1489, when the king 
entered into possession. ( 1489 to 1 5 1 5.) 

The estate was called 40 acres of land and pasture with 
the appurtenances in Rederith being holden of the Abbey of 
Bermundsey^ and reputed to be of the clear yearly value of £\^ 
and was granted by letters patent of King Henry VIII dated 
37th June, 1 5 1 5, to Gerard Daneit^ esquire of the body, by the 
name of the king's maner of Rederhith. But it appearing, by 
an inquisition taken at Southwark 9th May» 15 16, that the 
lands had for a long time been held by the convent of the 
said Henry and his ancestors owners thereof, at the aforesaid 
rent of £\^ and were so intermixed with those of his own 
former occupation, that it was become impossible to ascertain 
their bounds, Danctt at their request surrendered his 
grant 25th July following, when the prior and convent of 



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28 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

Bermondsey obtained a conveyance of them to themselves : 
" to hold to them and to their successors of the king and his 
heirs for ever, in pure and perpetual alms, for the purpose of 
celebrating an obit on the anniversary of the king's death 
when it should happen, for the souls of himself and Queen 
Catharine his wife, of King Henry VII his father, and Elizabeth 
his queen, and of all faithful people departed, in their abbey 
church of Bermundsey, in like manner as for their founder." 

This grant to the convent was dated at Westminster 
26th August, 1 5 16. . 

The convent was surrendered ist January, 1537-8, 29 
Henry VIII. In the same year the maner of Rethcrhith 
(consisting of the two maners, now united, which have been 
separately treated of above) passed to the crown, and so con- 
tinued until the reign of Charles I, when it was granted at the 
request of Sir Alan Apsley (and probably in trust for him) to 
William White and others. 

In 1668 a court was holden in the name of James {yd) 
Earl of Salisbury^ who continued lord of the manor till his 
death in June, 1683, when it descended to James^ his son, (4th) 
Earl of Salisbury^ who continued lord of the manor until the 
year 1692, when it appears to have been alienated to John 
Bainet, Esq,, a relation of his Countess (who was daughter 
and co-heir of Simon Bennet of Beechampton, Bucks), and in 
his name the courts were holden until 1706, in which year 
John Jolley and Benjamin Morrett appear lords until 172a 

From that time till 1739 ^^ courts were holden in the 
name of Thomas Scawen^ Esq. 

From 1740 they were held in trust for Sir Charles 
Wager. 

The history of the manor of Rotherhithe from 1740 till 
the present time will be continued in a subsequent chapter, 
when we shall learn bow it came into the possession of the 
family of Sir William Maynard Gomm. 



Some isolated facts during the mediaeval period must be 
recorded under their respective dates. 



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IV] THE NORMAN AND PLANTAGENET PERIOD 29 



(a) The River Wall. 

The neighbourhood of the Thames was and still remains 
a source of danger from the frequent overflowing of its waters, 
during exceptionally high tides, aggravated by the prevalence 
of high winds. Provision against this inconvenience had to 
be made from the earliest times ; at first, probably, private 
occupants had to be at charges for the work ; but as buildings 
increased, and the value of property improved, such protective 
works naturally became a matter of public duty. 

The first undertaking for this purpose that has been 
recorded is that of Bartholomew and James de Courteray 
who "in 14 Henry III, Anno Domini 1230, bq^n to inclose 
the lands of the Breach at Rederith on one part and John de 
Rocheford on the other." But whether this was an act of their 
own for the security of their particular and private property, 
or set on foot by the direction of public authority, we are not 
informed 

The Chronicle of Bermondsey Abbey records several 
disastrous breaches in the river wall. 

In 23 Edward I, A.D. 1295, through the neglect of those 
who ought to have maintained the banks near Retherhtth, 
the breaches thereof were become so considerable that a great 
part of the marshes in its neighbourhood were drowned. 
Thereupon the king seised the land into his own hands, and 
committed the recovery of them and the repair of the 
breaches to William Howard (soon after one of the Justices 
of the Court of Common Pleas), to whom he assigned a sum 
of money for that purpose. 

But this, with the addition of considerable sums expended 
bv himself on this occasion, proving insufficient for the accom- 
plishment of the work, the said king, in the 34th year of his 
reign, A.D. 1306, by the advice of bis council, ordained that 
all those lands so seised to his use should be demised to such 
person as would undertake die draining of them, to have and 
to hold and to receive the profits of the same, until he should 
re-imburse himself to the full amount of the expenses. But 
this proposal seems not to have had the effect that was 
intended by it: for in two years after, viz. in 2 Edward II, 
A* 1309, the prior and convent of Bermondsey, who had a 
park and other lands adjoining to the very bank of the river, 
called Retherhith wall, received such damage from the inun- 
dation of these by a breach in those parts that they were 



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30 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

exempted from the purveyance of hay and com, unless by 
their own consent. On this occasion John de Foxle and 
Walter de Gloucestre were commissioned to take a view 
thereof and provide for its repair. A like breach happened 
about two years after, on the banks of the marshes of South- 
warke, formerly belonging to the knights templars, but then 
in the king's hands; when the king being advised thereof, 
directed his precept dated at Berwick-on -Tweed, 23rd May, 
1 3 14, unto VVilliam de Montalt, who had custody of these 
lands, commanding him, out of the profits of the same, to 
have them speedily repaired. 

In 9 Edward II, A® 13 16, Richard de Repham and 
Edmund de Passle were appointed commissioners for viewing 
and repairing the banks between London Bridge and Faux- 
hall, and a certain bank in the lands of the Bishop of 
Winchester in Southwarke which was decayed and broken: 
as also the several ditches^ now choked, by which the fresh 
waters were drained off into the Thames; with orders 
to distrain for the repair of it on those on whose lands it 
began, and on such others as were obliged to maintain it 

In 26 Edward III, A* 1352, William Thorpe, James Husee 
and William de Fifhyde were appointed commissioners for 
viewing and repairing the banks at the Stews in St Mary 
Overey's, and in the other places adjacent, by the breach 
whereof divers lands and meadows lay then totally drowned. 

In 32 Edward III, A^ 1359, Edmund Chelleye, Thomas 
Morice and Michael Skilling had the like appointment for 
those banks near the Stews which were opposite to the 
mansion-house of John de Mowbray; before whom divers 
presentments being made, fines were levied on some, precepts 
for repairing issued to others, and certificates granted to such 
as had already performed their duty. Amongst the latter 
were the prior of St John of Jerusalem, who had two mills 
there, and other lands to the value of ^^40 per annum ; and 
the aforesaid Sir John de Mowbray, knight, and Elizabeth 
his wife, daughter and heiress of John de Segrave. 

In 42 Edward III, A"" 1368, John Lovekin, William Tauke, 
William de Newdigate, and others were assigned to repair the 
banks, &c, from Danyele*s wall in Surrey to Reddisboume in 
Kent; and in 48 Edward III, A"" 1374, Robert Belknap, 
William Maiden, Roger Dygge, and others, for the banks 

1 At the tcmth-«ast part of the Mrish of Rotherhithe, where it borders oo the 
oovntT of Kent, b **the Earle*t Slmce,** by memns of which the meadows between 
the Inames and the great road leading into Kent nre watered or drained as 
oooanoo feQnircSa 



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IV] THE NORMAN AND PLANTAGENET PERIOD 3 1 

between Danyele's wall aforesaid and the lands of the prior 
of St Mary, Overey, at a meadow called Crouch-Mead. 

In 3 Richard II, A** 1380, Robert Belknap, Nicholas 
Henry, and others were appointed commissioners for repairing 
the banks between Grenewiche and London Bridge. 

In 8 Richard II, A^ 1385, a commission was granted to 
Sir William Walworth and others; and in 22 Richard II, 
A** 1399. to William Makenade, Robert Oxenbrigge, and 
others ; and in 5 Henry IV, A** 1404, to the said William 
Makenade, Robert Oxenbrigge, and others for the same 
district 

In 5 Henry V, A* 14 17, a commission was granted to 
John Preston, John Martyn, and others for the banks between 
Deptford Strand and Bermondsey, wherein they were directed 
to act according to " the Custom of the Marsh " and " the Law 
and Custom of the Realm." 

In 22 Henry VI, A* 1444, Sir John Burcastre and Richard 
Barmie were assigned to view and repair all the banks along 
the Thames and marshes adjoining, in the parishes and 
hamlets of Lambehithe, Paris Garden (now the parish of 
Christ Church in Southwark), Bermondsey, Retherhith, 
Deptford Strand, Peckham, Hatcham, Camerwell, Stokwell, 
Clapham, and Newington, and to maice such laws as were 
necessary for the preservation of them. They were invested 
also with the extraordinary power of impressing labourers to 
be employed in this work, upon competent salaries, in con- 
sideration of the great necessity, at this time, for the speedy 
despatch of it 

In 25 Henry VI, A^ 1447, ^ commission was given to 
John Bamburgh, Richard Bamme, and others ; and 

In 31 Honry VI, A* 1453, Sir John Burcestre, Knt, 
Richard Waller, and others ; and in 33 Henry VI, A^ 1455, 
Sir John Bourgchier, Knt, Sir John Burcestre, Knt, Sir John 
Ch^ne, and others; and in 5 Edward IV, A® 1465, 
Sir Ralph Josselvn, Knt, Lord Mayor of London, Sir 
Walter Mqyie, Knt, Sir John Burcestre, Knt, Nicholas 
Gaynesford, Esq^ and others; and in 14 Edward IV, A* 1474, 
Richard Fenys, Lord Dacres^ John, Abbot of Bermondsey, 
Henry, Prior of St Mary Overe/s, William Crosse, Master 
of St Thomas' Hospital, and others were respectively put 
intOGomr • -ion for \ ! : ^ -:':,» -*^ >L\cial banks 

along the Ihames from Grenewiche to Wandsworth. 

In later reigns commissions of sewers, &c, have been 
issued, not by die king direct, but by the lord chancellor 
under the great ^eal, or by the lord chancellor, the kNxl 



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32 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

treasurer, and the two chief justices under regulations for 
impanelling juries and other matters. 

So great has been the necessity for preserving the lands 
adjacent to great rivers and to the sea-shore. The subsequent 
history of Rotherhithe marsh and its protecting wall has 
been chiefly connected with the formation of the Great Wet 
Docks, the Howland Dock, and subsequently the Surrey and 
Commercial Docks, which will form the subject of a separate 
chapter. 

But it is interesting to note that the preservation and 
heightening of the river wall which formed so great a pre- 
occupation of our forefathers has never ceased to cause anxiety 
to the parochial authorities down to the present day. When 
the parish church of Rotherhithe was rebuilt in 17 15, it was 
raised to a considerable height as a precaution against flooding, 
the principal entrance being approached by a flight of steps. 

When the Thames Embankment was constructed aboiit 
the year 1865, and the waters of the Thames were thus 
confined, the low-lying parishes on the south side of the river 
suffered severely from floods. The vestry of Rotherhithe 
called upon all waterside owners to raise the river wall to 
the extent of 18 inches, and all public rights of way to the 
river were likewise raised. 

The engineer to the Metropolitan Board of Works, Sir 
J. W. Bazalgette, disclaimed all allegations made as to bis great 
work being the cause of our misfortune, but the fact remained 
that Rotherhithe, which had been sufliciently protected against 
'high tides before the Embankment was made, was flooded 
more than once after the waters above London Bridge were 
unable any longer to flow over the sloping shore of the river. 

Even after die Rotherhithe wall had been heightened our 
parish experienced one more disastrous inundation. On the 
evening of January 26, 1881, in the midst of a blinding snow- 
storm the high tide, impelled by a furious gale, overflowed 
the banks, and burst through the retaining wall of one of the 
dry docks in Rotherhithe Street, flooding the dwellings of the 
inhabitants and inflicting great damage and misery on the 
poorer inhabitants, so that a public subscription had to be 
raised to recompense them for loss to their furniture and 
property. 

Indeed, constant vigilance has still to be exercised in 
maintaining tide-boards and other protections. So recently 
as Deceml^, 1904, the tide ovcrtiowed the banks and cut ofl* 
communication between the lower and upper parts of the 
town. 



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IV] THE NORMAN AND PLANTAGENET PERIOD 33 



(d) King Henry tlu Fourth a resident in Rot/terhitlie. 

Lambarde speaks of King Henry IV being lodged " in an 
old Stone House here, whiles he was cured of a Leprosie." 

It is certain that a Charter of July 5, 1412, was signed by 
him, dated from Rotherhithe, creating Thomas Beaufort Earl 
of Dorset, as also another of the 9th day of the same month 
creating Thomas, the king's second son, Duke of Clarence. 

The above-named " old Stone House " in which the king 
resided for a short period must have been of some consider- 
able size. 

There is existing to the present day a portion of a 
mediaeval wall built of a chalky stone, facing the platform 
wharf on Rotherhithe wall, which may very possibly have 
been part of this old Stone House. The present writer had 
long since been aware of the existence of this ancient wall, 
the late Mr Groves having drawn his attention to the inner 
face of it, where it forms part of his granary. The northern 
or outer face was at that time hidden by a private house 
which had been built in the street in front of it. But this 
house was recently acquired by Messrs Wilmott and Cobon, 
a firm of engineers, and pulled down for the extension of 
their works. In this way the wall of the old house was once 
more brought to light, and careful drawings have been made 
of it, showing the doorways and window openings on two 
stories now blocked up, together with the angle of the 
building where it was carried southward. 

Th^ is every appearance of its having been a large 
house, for the granaries now built against it go back as far as 
to Paradise Street, following the line of Love Lane. 



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CHAPTER V. 

THE PARISH CHURCH AND ITS RECTORS. 

The original parish church of Rotherhithe or some small 
chapel for divine service may well have been built in Saxon 
times when first the waterside part of the parish became 
habitable through the building of the river-walL But of 
this first church, if indeed it ever existed, we have no record ; 
it would probably have borne the present dedication to the 
Blessed Virgin Mary, therein following the common usage of 
waterside churches on the south shore of the Thames— e^. 
St Mary, Lambeth; St Marjs Battersea; St Mary Overie, 
Southwark. 

The site of the church remains unchanged: it is quite 
central for the parish and we shall not be far wrong in 
believing that on this spot the altar of God has stood for 
more than a thousand years. This primitive [Saxon] church, 
small in size and rude in materials, must have been succeeded 
by a mediaeval church probably in the eariy part of the 
fourteenth century, for the first rector whose name has come 
down to us was instituted in 1310; and the parishioners 
in 1715 when petitioning Parliament for aid to rebuild their 
dilapidated parish church speak of the existing structure as 
having stood for over 400 years. 

The benefice is a rectory in the Deanery of Southwark, 
and was originally in the Diocese of Winchester; indeed it 
remained under the jurisdiction of the bishops of Winton 
until the year 1877, when Bishop Harold Browne, coming 



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CH. V] THE PARISH CHURCH AND ITS RECTORS 3S 

from the Diocese of Ely, mostly rural in its character, found 
himself at a somewhat advanced age face to face with South 
London and its teeming population, and obtained a re- 
arrangement of Diocesan boundaries whereby Rotherhithe 
(in common with the rest of the parishes south of the 
Thames) was transferred to the re-constructed Diocese of 
Rochester, and so came under the masterly rule of the great 
organizer, Dr Anthony Wilson Thorold, first bishop of the 
re-arranged see of Rochester. But even this arrangement 
was to be only a temporary one ; indeed South London was 
but little nearer to its new cathedral at Rochester than it 
had been to Winchester since 634. And now in March 1905 
the new Diocese of Southwark is constituted, and Dr Talbot 
the Bishop of Rochester has been appointed to be Bishop of 
Southwark with his cathedral of St Saviour, formerly St Mary 
Overie, ^t the southern foot of London Bridge, and the South 
London parishes, with parts of the counties of Surrey and 
Kent grouped around it, forming the new Southwark Diocese, 
vast in population, but compact in area, and presenting 
manifold problems to be solved in bringing Christianity into 
possession of the land, and the power of the Gospel and the 
discipline of the Church to exercise their saving influence on 
the hearts of men. 

The benefice of St Mary, Rotherhithe, is valued in 
20 Edward I and afterwards at 20 marcs per annum ; at 
which time it paid a yearly pension of 20s. to the Prior and 
Convent of Bermondsey. In the Valor of Henry VIII it is 
rated at ;Ci8 per annum, and is charged with the payment of 
£1. i6s. oJ. to the king for tenths; 2s. id. to the bishop 
for ^roodals and 7/. 7^. to the archdeacon for procurations. 

The rectors of this church had license in 4B Edward III 
to amortize two tenements in the Vintry in London to the 
Abbey of St Mary de Gratiis on Tower Hill, at a fee-farm 
of 4ar. per annum, which tenements had been granted to the 
rector and his successors in compensation of certain tythes 
of land, that had been taken away for repairing the banks 
of the Thames and in lieu of which they had been hitherto 
paki out of the Exchequer. 

3— « 



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36 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

In 1658 "it was presented to the Commissioners appointed 
to inquire into the state of ecclesiastical benefices that the 
Rectory of Redereth was worth about £g2 per annum, and 
that the impropriation was vested in Captain Hurleston and 
Captain Joseph Dobbins the purchasers. By some Iqjal 
controversy the presentation lapsed to the Lord Protector 
who intended to place there Mr Conyers Rutter; but Captain 
Dobbins, taking advantage of his absence, placed there Mr 
John Baker who then officiated there'." 

The present greatly enhanced value of the benefice is due 
to the increase' in the habitations required for the growing 
population of Rotherhithe, the glebe land having been let on 
long building leases and it is now covered with streets of small 
houses suitable for the occupation of working-class and artisan 
families. 

The increase in the value of the living has enabled the 
rectors to alienate from the revenues of the mother parish 
several rent-charges for the endowment in part of the district 
parishes which have been created from time to time out of 
the original parish of St Mary. 

The mediaeval parish church, built early in the 14th 
century, was probably a small edifice somewhat like a village 
church, and we are told that the pillars which supported the 
roof were of a chalk-stone which readily crumbled and 
became in the course of four centuries quite dilapidated and 
ready to perish. 

The erection of the present church in 1715 will be 
recorded in a subsequent chapter. 

The list of rectors has been preserved in the r^[ister 
books of the successive Bishops of Winchester and is set 
forth in detail with the names of the patrons by whom they 
were presented for institution. 

' Lytons, £$tpifvttst p. 474. 



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V] 



THE PARISH CHURCH AND ITS RECTORS 



37 



Rectors of Rotherhitue. 



1310—1537. 



Patron, 
Prior and Convent of Ber- 

mondsey. 
The same. 

The same. 

The same. 

The same. 
The same. 

The same. 

The same. 

The King. 

The King. 



Nami. 

1. John de Tocklive. 
Instituted 28 June 1310-1. 

2. John de Cokham. 
Resigned 13 17. 

3. William de Alyngton. 

Inst. 28 March 13 17, cess. 1318. 

4. William at Brok. 
Inst. 8 Sept. 13 18. 

5. William Home. 

6. Nicholas de Bfetford. 

Inst. i9Mar. 1332-3', cess. 1334. 

7. John Seman. 

Inst. 6 Feb. i334-5» cess. 1336. 

8. William de Suthwerk. 
Inst. 19 Oct. 1336, d. 1337. 

9. John de Walyngford. 

Inst. 19 Dec. 1337, res. 1338. 
10. Robert at Brome. 

Inst 20 Aug. 1338, cess. 1338-9. 



1. Keg. Wuodk>ke, ful. 14 a. 
a. Keg. Sandalc, fol. 14a. 

i. hlcm, Ibl. 47 b. Being iaoitutcd 2 ami May tu Rectory uf Bedyngtmi, fol. 
47 b. 

4. iUf.SaMlale,fol.47h. 

5. He oocan rector lath J«ly, 1^x9. Reg. Strattbid, Ibl. so8 b. 
(. Rcf. StiatCMd, foL i^b. 

7. Rcf. OrlctOQ 11. fol. 46a. Hr had been vicar of Fcryng in Esmx frum 

Jnly» 1311, to this time. Newcourt Rep. II. 159. 
t. Newcowt Rep. 11. 959. 
9. The Kiqg ImmI the tcmpoimlitict of the convent as an alien priory at this 

tune in Us own handtL 
la Reg. Orleton II. 67 a. 

* On cjwhange for WaddKuit in Stt«ex. Reg. Orleton II. fol. 46a. 



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38 



ST MARY, ROTMERHITHE 



[CH. 



Patro$i, 




Nanu. 


The King. 


II. 


John de Stanewegh. 

Inst 12 Mar. 1338-9, cess.' 1339. 


The King. 


12. 


William Potente. 

Inst 12 July 1339, <^s. 1339. 




13. 


John Bisschop. 

Inst 26 Aug. 1339, res. 1340. 


The King. 


14. 


Robert Bykyr. 

Inst 10 May 1340, cess.' 1342. 


Prior and Convent of Ber- 


IS- 


Richard de l«angford. 


mondsey. 




Inst. 17 May 1342. 


The same. 


16. 


Paul de Dunton. 
Inst II Oct 1383. 


The same. 


17- 


John Brydale. 
Cess. 1387*. 


The same. 


18. 


John Gretham. 
Inst 21 June 1387. 


The same. 


19. 


Peter Fomham. 


The same. 


20. 


Henry Archer. 
Resigned 1461. 


The same. 


21. 


Geoffrey Faber (or Fabey). 
Inst 12 Feb. 1461-2, cess.* 1465. 


The same. 


22. 


Thomas Hartley. 
Inst 22 May 1465. 


1 1. Reg. Orleton II. fol. 69a. 






la. Reg. OrietoQ II. fol. 74 a. 1 


[n exchange for Spreckshall in Suffolk. Reg. 


Orleton II. Idl. 76a. 






15. Reg. Orleton II. fol. 76 a. 






14. Reg. Orleton II. fol. 83 a. 






15. Rcg.Orletonll. fol. 94 b. 






16. Reg. Wickkam I. fol. 148b. 






17. Reg.WicklianI.fol. 176b: 


bnthit 


name is not found in Willis' Catalogoc. 


18. Reg.Wickhaml.fol. 176 b. 






19. Occm lector 6 June, 1 406. 


Reg. Beanfort«fol. lib. 


«a R^. Watnflete I. fol. 1 15 b. 






ai. Reg.Wainfletel.fol. 115 b. 






«a. Reg. Wainaetel.fol. 141b. 






> la eschange for King's Sutton in 




fol. 74 a. 






• In eschange for Shaddynliekl 


inSntblk. Reg.OrietouII. rol.94a. 


* In exchange for a prebend in the chorcfa of York. 


« In exchange for Svllynton in Susmx. 





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V] 



THE PARISH CHURCH AND ITS RECTORS 



39 



PairoH. 
The same. 

The same. 

The same. 

The same. 

William Berkworth and Robt. 
May, assignees of Robt. 
Hoogan to whom as also^ 
to Thos. Henry and Robt 
Fayrwally dec, the advow- 
son for this turn had been 
demised by the Abbot and 
Convent of Bermondsey. 

Abbot and Convent of Ber- 
mondsey. 



Nanu. 

23. William Raby. 
Resigned 1485. 

24. John Dra)rton. 

Inst 5 Nov. 1485, d. 1502. 

25. Richard Wyllis, LL.B. 
Inst 7 May 1502, d. 1523. 

26. Bartholomew Prescue. 
Inst 1523, d 1534. 

27. Gregory Fayrwall. 

Inst 23 Feb. iS34-S> ^' '537- 



28. John Fayrwall, M.A. 

Inst 26 Sept 1537, d. 1562. 






36. 
28. 



Reg. Wainflete II. fol. 105 b. 

lUg. Fox, p. I, fol. 46. 

Kq;. Fox, p. I, fot. 46. He was the smne probably who had been instituted 
lector of Ramaden Crags in Essex, which he resigned in 150a (New- 
court kep. II. 488) ; and rector also of Bermondsey, 14 July this year. 

Keg. Gardiner, fol. ii, 93. 

Keg. Gardiner, fol. 91, 93. 

Reg. Gatdtner, M. 33 a. 



In this long list of twenty-eight rectors ranging over 250 
years, most of whom were probably monks of Bermondsey, 
there is scarcely one of whom any personal trait of character 
can be traced. They were probably for the most part men of 
some learning as being members of a Benedictine monastery ; 
and at least there is no trace of any want of harmony in their 
relations nith their parishioners, to whom they ministered 
the Word and Sacraments during the two centuries and a 
half preceding the Reformation. 

They doubtless took part in the internal history of the 
parish over which they were set, sympathising with their 
people in weal and woe, and especially in the anxious matter 



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40 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. V 

of the continual inroads of the tide through the breach in 
the river wall, which caused so much misery and devastation 
during this period of our history. 

The succession of rectors after the Reformation of 
religion in the i6th century will be continued in the following 
chapter. 

The great event which fell like a thunderbolt on England 
in the dissolution of the monasteries in 1535 must have been 
fraught with consequences far-reaching and deeply aflecting 
all religious and social life in all the parishes of the land, 
and certainly here in Rotherhithe, where all church life had 
been so long dominated by the great Abbey of St Saviour, 
Bermondsey, the patrons of the benefice for so long a period, 
the change following the breaking up of this noble institution 
must have been painfully felt by all who, in spite of its many 
shortcomings, still loved the old order and cherished the 
memories of the ancient faith. 

The reaction from the old Catholic ideal during the ex- 
cesses of Puritan days was a terrible experience for the men 
who had to pass through it, and we may well sympathise 
with them in their trial, while we bless God that He has for 
us out of that fiery ordeal preserved so much of the primitive 
faith and practice from the general wreck that threatened to 
utterly destroy the Church of Christ in the land. 



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CHAPTER VI. 

POST-REFORMATION RECTORS. 

On the dissolution of the Monastery of Bermondsey the 
patronage of the benefice of St Mary, Rotherhithe, passed 
into lay hands ; probably by purchase from the King. 

The twenty-ninth rector was nominated by one Thomas 
Ludwell, citizen. We will give the successive names of 
patrons and rectors in continuation of those recorded in the 
preceding chapter, and then add some details respecting them. 

Rectors of Rotherhithe. 

PtUr^H. Xamt* 

Thomas Ludwell, citizen. 29. Thomas Beede. 

Inst. 29 October 1562, d. 1571. 
The same. 30. Thomas Addy. 

Inst. 2 June 1571, d. May 1592. 
Queen Elizabeth. 31. John Ryder, M.A. 

Inst 3 June 1592, resigned 1594. 
Edward Wingate, Esq. 32. Ralph Dawson, B.D. 

Inst. 21 April 1594, d. 1611. 

39. Keg. Home, Ibl. 6 a. 

^ Rcf • Home, Ibl. 9a U. See alio the pariib iq^nlcr oC Kothcrhilhe, where he 
was interred 29 May, 1599. '* Bmial, 159a. Mr ThoMaa Addey, paraon, 
ihexxix^orMay.*' 

31. Rcf. Cooper, IbL aja. He was the laaae probahly who wat alio lector of 
BermoiMlsey hi 158a. In Reg. Cooper, foL f6a, H is said that Dawion 
was bstitiited on the death of Addy, w hoias Addy died in May, ij(9«, 
and this very register gives nn (Ibl. 23 a) Ryder in his place. Dawson 
thercMNC mnst have oone in now on Ryder's nijgnatiiin. tSce note on 
Ryder, p. 43.) 

3a. lie was institated rector of St Mary, Abchaich, 14 June. 1597 tNewcunrt 
Kep. I. 432), whiJi tienelice he held with Kotherhiihe nntil hi* death. 



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42 



ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE 



[CH. 



Patron, Name, 

John Thomas and Richard ^^. Thomas Gataker, B.D. 

Dawson. Inst. 13N0V.161 i,d. 27 Julyi654. 

Note. — In 1620 Mr Gataker in the Dedication of his "Scnnon 
on the Benefit of a Good Name " speaks of " my loving Friends and 
Neighbours Mr Robert Bell and Mr Joshua Downing Joint-Patrones 
of the Rectorie of Rotherhith." But they had no opportunity of 
exercising their right 

34. 



? (John Thomborough, Jun.) 

John lliomborough, Jun. 

William Strong, citizen. 

Humphrey Whadcock. 

Master, Fellows and Scholars 
of Clare Hall, Cambridge. 

The same, 
llie same. 



33- 

34- 



35- 



37. 
3S. 

J9- 



John Goode. 

Inst 1654, d. June 1^75. 

35. George Stoodley, B.A. 
Inst 9 Aug. 1675, resigned 1681. 

36. William Baldwin, M.A. 
Inst 9 May 1681, d. Mar. 171 1. 

37. Edward Ix>vell, D.D. 
Inst aSAug. 17 fly d.4 April 1735. 

38. Thomas Curling, D.D. 
Inst 15 Aug. 1735, ^- *^ M*y 

1742. 

39. Thomas Negus, D.D. 
Inst 30 Sept. 1742, d. 19 Oct 

1765. 

40. lliomas Cockayne, M.A. 

Inst i8Fcb. 1766, d.i2Feb. 1792. 

See note od p. 44. 

IVirUh register of Kotlaerbiibc, where be was interred jo June, 1675. 
"Burial, 1675. Mr John Goode, Rector. June jo.^ He was a diflerent 
perMMi froai the Joha Goode, B.D. and Fellow of Balliol Coileee, 
Oxibfd, mentkNicd by Wood in bis Aikttht Oxm, n. 818, and who 
dkl not die antil 96 Febnmy following. 

By dcndtt of tbit t«ni Inm Rkbaitd HwHon tbe trac patfon (Reg. Morley, 
Ft 11. p. II). On ij Dee. Mowb^. SasMel AldiaMN^ M.A., eabibited 
bis prcMnlation horn tbe King bat tbe Bisbop idaiad to aoocpl k, tbe 
Uvii^ bdag aliiady Ml. 

P)v. Reg. and Rcf. Moclcy, 92. He was baricd beve |0 March, 1711. 
MWilUaM Balwto (Rac^ |» Maicb.** 

Reg. Ti t la wnc y . Rqf. Iloadley. 

Reg. Hoadley. (Tbe ad nwi au n of SC Mary, Rolbcrbilbe, was aeqaired by 
tbe College by pwcbate §nm tbe Pake of Cbandos in 1799.) 

Rcf . Afcbd* Saney. 

lUg. 



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Canon Beck. Rector of Rotherhithe. 



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VI] POST-REFORMATION RECTORS 43 



Patron. 




Nanie* 


The same. 


41. 


Robert Myddleton, M.A. 
InsL 1792, d. 1816. 


The same. 


43. 


James Speare. 

Inst 18 1 6 but held the benefice 
only a few months. 


The same. 


43- 


J. S. Hewett, M.A. 
Inst 181 7, d. 1835. 


The same. 


44 


Edward Blick, M.A. 

Inst 1835, d. 25 June 1867. 


The same. 


45- 


Edward Josselyn Beck» M.A. 
Inst Nov. 1867. 


41. Reg, Brownlow North. 






41. Rq;. Tomline. 






43. Reg. Tomline. 






44. Reg. Sumner. 






45* Res* Sumner. 







There have thus been forty-five rectors of Rotherhithe 
since John de Tocklive was appointed by the Prior and 
Convent of Bermondsey and instituted by Bishop Woodlock 
of Winchester in the year of our Lord 13 10 till the present 
incumbent, who is still living in the year 1906, i.e. during an 
interval of six centuries. This will give an average duration 
of thirteen years for each rector's incumbency, but many of 
the rectors only held the benefice for three or four years and 
some for only a few months ; others, however, have been very 
much longer at their post The last century saw only three 
rectors from 1817 to the present time. 

Bishop Ryder. 

John Ryder or Rider, who was bom in Ireland and 
instituted to the rectory of Rotherhithe on 3 June, 1592, 
on the presentation of Queen Elizabeth, subsequently rose to 
high preferment in the Church. He became Archdeacon of 
Metth, Dean of St Patrick's in Dublin, and Bishop of Killaloe. 
In 1610 Bishop Ryder published "^ An Account of the landing 



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44 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

of the Spaniards in Ireland," also a pamphlet on "The 
Antiquity of the Protestant Religion," and other tracts, mostly 
printed in Ireland. He carried on a literary dispute with 
Henry Fitz-Simon the Jesuit. He was also the author of a 
Latin Dictionary, the first in which the English-Latin part 
was printed before the Latin-English. He died 12 November, 
1632, and was buried in his cathedraP. 

Note. — Bishop John Ryder must not be confounded with 
a subsequent Bishop of Killaloe, Henry Rider or Ryder, who 
is named in Bishop Mant's catalogue as having been bom in 
Paris, and appointed Dean of Clogher. 

Bishop Henry Rider was Bishop first of Killaloe, then of 
Down and Connor, and in 175 1, on the death of Archbishop 
Hort, he was further promoted to be Archbishop of Tuam. 

He might very probably have been of the same Irish 
family as Bishop John Ryder. The record of his death is as 
follows: — On 7 February, 177S, died Archbishop Rider at 
the age of 78 years at Nice in France, and there he was 
interred by his own request on... February in a field pur- 
chased for a burying-ground by the Consul, the Reverend W. 
Campbell, an English clergyman, reading the burial scr\Mce 
at the deceased prelate's house and at the grave. 

Thomas Gataker, b.d., 161 i— 1654. 

If the pre- Reformation rectors of Rotherhithe are for the 
most part unknown to us except by name as recorded in the 
episcopal roisters of Winton ; when we come to the list of 
rectors after 1537 we shall find abundant materials for sketch- 
ing the personal characteristics of most of them and in some 
dq[ree for realizing the work th^ were able to accomplish in 
the parish. 

This is pre-eminently the case with the very learned and 
pious Gataker, who succeeded to the benefice in 1611 and 
remained in charge of the parish for nearly 44 years till his 
death in July, 1654, and so has a ^record** incumbency. 

^ See Sir James Ware's Hiti. tutd Anii^mUks ff irtUmd^ edited by WalUr 
Harris, i7<^; and Bp. Mant*s Uisi^iyp/iki Ckmnk rf irtkmd* 



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Yl] POST-REFORMATION RECTORS 4$ 

which no one of the later rectors of Rotherhithe has ever 
yet attained to. 

We have the advantage of possessing an autobic^^phy 
of this good man, written in Latin "with his own hand"... 
" Thomae Gatakeri vita propria manu scripta," prefixed to his 
Adversaria Miscellanea which forms part of a volume con- 
taining his edition of the t\velve books of the Roman Emperor, 
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, " de rebus suis.** 

We have likewise a narrative of his life appended to the 
"funeral sermon preached at the burial of the Rev. Thomas 
Gataker in the parish church of Rotherhithe by the Reverend 
Simeon Ashe.'* 

These, with his own numerous works, enable us to become 
familiar with the principal events of his life, with his literary 
and religious characteristics, and with the influence which he 
exerted far beyond the limits of his own parish in the wider 
sphere of the University, throughout the realm of England, 
and even in many parts of the continent of Europe, where 
the fame of his learning and his piety spread far and wide. 

Thomas Gataker or ** Gatacre (for so he wrote himself, till 
of later years, to prevent mis-calling occasioned frequently by 
the view of the letters, he changed into Gataker) " was of an 
old Shropshire family. 

He was the only son of the Reverend Thomas Gatacre, 
rector of St Edmund the King and Martyr, in Lombard 
Street, London, who died in 1593*. 

This worthy divine was the younger son of William 
Gatacre, of Gatacre Hall, Shropshire, where the family had 
maintained an uninterrupted succession from the time of 
Edward the Confessor*. His parents, who were zealous 
Roman Catholics, intended him for the law, and he was 
admitted a student of the Middle Temple about 1553. 

John Popham, afterwards Lord Chief Justice, was a fellow- 
student with him, and became his intimate friend. 

Some of Wm. Gatacre's kindred were "^ high in place,'' and 

> See Diiiimmfy 9f H M i i mal Bitgrm^^ 1. ▼. 

* A GeUkeriaaA in agio Salopiensi emk|«i Celebrique tx\\% (kmllii.^ 
lite T. G. 



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46 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CII. 

while visiting them he was present at the examination of 
Protestant confessors, whose constancy impressed him in 
favour of their opinions. 

With a view to confirm him in the old faith his parents 
removed him to the English Collie at Louvain, at the same 
time settling on him an estate which brought in ;£'iOO a year. 
Finding him after six months at Louvain strengthened in his 
Protestantism his father recalled him to England, obtained 
his consent to the revocation of the settlement, and then cast 
him off. 

Gatacre found friends who provided him with the mejans 
of studying for eleven years at Oxford and for four years at 
Magdalene Collie, Cambridge. There is no record of bis 
having taken his degree. In 1568 he was ordained deacon 
and priest by Grindal, Bishop of London, and became 
domestic chaplain to Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester. On 
21 June, 1572, be was collated to the rectory of St Edmund's, 
Lombard Street In addition he was admitted to the vicarage 
of Christ Church, Newgate Street, on 25 January, 1577, but 
resigned this preferment in the year following. 

Fuller describes him as a ''profitable pastor.'' His Puritan 
principles are assumed by Brook without much direct 
evidence. He died in IS93, his successor at St Edmund's 
being instituted on 2 June in that year. He married 
Margaret Pigott of a Hertfordshire family^ 

Of such parents was sprung our Thomas Gatacre, who 
was bom 4 September, 1574. first seeing the light in the 
rectory bouse of St Edmund, in the heart of the city of 
London^ 

After passing through a grammar school coune his iather 
sent him at the age of sixteen to the University of Cam- 
bridge, where he was admitted at St John's Colkc^e, and 
there he was elected to a Scholarship, haying jneaswUle lost 

* ...Matrc MaiffticU a PipMtoniiii in agro liartfofdieosi Slirpe qunvs jUI«itri 
oftaiMivs....— FSto r. C. 

* Loodmi luuvs est pridie nooas Scpteailiris Anno Salntis 1574 iolnoeBi edkus 
ia do micili o ad Tcaphim qaod Edmundi nooieii iWRfiart pntlnfBlfi ^aidcm 
Rcctori aitifiiato. 



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VI] POST-REFORMATION RECTORS 47 

his father; and he remained at St John's Collie until he 
had graduated Master of Arts\ 

Thence he migrated in 1 596 to the newly-founded Collie 
of Sidney Sussex, of which the buildings were at this time 
in course of erection, having been chosen to be one of the 
original body of Fellows, being now twenty-two years of a^e, 
and he was regarded as " the most distinguished member of 
the infant Society-." 

Meanwhile till the College buildings should be completed 
and ready for occupation Gataker retired into Essex, where 
he was tutor in the household of William Ayloflfe at Braxted, 
instructing Mr Ayloffe himself in the Hebrew tongue and 
teaching his eldest son ''the humanities." 

It fell out that while he was residing in the house of 
Mr Aylofle, to whom he was related by blood, a visit was 
paid to the family by Dr John Stem, Suflfragan Bishop (of 
Colchester) to the Bishop of London. Bishop Stem was present 
on one occasion while Gataker was expounding the first 
chapter of St Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians, and was so 
favourably impressed by what he heard that he invited the 
young tutor to seek Holy Orders, voluntarily promising him 
all needful assistance thereto. But Gataker entertained so 
high a sense of the dignity and gravity of the Christian 
ministry that he modestly thanked the Bishop for his kind 
ofler, and decided to defer the proposed invitation for further 
consideration. Later on, however, having consulted his old 
tutor, Mr Henry Alvey, on the matter, and being advised by 
him not to shrink from the Divine call, he approached the 
Bishop of Colchester after the lapse of some months and was 
by him admitted into Holy Orders. 

The fabric of his college having been by this time com- 
pleted, he returned to Cambridge to fulfil the duties of his 
Fellowship. While in residence at Sidney he devoted himself 
> 1« tW AaMMcMi Rook orScJolMi*tGollcce,Owibridee,occ«ntlielbllow. 
iHf Mliy la tW iHHidwiMiV of TImw CUucre t 
^■hrin ak df wOon w i aAo DAi i59t« Novd/. 9. 
1^ TVmmu Gatacrc LoodiiicMb tAwaimm na ditcipolttt pio DomisA 



• //MflPTf 9fSUm€f SmtuM C0ikgf, hf G. M. Edwaidt, M.A., Frilow and 
Tator oT llbt rollty . it^^ p. 44. 



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48 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

to tutorial work ; among his pupils were John Hoile and 
Thomas Pell, both of whom subsequently became Fellows of 
the Society. 

At this period several earnest young clergymen, among 
whom were Abdias Ashton of St John's Collie and William 
Bedell of Emmanuel, fired with zeal for the promotion of true 
religion in some of the neighbouring villages, and indeed in 
some parishes more remote from Cambridge, invited Gataker 
to take part in their Evangelistic work, especially where 
there was a dearth of pastors. 

In the village of Everton, on the boundary of the three 
counties of Cambridgeshire, Bedfordshire, and Huntingdon- 
shire, where the vicar was a decrepit old man believed to be 
nearly 130 years of age, they were welcomed by a resident 
gentleman, Mr Roger Burgon, or Burgoin (Burgoyne), and 
week by week Gataker preached the Word of God there for 
the space of half a year ; until Mr Ashton introduced him to 
the family of Mr William Cook, then living in London, and 
he took up his abode there. While with Mr Cook it happened 
that the office of preacher to the Society of Lincoln's Inn 
became vacant, and some members of the Inn who had 
heard Gataker preach in several places, invited him to under* 
take their preachership. Sir John Popham, by this time 
President of the Court of King's Bench, using his influence 
to persuade him to accept the oflfer. While Gataker hesitated 
to take thb fresh burden upon his shoulders, the Master of 
Sidney, Mr Montagu, urged hb acceptance of the office, and 
so he became preacher of Lincoln's Inn, and discharged the 
duties of the office to the great satisfaction of the Society for 
a period of ten years^ ; during which time he spent his 
vacations in the county of Northamptonshire with the family 
of Sir William Cook, whose wife was related to him by blood 

In the year 161 1 the Rectory of Rotherhtthe became 
vacant by the death of the incumbent, and he was strongly 
urged by the more prudent part of the inhabitants to under- 
take the charge of their parish. Accordingly he bade farewell 

^ It was dmring hit temiffe of the picttclicfiliip that be wrote hb weU^known 
titatite on the Nature and Use of Lots* 



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VI] POST-REFORMATION RECTORS 49 

to his old friends of Lincoln's Inn, and migrated to his final 
sphere of pastoral labour and became rector of Rotherhithe. 

He was somewhat feeble in bodily health and subject to 
attacks of colic and tertian fever. Nevertheless he devoted 
himself with great energy to the care of his new flock, who 
responded gratefully to his efforts for their spiritual advance- 
ment. His sermons were both earnest and learned, and full 
of the best practical theology. He held on Fridays in the 
evening at his house a class of younger parishioners of the 
families resident in the place, so that he g^dually trained a 
body of young men well qualified to profit by his instructions, 
and he prepared for their use a catechism. Mr Gataker was 
thus a pioneer of the institution of Sunday Schools. 

In this, however, he had been forestalled by the family of 
Farrer of the community of Little Gidding (see Two Lives of 
Nicolas Farrer, J. E. B. Mayor, I. 30, II. 234, 5), who were 
wont to assemble from neighbouring villages every Sunday 
what they called the " psalm children " in classes for instruc- 
tion, catechising, and repeating psalms. 

Nor were the poorer class of children neglected by this 
good rector, for it was no doubt owing to his influence and 
advice that his worthy friend Mr Robert Bell, in conjunc- 
tion with Peter Hills, founded in 161 3 the ancient free 
school of Rotherhithe, ''to the intent that an able and 
sufficient schoolmaster should freely teach eight scholars 
being the children of seafaring men of the parish of Rederiffe^" 
This admirable institution survives to the present day, being 
incorporated with later foundations of a like character, and it 
is now a flourishing school of 200 boys doing a most valuable 
work for the rising generation of our parish. But Gataker^s 
pastoral duties did not hinder him from undertaking wider 
responsibilities ; for in 1643 he was called by the Pariiament 
to sit as one of the Assembly of Divines who met at West- 
minster and took part in the discussions of that body on the 
doctrine of justification and other theological subjects, and 
although he was strongly in favour of episcopacy he signed 

> For the finther htftory of this and the other •chooU of Rotherhitbe tee 
below, p. 57* 

■• 4 

^ Digitized by VjOOQIC 



50 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

the covenant in obedience to the sense of the majority of his 
brethren. 

In 1645 on the removal of Dr Comber from the Mastership 
of Trinity Collie in the University of Cambridge the Eari 
of Manchester had so high an opinion of the learning and 
character of Mr Gataker that he offered this post of dignity to 
him, and although his infirm health and characteristic modesty 
did not permit him to accept it, no greater testimony to his 
worth and eminence could have been given to him than in his 
selection to fill so high a position as Master of Trinity. 

In 1648 he was the first of the forty-seven ministers who 
signed a remonstrance to the army and the General against the 
design of trying the king; and both in private and in the pulpit 
he spoke against the prevailing tenets of the Independents. 

In 1653 he had a dispute with Lilly the astrolc^er^ 

He was a sufferer by the violence of the times ; yet when 
his parishioners refused to pay him the composition which 
they had agreed to in lieu of the tithes, he bore the dis- 
appointment with patience, and turned his attention to 
literary pursuits. 

He published Commentaries on the Prophecies of Isaiah 
and Jeremiah and on the Lamentations. 

Then he edited the works of the Emperor M. Antoninus, 
illustrated with a commentary of great learning, and likewise 
prefixed to it his " Cinnus " or body of Adversaria. He also 
wrote a treatise on the sacred name, TAe Tetragrammaton. 

While thus employed he still from time to time ministered 
the sacraments and occupied his pulpit, although at the 
imminent risk of his life, on one occasion bursting a blood- 
vessel while preaching. 

He had now reached his eightieth year, and on July 9, 
1654, he was seized with a mortal illness. 

Gataker was four times married: — 

(1) '^ Not long before he left Lincoln's Inn he married the 
widow of Mr Wm Cupper, to whose two daughters be was 
most kind, educating them and marrying them to two divines 
of note. His first wife died in child-bed of a son that bore 

• See Laijr'f Ufi^ 1774, p. 119 tq. 



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VI] POST-REFORMATION RECTORS 5 1 

his father's name," who after distant voyages returned home 
and died in peace. 

(2) He next married *' the daughter of a reverend divine, 
Mr Charles Pinner, who was then brought up in the worthy 
and reh'gious family of Mr Ellis Crisp, brother to Mrs Pinner. 
It pleased God to give him a sonne by her (Charles), but 
immediately to take away the mother, so that the mother's 
funeral and the child's baptism were celebrated together." 

(3) His third wife was ** a gentlewoman of a very con- 
siderable family, being sister to Sir George and Sir John 
Farwell. By her he had three children, whereof a sonne and 
a daughter were carried to the grave before their mother, but 
the third yet lives to walk by the light of her father's life and 
doctrine. This gentlewoman being of a contemplative mtnde 
fell into a consumption, which wasted the body so that the 
soul took flight from thence to heaven." 

(4) ** Last of all he took to wife a citizen's widow, whose 
comfortable conversation he enjoyed 24 years, but without 
issue by her. 

" The love to her was one motive why he retreated out 
of his parsonage house to another habitation of his own 
revenue: for supposing that she might be the survivor, he 
would make a convenient provision for her, that she might 
not be subject to another's curtesie for removal. Her he 
survived two years within a few days. 

^ In July, 1620, he went for a month to the United Provinces 
%nA to Belgium. His companions were his entire friend 
Captain Joshua Downing and an old acquaintance Mr Roger 
Hi^;hes (hb Mnasm whose house he used frequently in 
London) and a nephew, a young student His mother was 
at this time still alive. 

* We may mention several persons of note that had been his 
assistants at Rotherfaithe. Mr Young, Mr Goodal (minister 
at Horton by Colebrook), Mr Symonds (who turned aside 
to ways of separation), Mr Grayle, and others yet living 
labourers in (lod's vineyard. 

^ Of foreigners that sojourned with him these were some. 
M. Thylein (after a revered pastor of the Dutch church 

4— J 

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52 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

in London, whose sonne was brought by his mother but a 
fortnight afore Mr Gataker's decease, intreating the same 
good office for him which the father had with much comfort 
enjoyed), M. Peters, M. And. Demetrius, M. Hornbeck, M. 
Rich, M. Sverd, M. Wittefrungel, M. Severinus Benzen, M. 
Geoi^ Deillay, D. Treschovius. 

" Such was his hospitah'ty to strangers ; his condescension 
to children (he visited the Tonbridge School with the Skinners' 
Company) ; his piety in repairing weekly to some lecture in 
London ; his free contribution upon divers occasions to the 
maintaining of the Lord's house of prayer; his modesty in 
refusing honourable offers (as when he declined being chaplain 
to the hopeful Prince Henry) ; his large charity to the poor, 
in redemption of captives, relief of poor Protestants, and 
bequeathing £$0 to the poor of Redrith in his last wilP." 

We may add to this eulogium his mindfulness that he 
was in Holy Orders of the persecuted Church of England. 
All through these troublous times, while living on friendly and 
brotherly terms with the Presbyterian ministers, he spoke up 
manfully for the primitive episcopacy, through which he had 
himself received his title and ordination to the priesthood*. 

It was the happiness of Rotherhithe that it had a priest 
for its rector to proclaim the everlasting Gospel and to minister 
the sacraments to its people throughout the Puritan era. 

Of his friends and neighbours in adjoining parishes we 
know that the rector of Bermondsey from 1624* to 1644 was 
Dr Thomas Paske, Fellow and Master of Clare Hall, in the 
University of Cambridge, whom he must have known, and 
with whom he could scarcely have been on other than 
brotherly terms. 

The rector of Bermondsey from 1644 to 1654 was Jeremiah 
Whitaker, who was a member of tiie Westminster Assembly 
of Divines, and would naturally be in dote and friendly 
relations with Gataker. The two died in tiie same year, 1654. 

> This gift b ftin distribated. 

• He speaks of hb godmother who p f ticatc d hia at *« the Sacred Laver.** 

* The rector of Bennoodscy, i6oi— i6t4, was Edwaid Elton, an anstcre 
Puritan and a learned divine. Dr Fisko was exacted in 1644. 



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VI] POST-REFORMATION RECTORS S3 

No monument has ever been erected to the memory of 
this truly excellent man. It is believed that he himself 
desired that none should be erected. But the biographical 
notice here given at somewhat greater length than some 
readers may think called for may supply the want of a 
memorial Indeed, his learned works are an imperishable 
memorial of him. 

The present writer had some years since the opportunity 
of naming a street on the rector's glebe after his most dis- 
tinguished predecessor, and "Gataker Street" will preserve 
his name to future generations. 

John Goode. 

On the death of Mr Gataker the Reverend John Goode 
was appointed. His institution is recorded in the year 1654, 
and he died in June, 1675. Nothing further is known of Mr 
Goode. The patron of the benefice was at this time Mr John 
Thomborough, Junior. But in 1620 Mr Gataker, in the dedi- 
cation of his sermon on the benefit of a good name, speaks 
of "My loving Friends and Neighbours Mr Robert Bell 
and Mr Joshua Downing Joint Patrones of the Rectorie of 
Rothcrhith." 

No doubt Robert Bell and Joshua Downing purchased the 
advowson in order to secure the appointment of a Puritan rector 
in the event of Mr Gataker^s death, but he outlived his friend 
Robert Bell and the patronage had passed into other hands. 

Dr Lovell, Rector 1711—1735. 

It was during Dr Lovell's incumbency that the parish 
church was rebuilt on the site of the mediaeval church which 
had served for 400 years. The old tower continued to stand, 
and it contained a peal of six bells. Temporary repairs were 
carried out in the summer of 171 8. It may be interesting to 
note that at this time the Rev. Dr George Stanhope, Dean of 
Canterbury, was rector of the adjoining parish of Deptford. 

Dr Curling. 

The advowson of St Mary, Rotherhithe, passed into the 
hands of the Master, Fellows, and Scholars of Clare Hall 



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54 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

in the University of Cambridge. They purchased it from 
the Duke of Chandos, who had become the patron of the 
benefice*. 

The collie exercised their right of presentation for the 
first time on the death of Dr Lovell, and they appointed the 
Reverend Thomas Curling, D.D.*, one of the senior Fellows of 
the foundation. He was instituted on Aug. 15, 1735, and 
died May 20, 1742. 

Dr Curling was born at Ramsgate in Kent, but his 
family was long connected with this part of South London, 
residing in a mansion in Jamaica Road, Bermondsey. The 
Reverend William Curling, a collateral descendant of Dr 
Curling, was for many years one of the two chaplains of St 
Saviour's, Southwark*. The old family residence of the 
Curlings was pulled down some years since, and Palmerston 
Terrace with Martin Street in the rear occupy the site of the 
gardens. A few of the old trees are still standing in the 
forecourts of Palmerston Terrace. 

Thomas Negus, D.D. 

The second of the Clare rectors, Dr Thomas Negus, was 
like his predecessor a senior Fellow of the college. He was 
bom at Shelton in Bedfordshire and was married at Rother- 
hithe parish church to Sarah Margaretta Jones by the Bishop 
of Man. She was a Welsh lady, and survived her husband ; 
leaving by her will, dated April 22, 1784. the sum of £2700 
3 per cent consolidated annuities to provide Bibles, New 
Testaments, Common Prayer-books especially for the aged 
poor of Rotherhithe requiring large-type books, and likewise 
for the education of poor children! This excellent charity 

> Tbe oolkge was enabled to make tUs pQichaae o«t of a laife mub of ommjt 
beqaeathed by tbe Reverend Dr Bljtbe, who was Master of Clare from 1678 to 
1713, and left eferjthing he possewed to the college.— CW/i^fr OhUr Bmk. 

* Dr Goddard fm the Cdkg* ^tgisitr) calk him '*a right good acfaobr and a 
Tery worthj man." 

* Mr William Curling, a member of this lamily, was treanrer of tbe Charity 
School in 1807 and gave £^ to the fond for reboilding tbe school. 

^ Dr N^gus, at his death m 1765. left £to to tbe rcboildii^ of tbe Charity 
School. He b dcKribed by Dr Goddard as **a truly comcientioos man, of 
primeval Piety and Simplicity, and an excellent Parish Priest.*' 



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VI] POST-REFORMATION RECTORS 55 

is still administered by the trustees to whom she bequeathed 
it, the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, and it is 
known as " Mrs .Negus' Charity." 

This charitable lady likewise bequeathed a corresponding 
benefaction for Wales, which is called *' Mrs Negus* Welsh 
Charity." It was also during Dr Negus' incumbency that 
another charitable lady, Mrs Hannah Bayly, by her will 
dated Feb. 22, 1756, created a trust for poor widows of St 
Mary, Rotherhithe, which is administered by her trustees, 
and is known as " Mrs Bayly's Charity." This was the age 
of charitable bequests for Rotherhithe. 

Thomas Cockayne, M.A. 

This was the third rector presented by the college, and he 
was likewise one of the Fellows of Clare. He was bom at 
Dovebridge in Derbyshire. During his incumbency the site 
of the old Rectory House and garden was purchased by the 
parishioners and added to the Churchyard. Eventually the 
new Rectory was built on the prese;nt site. 

Robert Myddleton, M.A. 

The fourth Clare rector, and like the rest a Fellow, 
succeeded in the closing decade of the i8th century. He 
was bom at Melton Mowbray in Leicestershire. It was 
during his incumbency that the Rotherhithe Sunday Schools 
were established in 1798, and they have proved an in- 
estimable blessing to successive generations of Rotherhithe 
children. We shall be able in a subsequent chapter to record 
their history at length, but it is to the honour of this good 
man that he encouraged the first founder of the Rotherhithe 
Sunday School, a worthy Nonconformist named Thomas Cran- 
fidd, and adopted his humble effort, making it one of the 
permanent institutions of the parish church. Mr Myddleton 
eventually became D.D., and in his time, early in the 19th 
century, the beadle's staflf, with its handsome silver-gilt image 
of the Blessed Virgin Mary holding in her arms the Holy 
Child, was provided by the churchwardens. 

No outcry against Popish innovations appears to have 
been raised on this occasion, nor at the painted glass window 



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56 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

representing the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin into 
heaven, which was placed in the chancel about the same 
period. Rotherhithe church-folk of that day honoured their 
parish church and its patron saint without incurring any 
suspicion of " leaning towards Rome." These party-cries 
were reserved for a later period of the 19th century when, as 
was supposed, Christians had become more enlightened. One 
thing is too sadly true, they were far more rancorous. 

James Speare and John Short Hewktt. 

The Reverend James Speare, another Fellow of Clare, 
succeeded on the death of Dr Myddleton, but he held the 
benefice but a brief space*, and was followed by the Rev. J. S. 
Hewett, M.A. 

Mr Hewett's incumbency was an unhappy one. It is 
generally believed that he became involved in money diffi- 
culties. Certainly he was seldom resident in Rotherhithe. 
The parish was left in charge of a curate, an estimable man, 
the Rev. Dr Thomas Hardwicke, who lived in the rectory 
house, and was well liked' by the inhabitants. But naturally 
he could not exercise the same influence as if he had been 
actually rector. On Mr Hewett's death he was succeeded, 
in 1835, by a resident rector, who in a few months' time made 
himself felt as a power in the parish such as no rector since 
Thomas Gataker, nearly 200 years before, had ever been. 

Edward Buck. 

The Reverend Edward Blick, M.A., Fellow of Clare Hall, 
Cambridge, was instituted in 1835 and at once came into 
residence. He was a native of Sutton Coldfield in Warwick- 
shire but was brought up at Tamworth, in Staffordshire, 
bis father being the vicar of Tamworth and headmaster of 
Tamworth grammar school. Mr Slick's brother was Fellow 
and Bursar of St John's Collie, Cambridge, and he himself 
was a man of strong purpose and well-trained intellect He 
had for some years before he actually became rector of 

> It U believed that Mr Speare took Rolberhitlie hoping to be married, b«t 
that the bd/ on being brought by him to see the place declined to make her hone 
in Rotherhithe, and Mr Speare, to please her, took another Oare livii^ and 
became rector of Ehniett, a viUage in the coanif of Saflblk. 



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The Reverend Edward Blick. formerly 
Rector of Rotherhithe. 1835 1867. 



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VI] POST-REFORMATION RECTORS $7 

Rotherhithe entertained the hope and presentiment that this 
parish would one day be his ministerial charge, and it is 
believed that he had already mapped out in his own mind 
the plan of action which he was prepared to carry out when 
actually in a position to do so. We happily possess a state- 
ment which he drew up and circulated in the year 1848, after 
he had completed 13 years of strenuous work. It was pub- 
lished, he tells us, " with the hope of communicating useful 
and interesting information to the inhabitants of Rotherhithe, 
and also of inducing both them and others to assist in carrying 
on with efficiency the various institutions and charities that 
have been commenced." 

"On the nth of April, 1835," when Mr Blick "came into 
residence, there was only one church in the parish. That 
church had sittings for about a thousand persons, the popu- 
lation being nearly 13,000." When he died, on June 25, 1867, 
he left behind him three new parish churches beside the 
chapel-of-ease (St Paul's) for the lower end of the mother 
church district 

" For the instruction of the young there were two school- 
rooms. The one in Church Street for 150 boys, with a house 
of residence for the master, in which also 50 girls were taught. 
This was commonly called the Charity School. The other in 
Trinity Street for 50 boys who received education free of 
expense. This was the United Society School. 

''There was also another school called the School of 
Industry, and connected therewith a boys' and girls' Sunday 
school; but these schools possessed no buildings of their 
own and had to meet in hired rooms in various parts of the 
parish."* During Mr Blick's incumbency the following school 
buildings were erected: (1) St Mary's National School in 
Deptford Road for boys, girls, and iniants, erected in 1836 
and enlarged in 1865 ; (2) Trinity Church Schools for boys, 
girls, and infants, erected in 1836; (3) Christ Church Schools 
in Prospect Place, then called ** Rose and Rummer Lane," for 
girb and infants, erected in 1841; (4) two school-rooms for 
the School of Industry, erected in Clarence Street in 1846; 
and (5) St Paul's Infant School room, then called the Surrey 



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S8 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

Canal School, erected in 1847 in Ram Alley, now known as 
St Paul's Lane. This school-room was built to meet the 
needs of the isolated district beyond the Surrey Canal, in 
order that younger children might not have to be sent over 
the Canal Bridge and along the narrow street to the up-town 
schools. 

When we look back upon this record of 32 years' work in 
building churches and schools it appears almost incredible 
that it could have been due to the energy of one man. Yet 
to one man, one single-hearted clei^man, Edward Blick, 
Rotherhithe is indebted for this priceless legacy which he was 
able to bequeath to his parish when he laid down his charge 
with his life at midsummer 1867. 

He was indeed nobly backed up by his people, and by 
Sir William Maynard Gomm, the lord of the manor of 
Rotherhithe ; but the inspiration, the inception, the carrying 
through of every one of diese projects was due to the rector. 
In his study, on his knees in prayer to God, and by devoted 
and persevering toil the work was done, and when the popu- 
lation had doubled itself in three decades from 13,000 to 
26fiOoM had been provided with church and school accom- 
modation in a way unparalleled in any other parish of South 
London. 

He was able in 1848 to sum up the money value of his 

buildings as follows : 

£ f' d. 
The three new churches have been built and 

consecrated at an expense of 13*525 o o 

The ten new ichool-rooms with two class-rooms 

and residences for three masters or mistresses 

have cost 5,965 o o 

Trinity Church is endowed with ^150 a jear; 

Christ Chofch with £^i a jear; All SainU 

Church with ^150 a year. Total endowment 

^367 per annuni. These endowments may 

be valued reckoning at 3I per cent at ii»292 o o 

Trinity Partonage has cost upwards of 1,100 o o 

The total value of the improvements has been ... ^31,383 o o 



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VI] POST-REFORMATION RECTORS 59 

There were also set on foot many other institutions for 
the benefit of the parishioners. A district visiting society, 
a savings bank, a lying-in charity, a medical benevolent 
society, a parochial library, and also a grammar school* 
which was the rector's own private venture. He bought out 
a dissenting chapel which was in financial difficulties and 
turned it into a school for boys of an upper class, at first under 
the Reverend William Hutchinson and later on placing it 
under the charge of one of his assistant curates, the Reverend 
James Wilson, M^., of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, as 
headmaster, who was assisted and eventually succeeded by 
Mr William Marillier from Harrow School, an athlete and 
cricketer imbued with public school traditions. 

There "were also the Rotherhithe branches of the Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts and of 
the Church Missionary Society. And support was likewise 
annually given to the Jews' Society, to the Church of England 
Scripture Readers' Society and to the London City Mission. 
Rotherhithe became known far and wide as a well-equipped 
and well-organized London parish guided by a master-mind. 

The annual school treat was an event looked forward to 
by the whole parish as a gala-day, and in times when there 
were still open fields in Rotherhithe for children to play in 
and there was conse<jViently no need to take the schools for 
miles into the country for a yearly excursion, the school 
treat day was observed as a universal holiday, and there are 
many still living who could tell of those happy gatherings in 
Brandram s Meadow and Terr's Field and elsewhere. 

It was on the occasion of one of these yearly school treats 
that the first warning was given of the terrible visitation of 
Cholera, which caused such mortality here and in other parts 
of London. 

Then the faithful pastor was found day by day at his post 
with hb colleagues ministering to the sick and dying and 



> It matt be n mtm h ttwd tlua at tbit period tlM spleMlid fomdation of 
St Olave'i GtaouMf School was only available for bojn wboee parenu were 
parisbaoiien of St Olave, Soatbwark, and St John, HorslcTdowii. The opening 
of tbb idiool to oatsidert. a« at present, b the work of a Mbaeqocnt date. 



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6o ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

became more than ever endeared to his flock, so sorely 
stricken with the dire disease. 

The latter years of Mr Blick's life were, overshadowed 
with failing health ; but though obliged at one period to be 
drawn about the parish in a bath-chair he never ceased to 
visit his beloved schools and to care for their interests. He 
was extremely averse to all proposals to have his portrait 
painted, and indeed it was without his own knowledge that a 
sketch was eventually taken of him as he sat at his study 
writing-table. This sketch was developed into an oil painting, 
which long afterwards was given by his family to the 
present rector and by him placed in the Town Hall. It now 
adorns the walls of the Public Library, and reminds those 
who see it of the strongly marked features of this good old 
man who lived and died in the service of his God and 
Saviour and for the good of his flock. 

He lies buried at the east end of the parish church yard 
beneath a stone slab with a raised cross extending along its 
length. 

The people and school-children who crowded the church 
at his funeral erected another memorial of their departed 
friend and rector. By. the principal door of the church was 
erected a lofty monument of Gothic design with suitable 
inscriptions ; while within the church ftself a stone font was 
placed to his memory which the present rector solemnly 
dedicated on Whitsunday 1868 for the due ministration of 
the sacrament of holy baptism. The only provision for 
baptisms up to this date had been a metal basin placed when 
required upon the altar-rail. 

Mr Blick brought as a bride to Rotherhitbe the faithful 
wife who shared his joys and sorrows all through his time 
here, and outlived him several years. She was Miss Louisa 
Hutchinson of Lichfield, and her brother, the Reverend 
William Hutchinson, M.A., wais Mr Blick's first curate and 
shortly afterwards became the first incumbent of Holy Trinity 
Church in 1838. Mrs Blick's sister, Miss Sarah Hutchinson, 
made her home for some years at Rotheriiithe and devoted 
herself to the work of a district visitor and Sunday School 



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Memorial to the Reverend Edward Blick near the South Entrance 
to Rotherhithe Parish Church. 



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VI] POST-REFORMATION RECTORS 6 1 

teacher, both at Trinity Church and afterwards at St Paul's 
Chapel. 

The Rev. W. Hutchinson still survives; he is the vicar 
of Blurton near Stoke-upon-Trent, and although over 96 years 
of age continues to take some part in the Sunday services of 
his church. 

Edward Josselyn Beck. 

The Reverend Edward Josselyn Beck, M.A., Fellow and 
Dean of Clare College, Cambridge, was appointed to succeed 
Mr Blick, and was instituted by the Bishop of Winchester 
(Dr Richard Charles Sumner) on Wednesday, November 6, 
1867. On the following Friday, November 8, he was inducted 
by the Reverend John Bowstead, M.A., Rector of St Olave's 
and Rural Dean of Southwark, in the presence of a large 
congregation and with the traditional ceremonial used in 
Rotherhithe. He "read himself in" and preached for the 
first time on Sunday, November 10, and so commenced a 
ministry which he has been spared by God's great goodness 
to exercise now for thirty-eight years. 

It is not an easy task for the present writer to speak of 
his own work, but inasmuch as many events of historical 
interest have occurred during his tenure of the benefice, it 
would be false modesty if some record were not made to com- 
plete the roll of rectors of Rotherhithe up to the present date, 

Mr Beck belongs to an old Lincolnshire family, for several 
generations connected with municipal life in the city of 
Lincoln^: but eventually settled in the county of Suflblk*, 
where for several generations they were clergymen and 
medical men. 

Edward Josselyn Beck was the only son of Henry Beck 
of Needham Market, Suflblk, and was bom June 27, 1832. 
He was educated at Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School, 

* John Becke was twice mayor of Uie ettj of Lincoln. He died 1630. 

* John Beck was for 54 yean rector of Woilinprorth, Sailblk ; his ton. 
Edward Beck, was in Holy Oiders; Edwaid Beck was a saigeon at Coddenham; 
Edward Bipby Beck, a saigeon at Needham Market and Greeting St Mary; 
Dr Edward Beck, a physician at Ipswich; Henry Beck, surgeon at Needham 
Market. 



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62 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

Ipswich (1844 — 1851), under the excellent headmastership 
of the Reverend John Fenwick, B.D., Fellow of Corpus Christi 
Collie, Cambridge, ninth Wrangler in the Tripos of 1842; 
and for the last year of his school life under the Reverend 
Stephen Jordan Rigaud, D.D., Fellow of Exeter Collie, 
Oxford, and second master of Westminster School, who 
succeeded Mr Fenwick as headmaster of Ipswich School in 
1850; so that he had the great advantage of the best 
mathematical and classical training from these two head- 
masters respectively distinguished as first-class men in their 
Universities. 

In October, 185 1, Mr Beck proceeded to the University 
of Cambridge and was entered at Clare Hall where Dr Webb 
was Master of the collie and Mr Atkinson was collie tutor. 
In December, 185 1, he was elected to a classical scholarship, 
and in 1855 graduated B.A. as a Senior Optime in the 
Mathematical Tripos ; in March, 1855, he passed the Classical 
Examination and was placed first in the second class of the 
Classical Tripos. Almost immediately after these examina- 
tions he engaged in scholastic work and devoted his leisure 
hours to the study of theology in preparation for Holy 
Orders. In December, 1855, he was elected to a Fellowship 
at Clare and after his admission resided in college and passed 
the Voluntary Theological Examination and was ordained 
deacon on Trinity Sunday, 1856, on his Fellowship title by. 
the Bkhop of Ely (Dr Turton) in Ely Cathedral. 

There was at this time no opening for work in the 
college, and Mr Beck was anxious to learn the work of a 
parochial clergyman in a London parish. Accordingly in 
October, 1856, he became curate of Christ Church, Albany 
Street, R^;ent*s Park, under the Rev. Henry William 
Burrows, B.D., who had at that time chaige of that large 
and important parish which in 185 1 had been thrown into a 
state of distress and disorganization by the secession of its 
pastor, the Rev. William Dodsworth, to the Church of Rome. 

From Mr Burrows, his true and faithful friend and guide, 
Mr Beck learned everything that a parish priest should know. 
In 1857 he was ordained priest in St Paul's Cathedral by 



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The Rev. Edward Josselyn Beck. M.A., Rector of Rotherhithe. 



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VI] POST-REFORMATION RECTORS 63 

Bishop Tait, then Bishop of London (subsequently Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury), and he remained as one of the 
assistant curates of Christ Church, St Pancras, for four happy 
years, working in the church schools and labouring in one 
of the districts Which included Cumberlstnd Haytnarket, 
Clarence Street, and other poor streets adjoining. 

Irt October, i860, the Master of Clare (who was then the 
Reverend Edward Atkinson, D.D., having succeeded Dr Webb 
in January, 1856) summoned Mr Beck to go back into resi- 
dence and to undertake the office of Dean, which had just 
become vacant by the appointment of the Rev. F. P. Dusantoy 
to a collie living. Mr Beck continued to reside in Cam- 
bridge from this time onward till January, 1865, engaging in 
Collie and University work. The institution of a voluntary 
choir for the college chapel was the work of his first October 
term, the chapel services having up to that time been 
celebrated without any musical accompaniment Mr Beck 
took his share in the college examinations and in University 
work. 

In October, 1863, he was Junior Proctor of the University, 
and in that capacity joined in the presentation at Marlborough 
House of an address to the Prince and Princess of Wales on 
the occasion of their marriage. 

Mr Beck gave up the office of Dean of Clare on his 
marriage in January, 1865, but he continued to be a Fellow 
for several years longer. In November, 1866, he was 
appointed by the collie to the vicarage of Litlington in 
Cambridgeshire, and here he expected to pass some years in 
the duties of a country parish priest ; but in the summer of 
1867 the death of Mr Blick occurred, and after the Senior 
Fellows had one after another declined the oflTer of the reetory 
of Rotherhithe it came down to Mr Beck, who after some 
anxious deliberation decided that it was his duty to accept 
the charge, and he came into residence at the beginning of 
November, 1867. The rectory house was at first quite un- 
tenantable, and for the first winter he found a home in the 
house in Union Road, formerly occupied by Captain Robert 
Stranack, and at that time in the occupation of his widowed 



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64 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

daughter, Mrs Tyacke. The cordial reception which he 
received from all the parishioners on his coming here, a 
Comparatively young clergyman, to succeed so venerable 
and experienced a pastor as Mr Blick will be ever gratefully 
i^eniembered by him. The two churchwardens that year were 
Mr W. J. Blake and Mr James Hurd. The curates were 
the Rev. James Moore, M. A., and the Rev. Ambrose Morris, 
who was still only in deacon's orders. Both of these good 
men remained as colleagues with the new rector. * 

The gathering which thronged the parish church at his 
induction was most encouraging^ The vestry clerks were 
Mr Robert Shafto Hawks and Mr James J. Stokes, then 
resident in Paradise Street. After the church bell had been 
tolled and the hew rector had demanded admission by 
knocking at the church door and exhibiting his mandate from 
the Bishop, he was conducted up the middle aisle and placed 
within the sanctuary rails, and subsequently in the reading- 
desk and pulpit, adjourning to the vestry for the necessary 
signatures to be appended to the official documents. A 
sod of the churchyard had to be turned to claim the 
rector's freehold, and then amid the pealing of the bells the 
congregation dispersed, to meet again on Sunday morning, 
when the actual commencement of his ministry was inaugu- 
rated with what is called the ''reading in," and in place of a 
sermon the Thirty-nine Articles of Religion were solemnly 
read through at Morning and Evening Service, that the 
people might know what doctrine their new pastor was 
pledged to preach and to teach. It was a deeply impressive 
scene that met the rector's eyes as he stood in the old 
church, then arranged as it had been for many years before: 
the laiige square pews with high doors, the deep galleries 
running round three sides of the church, and the children of 
the Charity School occupying two sniall galleries on either 
side of the organ, almost touching the ceiling of the church. 
The reading-desk and clerk's desk and the pulpit — a gigantic 
structure commonly designated ''a three-decker" — occupied 
a prominent position facing the organ, and completely hiding 
from view the holy table, which stood in a small space with 



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VI] POST-REFORMATION RECTORS 65 

a large pew flanking it on either side. But the vast congre- 
gation which filled the church, the Sunday Schools in either 
gallery and overflowing into the chancel at the foot of the 
pulpit steps, the voices of the choir of men and boys in the 
organ gallery singing the hymns and canticles, and led by 
the strains of the noble old organ, which was well and 
reverently played by the organist, Miss Nottingham ; all this 
with the magnificent display of the altar plate set out on 
the Lord's Table for the celebration of the Holy Sacrament 
combined to constitute a Divine service most impressive 
to those who took part in it A few still survive who 
were present that Sunday, but the greater part have long 
since been called away.... Captain John Stranack and his 
family, Captain Phillips and his family, Mr and Mrs Daniel 
Serle, Mr Robert Newham and his family, Mr and Mrs 
Edward Talbot, Mr and Mrs Dannell, Mr and Mrs James 
Arnold, and many another. Standfasts, Archers, Bulmers, 

Challoners, Batts, Lulhams, 

Ebenezer Bradshaw was parish clerk, James Ham- 
brook was church beadle, and William Kitchin was steeple 
keeper. Mrs Hannah Kibett Small was sexton, and four 
pew-openers presided over the aisles and galleries. It was 
a small army of officials, for the abolition of church rates 
had only the year before been completed by Mr Gladstone, 
and its effect had not yet been fully felt in crippling 
the finances of the church. Everything was at that time 
provided on a liberal, even on a lavish, scale. The bell- 
ringers had no cause to complain or to stint their ringing. 
The white ensign floated proudly on the steeple and never 
became ragged and torn before another was bought to take 
its place. The monthly church collections, being free from 
the necessity of providing for the church expenses, were 
devoted to the support of the schools and charities of the 
parish and for home and foreign missions as well as for the 
relief of the sick and poor; and gold and silver were freely 
given at the church doors, where the churchwardens and 
sidesmen held the plates, and would have looked askance at 
the copper coins which now form the staple of the weekly 

B- 5 

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66 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

collections. We do not forget that the present congregation 
IS far less able to contribute than those who were the resident 
parishioners in 1867; and the other churches which now quite 
naturally draw the church people who live in Union Road, in 
the Lower Road, in Plough Road, and in the streets on the 
other side of Southwark Park, where there were then market 
gardens and rope grounds, have left the old mother church 
almost derelict, surrounded no longer by streets of houses, 
but by wharves, mills, granaries, and high buildings, with 
scarcely an inhabited house near it, like a stranded hulk 
left high and dry on the silent shore. 

The fate of old city churches is in some respects a sad 
one. They possess the furniture and fittings and altar plate 
of a by-gone age, but their congregations have migrated to 
other homes, and St Mary's Church, Rotherhithe, if not quite 
so forlorn as St Nicholas', Deptford, is yet out of the main 
stream of life to-day. On week-days it is shaken by the 
vibrations of an endless procession of timber vans and 
other heavy traffic; but on Sundays the neighbourhood is 
so quiet that you might think St Marychurch Street and 
Rotherhithe Street a deserted thoroughfare. *'Tcmpora 
mutantur, nos et mutamur in illis." Nevertheless the church 
remains as a witness for God and Christianity ; and it is the 
sole witness ; for no other religious body exists in the mother 
church district, no other Christian denomination has any 
chapel, or meeting-place, or Sunday School, except the old 
parish church and St Paul's Chapel-of-ease nearly a mile 
lower down the river side. 

The difficulties which the present rector found himself 
face to face with were not a few. First of all he had to build a 
new church in Plough Road, where a new town of respectable 
streets had sprung up without any church near them. Mr 
Blick had happily secured a site for a church on the Ram 
estate, and on that site St Barnabas' Church was built ; but 
first the money had to be gathered before the work could be 
put in hand Mr Charles Churchill, the well-known timber 
broker and one of the directors of the Surrey Commercial 
Docks, consented to act as joint-treasurer with the rector, and 



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VI] POST-REFORMATION RECTORS 67 

himself contributed generously to the fund. An appeal was 
circulated, and many kind friends came forward to become 
subscribers. Field-Marshal Sir William Maynard Gomm, 
G.C.B., the lord of the manor of Rotherhithe, was a most 
munificent contributor, as were others who had interests in 
Rotherhithe. 

Flans and specifications were prepared by the eminent 
church architect Mr Wm. Butterfield, F.S.A., who although a 
builder of magnificent churches and costly colleges, was 
willing to design for Rotherhithe a church dignified and 
beautiful but of materials so inexpensive that it might be 
possible to bring the cost within the slender means at the 
disposal of the building committee. 

The foundation stone was laid on St Barnabas' Day, 
June II, 1870, with befitting ceremonial. The procession 
started from the mother church after a short service. The 
clergy and choir walked down the Lower Road preceded by 
a guard of honour of the Rotherhithe Volunteers with their 
band playing, and their honorary colonel. Sir Wm. Gomm, 
brought up the rear. The patrons of the benefice were repre- 
sented by several Fellows of Clare and by the Clare boat flag 
borne aloft by the captain of the collie boat club. The 
stone was well and truly laid by Sir Wm. Gomm, but two 
years elapsed before the church was completed and con- 
secrated by Bishop Wilberforce on St Barnabas' Day, 1872. 

Thus one more district church was added to the three 
existing ones, Holy Trinity, Christ Church, and All Saints'. 
An ecclesiastical district was assigned to it by Order in 
Council, and a population of 1500 from St Mary's and about 
2500 from All Saints' parish was thus provided for, and the 
curate-in-charge, the Rev. Robert Russell, M.A., became 
in due course the first vicar of St Barnabas'. The Gomm 
Schools were erected in 1873; and eventually a vicarage 
house adjoining the church was provided for the residence of 
the clergyman, and a modest endowment secured for his 
maintenance. 

As soon as the new parish was thus equipped, the rector 
was left free to turn his attention to the mother church which, 

S— « 

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68 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

though well adapted for the old order of things when large 
family-pews were in vogfue, was certainly not suited to the 
changed circumstances when so many of the old parishioners 
had died or removed to homes in more attractive localities. 

But meanwhile the venerable lord of the manor, the 
rector's staunch friend and supporter, had died full of years, 
aged 91, and honoured by numerous marks of his sovereign's 
regard, having been made Constable of the Tower ; and at his 
funeral representatives of the Queen and of the Prince and 
Princess of Wales were present. 

Lady Gomm, in her widowhood, was scarcely in a position 
to be approached for aid in the contemplated improvements 
to the old parish church, although eventually she gave sub- 
stantial help. However, a meeting of the parishioners was 
convened to consider the question, and it was resolved that 
steps should be taken to rearrange the seats and otherwise 
improve the church. Plans were prepared by Mr Butterfield, 
and the vestry petitioned the Bishop of Winchester (Dr Harold 
Browne), through his chancellor, to grant a faculty for the pro- 
posed alterations. 

These changes were carried out in two parts, at intervals, 
as the money was raised. The first portion was completed in 
1876 and included the removal of the old pews and the sub- 
stitution for them of uniform open benches with kneeling 
boards ; the demolition of a large part of the north and south 
galleries and of the children's galleries at the west end of the 
church, and the removal of the large lobby beneath the organ 
gallery, where the bread had been distributed each Sunday. 
The bread hutch was removed into the tower, the open arches 
of which were now provided with doors so as to enclose the 
whole tower space. 

But the greatest improvement of all was the pulling down 
of the pulpit and desks and the construction of a choir ex- 
tending into the body of the church, and the provision of a 
tesselated pavement gradually ascending by steps from the 
nave-level till the beautiful marble pavement of the sanctuary 
was reached, which led up to the footpace of white marble, on 
which a new altar-table was set up, to replace the existing 



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VI] POST-REFORMATION RECTORS 69 

table, which was removed into the clergy vestry. The choir 
stalls, with stalls for the clergy, were constructed out of the 
carved oak which was previously scattered over the church 
pews. The altar- rails were of finely carved oak. A new 
choir vestry was built in connection with a furnace-chamber 
for the heating apparatus, and the church was beautifully 
lighted by gas brackets projecting from the pillars and along 
the top of two elegant screens of wrought iron on either side 
of the choir, most skilfully constructed out of iron brackets 
which had served as supports for hat-p^s under the old 
galleries. A beautiful oak lectern was likewise presented to the 
church by the builder, Mr Norris, and the old high pulpit was 
cut down and placed against the north-eastern pillar of the 
church, where it is in an excellent position for the preacher to 
have his entire congregation well in view. A beautifully 
embroidered silk altar frontal with an altar covering of crim- 
son cloth was designed by Mr Butterfield and made and 
presented to the church by a lady residing in Chester. The 
chalice vail was worked and given by another lady friend, a 
near relative of the rector. The white altar cloth and linen 
and altar vases for flowers were the gift of another lady. 
Flowers have never ceased to be placed on the retable 
each week from this time forward to the present day. For 
all these improvements we were indebted to the skill and 
carefully considered plans of the architect, Mr Butterfield, 
who made a study of the best methods of adapting the old 
classical churches of London to the needs of modem times 
and a more catholic type of ritual in the services of the 
Church of England. 

On All SainU' Day, November i, 1876, the renovated 
church was solemnly reopened by the Bishop of the diocese, 
Dr Harold Browne, whose sermon on the occasion was a 
masterpiece of sacred eloquence commending their beautiful 
church to the loving regard of the parishioners of St Mary, 
Rotherhithe. There was one matter which excited in some 
quarters a feeling of dissatisfaction. A cross of wood had 
been placed over the holy table, and two altar candlesticks 
had been presented by a private friend. These are of course 



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70 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

recognized lawful ornaments of the church ; but they were 
new to Rotherhithe people who are essentially conservative in 
all church matters and averse to any novelties. The Bishop, 
however, listened patiently to the protests addressed to him 
and pointed out the undoubted lawfulness of the cross and 
lights, and before many months all opposition died away, 
especially as it was found that the old Gospel message con- 
tinued to be proclaimed, and that there was no new doctrinal 
change involved in the alterations which had been carried out 

During the nine years which had seen the building of 
St Barnabas' and renovation of St Mary's, there were other 
weighty cares which pressed heavily on the rector's heart 
The four schools were a constant source of anxiety. The 
teachers indeed were most devoted to their work, and the 
children continued to flock into the schools, but a new and 
rival system had been set up and was supported by the public 
rates. In 1870 Mr W. E. Forster carried through Parliament 
his Education Act, which was undoubtedly a most necessary 
measure. In London no choice could be left to the rate- 
payers as to adopting the provisions of the Act, for the 
unprecedented increase in the population had left wide areas 
quite unprovided with elementary schools, and the voluntary 
efforts of the Church of England and of the few other religious 
bodies which cared for education were inadequate to grapple 
with the want which was of such vast dimensions. 

In 1872 or thereabouts the first Board School was opened 
in Rotherhithe in temporary premises, but before long a large 
school was built in the midst of the existing church schools. 
This was the Albion Street Board School, and on the opening 
day the managers of the church schools quickly found out 
that Mr Forster^s promise that the Board School system was 
to supplement but not to supplant the existing educational 
agencies, was not to be fulfilled under the policy of the 
School Board for London ; for on that morning the newly- 
appointed teachers at Albion Street, without scruple, admitted 
on their books any scholars who presented themselves, r^ard- 
less of their being already on the registers of the other schools 
of Rotherhithe. 



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VI] POST-REFORMATION RECTORS 7 1 

The openly expressed desire of the advocates of the School 
Board system was to crush out every other system, and it was 
confidently predicted that the "painless extinction" of the 
National Schools was only a matter of time. 

The few Nonconformist day schools in South London 
were speedily closed or handed over to the School Board, 
and the only voluntary schools left in the field were those of 
the Ghurch of England and those supported by the Roman 
Catholics. 

It will be easily understood from what has just been stated 
how severe was the struggle and how arduous the task of 
maintaining our Rotherhithe schools in the face of competition 
so unfair and under circumstances so adverse. But not a 
. single , Rotherhithe school has ceased to exist ; no single 
transfer was made ; no single body of church managers hauled 
down the flag or spoke of surrender. It was only half-hearted 
churchmen who spoke of the struggle as needless and doomed 
to failure. We used sometimes to be told that there was 
room for both systems to work harmoniously side by side. 
Those who uttered these platitudes shut their eyes to the 
patent fact that one of the two systems was doing all in its 
power to uproot the other. Others discoursed on the merits 
of the ''undenominational teaching" which should satisfy 
everyone, by omitting to teach children any truth that any- 
one had any objection to. 

To-day we are witnessing a renewed eflbrt of the Non- 
conformists to ruin the Church and her schools by destroying 
the London Education Act of 1903, and the local authorities 
created by it, and extinguishing the voluntary school system. 
Their expectations of success are built upon party politics, 
but political parties are apt to make shipwreck when they 
fight against the Church of God, and meanwhile the schools 
are being rapidly brought up to the level of the educational 
requirements of 1904, and we believe they have a grand future 
still before them for the religious and moral training of the 
children of the Church. 

Certainly in Rotherhithe it is the Church Schools which 
find most favour with the parents, who have long since 



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72 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

known who are their truest friends, and we have not given 
up hope that we shall on the whole receive fair play at the 
hands of the London County Council. 

The anxieties of the last thirty-five years are giving way 
before a feeling of faith and confidence, which there is good 
reason to believe is not misplaced or unfounded. 

As time went by, and indeed even before the new church 
and Church Schools of St Barnabas were well out of hand, 
yet another problem had to be met 

The conversion of the market gardens in 1868 into a 
beautiful park with cricket oval and football pitches and a 
lake well-stocked with water-fowl gave a fresh impetus to 
the building operations, which quickly created a new neigh- 
bourhood on the further side of " Southwark Park," and the 
railway companies opened new stations and arranged facilities 
for the occupiers of these new streets to reach the City and 
the Borough for their daily employments. 

But no church had as yet been thought of for these newly- 
created centres of population, and many an anxious hour 
was spent by the rector as he sought how to solve the 
problem, and looked in vain for a few roods of vacant land 
for a site on which to build a church. But an unknown and 
unsuspected friend was even at that very moment watting to 
come to the rescue. One who signed himself in his letters 
to the Church newspapers as "a London Merchant" com- 
municated with the rector of Rotherhithe and told him 
that in his daily joumeyings to London from his home in 
Chislehurst he had noted the rapid growth of humble streets 
overtopped only by laiige public-houses and towering Board 
Schools, and that hb heart was moved with the desire to 
plant a church or churches in this barren wilderness of brick 
which was rapidly swallowing up the country fields. An 
interview with this new-found friend led to the acquisition by 
him of an admirably suitable site in Eugenia Road» on part 
of the old St Helena Gardens, which the Surrey magistrates 
had been obliged to close on account of their demoralizing 
influence on the neighbourhood A clergyman was appointed 
by the Bishop of the diocese to be curate- in-charge of the 



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VI] POST-REFORMATION RECTORS 73 

district, the Rev.T. C. Johnson, who had learned in Gravesend, 
under Canon Scarth, the practical working of a poor district. 
First a commodious Mission Hall was built and rapidly 
crowded with worshippers and catechumens. Next the 
beautiful church of St Kath^trine was erected and conse- 
crated, and constituted a consolidated chapelry August 13, 
1886; and, last of all, a vicarage house was added to com- 
plete the equipment of the new parish, which was also 
endowed by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. 

. The cost of the church was defrayed by a grant of i^iooo 
from the Ten Churches' Fund of the Bishop of Rochester's 
Diocesan Society, and by voluntary contributions, in large 
part raised by the wealthy inhabitants of Chislehurst, who 
from the first adopted this district as their " mission." 

At the same time a corresponding work was being carried 
on by friends connected with Camberwell, particularly by 
Mr Richard Ravenhill and by Mr Livesay, Chairman of 
the South Metropolitan Gas Company, which resulted in 
the erection of St Bartholomew's Church in Barkworth Road, 
and the constitution of a district parish November 17, 1888. 
The devoted clergyman who undertook this district was the 
Rev. Henry Wells, and he sacrificed his life to the work, 
dying prematurely from over-strain. 

Here also the Ten Churches' Fund allocated another grant 
of ;£'iooo, and a commodious vicarage house has likewise 
been provided. Although St Bartholomew's is a Cambem^ell 
church it provides for the outlying part of Rotherhithe, 
which stretches out beyond the Bricklayers' Arms branch 
of the South Eastern Railway. 

Yet another work of church building was undertaken for 
Rotherhithe, this time not by individual churchmen, but by 
one of the colleges in the University of Cambridge. The 
rector was permitted to preach in his old college chapel 
of Clare College, and to hold meetings in college on the 
subject 

Not all at once did the response come to the appeal then 
made, but some twelve months later the Master and Resident 
Fellows of Clare and a large number of the undergraduate 



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74 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

members of the college were moved to pledge themselves to 
support a college mission in Rotherhithe, remembering that 
the college is patron of this l>enefice, and that the needs of 
Rotherhithe have thereby a special claim upon their interest 
and their help. 

The establishment in the year 1885 of the Clare Collie 
Mission in Abbeyfield Road has been an inestimable blessing 
to that district in which its mission church and Sunday 
Schools and other institutions for the religious and moral 
improvement of the people find their sphere of operation. 
And we venture to say that the corresponding blessing which 
re-acts on those in Cambridge who support and take part in 
the mission work here is indeed incalculable, and fills us all 
with deep thankfulness to God. 

St Paul's Chapel-of-ease, which was built during the 
incumbency of the Rev. E. Blick, and consecrated June i, 
1850, is a structure of some architectural merit, but unhappily 
the stone which was employed for the window jambs and 
for the gables and angles of the main building and of the 
porch is of a most perishable kind, and it has in half a century 
become quite impossible to hope to do anything with it short 
of removing it altogether and replacing it with better stones 
or tiles. Moreover the arrangement of the church was ver>' 
defective, the seats being placed so close one to another that 
it was all but impossible to kneel down bet\i'een them. The 
chancel also was somewhat mean, and there was no pro\'ision 
for a choir except on a platform erected on an inclined plane 
at the west end of the church, where a small and very inferior 
organ was set up to take the place of the flute with which 
the parish clerk had been used to lead the singers in earlier 
days. 

After the parish church had been completely renovated 
the rector was able to take St Paul's Chapel in hand, and 
his good friend Mr Butterfield kindly made plans and sped- 
fications for its restoration. It was probably the very last 
work of church renovation on which he was engaged, for he 
soon after gave up the practice of his professkm and his 
lamented death occurred in 1899. The work was carried out 



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St Paul's Chapel-of-Ease, Rotherhithe. lEast End.) 



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VI] POST-REFORMATION RECTORS 75 

in December, 1892, and in the months of January, February, 
March, and April of 1893 by Mr Joseph Norris, builder, of 
Sunningdale, who had so satisfactorily built St Barnabas' 
Church and renovated St Mary's Church, both in 1876 and 
again in 1888. 

The following were the chief alterations made: The 
chancel was lengthened by removing the altar-rails several 
feet west, and the sanctuary space thus enlarged was suitably 
paved and the levels of the altar steps and footpace arranged 
so as to give the required height and dignity. The Ten 
Commandments, Creed, and Lord's Prayer, which had served 
as a mean background to the Communion Table, and were 
painted on a surface of cement, were removed, and a simple 
but dignified reredos took their place. The choir stalls of 
oak and pear wood were set up. The western gallery was 
removed, and the whole floor of the church set out with the 
old benches properly spaced and each provided with a 
kneeling board. The pulpit, which had been approached by 
a staircase from the vestry, was removed several feet west, 
and so the preacher was brought into touch with the congre- 
gation. A good American organ was subscribed for by 
friends and was placed beside the lectern. The lighting and 
heating were entirely new and were found very effective. 

There is a great interest attached to the erection of this 
church. The architect who built it was a Mr Beatson, a 
relative of Mr John Beatson, the shipbreaker, who had ten 
years before broken up the famous "Fighting T^m^raire," and 
of her timbers were made the altar-table, the altar-rails, and 
two handsome altar-chairs. A handsome lectern was also 
later presented to the church by Mr Thomas Collins, foreman 
shipwright of Globe Dock, in memory of a son who was lost 
at sea. This lectern was made by the apprentices in Globe 
Dock, out of old ships' timbers, and is adorned with flowers 
and fruit, well carved in the manner of the old Rotherhithe 
ships' carvers, whose reputation in their craft was so well 
known and so highly valued by ship-builders in the olden 
days of wooden ships. An inscription has been placed on 
each of these pieces of church furniture recording the conse- 



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y6 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

cration to a peaceful and sacred purpose of these relics of 
Nelson and Trafalgar and the stirring days of 1805*. Some 
repairs were effected also to the exterior of the church to 
render the bell turret and the copings of the gables and the 
gable crosses at least secure, but, as has been said, the stone 
itself was past repair. 

On the completion of these works the church was re- 
opened for service on Sunday, May 14, 1893, the preacher at 
the evening service being the Rev, H. P, Gumey, who had so 
often ministered in it a quarter of a century earlier. 

In 1875, after the death of the Rev. John Bowstead, rector 
of St Olave's and rural dean, the Bishop of Winchester, Dr 
Harold E. Browne, appointed Mr Beck to be rural dean of 
Southwark, an office which he held for twelve years. The 
additional labour involved was very considerable, but it was 
an honourable and useful work : and he was glad to be thus 
brought into closer contact with the clergy of this laif[e and 
populous deanery, which at that time included part of 
Lambeth and extended nearly to Westminster Bridge. In 
1887 Mr Beck resigned the rural deanery, and was succeeded 
by the Rev. C. D. Lawrence, M.A., then rector of Bermondsey. 

On August I, 1877, the parishes of East and Mid-Surrey 
and South London were transferred to the diocese of Ro- 
chester, which was reconstituted on the formation of the new 
diocese of St Alban's ; and so Rotherhithe passed from the 
jurisdiction of the bishops of Winchester who had for many 
centuries been its ecclesiastical rulers. 

A new archdeaconry of Southwark was formed at the 
same time, and Dr Cheetham was appointed its first arch- 
deacon. 

Two years later, in 1879, a new archdeaconry of Kingston- 

> An aged woman was livii^ in RotbcfliiUie Street near St Tanl't Cbapel in 
1867 whose age exceeded 100 jears, Eleanor Todman. She more than once 
related to the present writer, when he was visiting her in her dcdtning days, that 
she well remembered the dead bodjr oC Lord Nelson passing her home on the 
banks of the Thames on iu wajr to St Pool's Cathedral to be buried in stau. 

The story of the «« Fighting T^mfoire** tagged to her Ust berth, the ■hipbreaker's 
yard in Rotherhithe Street, will never be foigotten while Englishmen look with 
delight upon Turner's grcnt picture in the National Gallery. See pp. si 1, tii. 



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VI] POST-REFORMATION RECTORS yj 

upon-Thames was constituted, and Canon Bumey, vicar of 
St Mark's, Surbiton, became the first archdeacon of Kingston. 

All of these changes, which so vitally affected the future of 
the southern districts of London, followed on the action taken 
by Bishop Harold Browne who, coming to us when no longer a 
young or vigorous man from the agricultural diocese of Ely, in 
whichliesthe great UniversityofCambridge,found the anxieties 
of South London too great a strain, and in consultation with 
Mr Cubitt of Dorking (now Lord Ashcombe) and Mr Cross 
(Home Secretary, afterwards Lord Cross) rearranged the 
dioceses of Winchester and Rochester. When these new 
ecclesiastical arrangements became known, it must be con- 
fessed that they were not welcomed with any unanimity or 
enthusiasm. Most of us, had we been asked our opinion, 
would have desired a Southwark diocese to be formed, and 
that, after 28 years, has at length been effected. However, 
the appointment of our new Bishop greatly reconciled us to the 
inevitable change. The Bishop of Rochester (Dr Claughton) 
made his choice to become the first Bishop of St Alban's, and 
his home was Danbury Palace in Essex. The new Bishop of 
the reconstituted diocese of Rochester was Dr Anthony 
Wilson Thorold, vicar of St Pancras, Middlesex, and Canon 
of York. No one could have organized the diocese more 
wisely or more skilfully than did Bishop Thorold. His task 
was no easy one. He had to weld together its Kent and 
Surrey fragments into a homogeneous whole. The interests 
of these two distant and divided portions of the diocese were 
widely different, and it was hard indeed so to arrange that 
neither should suffer from being welded with the other. 

Meanwhile South London was adding to its already un- 
wieldy population by vast yearly increases. And yet its 
bishop, longing to give himself to this absorbing charge, 
might not be unmindful of the claims of his cathedral city 
with its garrison and dockyard population. He was also 
unprovided with a house in the diocese: for the sale of 
Winchester House, the town residence of the bishops of 
Winchester in St James' Square, had enabled St Alban's 
(lipcese to be constituted ; and Bishop Thorold had to hire a 



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78 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

house to live in at his own expense, and Selsdon Park in 
the parish of Sanderstead, near Croydon, was the temporary 
abode of the South London Bishop. 

The new diocese made it imperative to create new insti- 
tutions, and the Rochester Diocesan Society and the Rochester 
Diocesan Board of Education were formed to organize the 
Home Mission work and the work of the schools respectively. 

Many other organizations were developed in due course 
under the Bishop's fostering care, e.g. the Deaconesses' Insti- 
tution, the Temperance work, including the Police Courts' 
Missions, the Lay Workers' Association, &c. 

The Diocesan Conference of clergy and laity was set on 
foot to meet yearly at various centres in the diocese. 

Perhaps the most encouraging feature of Bishop Thorold's 
episcopate was the establishment of the College and Public 
Schools' Mission in different parishes of South London. The 
first to be planted here was the Lady Margaret Mission 
in Walworth, in 1884, maintained by St John's College, 
Cambridge. 

The next was the Clare College Mission in Rotherhithe, 
in 1885, and others followed their example, Pembroke, Corpus 
Christi, Caius ; and the magnificent Trinity Collie Mission 
in the parish of St George's, Camberwell, was commenced in 
January, 1886, and has since developed into "the Cambridge 
Settlement" 

The Wilberforce Mission was another institution for the 
benefit of South London, in memory of the great prelate 
whose tragic death touched all hearts in 1873, ^^^ <^^^ o( the 
Wilberforce missionaries worked for several years in this 
parish. 

Of the public schools, Charterhouse and Wellington and 
Cheltenham Collie support missions, and the United Girls' 
Schools have a mission and a settlement in Camberwell 
Truly our South London parishes are being helped in un- 
dreamt-of ways, and have very great cause for gratitude. 

In Rotherhithe for several years i^nother Cambridge 
college, Jesus College, maintained a mission bouse on Rother- 
hithe wall in Christ Church parish, where a member of the 



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Interior of St Mary, Rotherhithe. (Nave.) 



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VI] POST-REFORMATION RECTORS 79 

college, the Rev. C. D. B. Somerville, curate of Christ Church, 
lived and worked for the poor lads of that very forlorn district. 
Other members of Jesus College from time to time joined 
Mr Somerville, and resided in the mission house. 

It has lately been found impossible to maintain this useful 
work, and this part of Rotherhithe suffers from the discon- 
tinuance of the mission which we would thankfully see once 
more taken up. 

In the latter part of the year 1888 a further instalment of 
the scheme of church renovation was carried out in the 
mother church of St Mary, Rotherhithe, and several important 
works which had been left over from 1876 were now taken in 
hand. The two side galleries were entirely removed and only 
the great western gallery remains, extending across the entire 
width of the church. The organ had been considerably 
improved and it still remains in its original position. Usually 
the organs in restored churches have been moved to the 
eastern end of the north aisle in order to be nearer to the 
choir ; but this has almost invariably proved detrimental to 
the architectural character of the church, blocking windows 
and taking up valuable space on the floor which ought to be 
exclusively used for seating the congregation. In our case 
the length of the church is not great and the choir has been 
without difficulty taught to sing independently of the support 
of an organ in immediate proximity to their stalls. 

The great windows, fourteen in number, were found to be 
badly in need of re-glazing, having never been renewed since 
the church was built in 1715. Mr Butterficld designed a 
simple pattern following the h'nes of the iron framework of 
the windows, and this was carried out in bands of rich ruby 
colour on a ground of yellow-^reen cathedral glass. The cost 
of each window (£7) was undertaken by individual friends, 
and the improvement to the general effect was very great, 
harmonizing with the general scheme of colour which 
Mr Butterfield had adopted for the columns and the walls 
and roof of the church. The walls, which had been temporarily 
coloured in distemper, were now painted in oil colour. The 
church had to be closed for some time and was re-opened on 



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8o ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. VI 

3rd March, Quinquagesima Sunday, 1889. The morning 
preacher was the Rev. William Raynes, M.A., Fellow and 
Tutor of Clare CoU^e, Cambridge. The evening sermon 
was preached by the Rev. H. P. Gurney, M. A., Fellow of Clare 
and a former curate of Rotherhithe. 

The Lent of 1889 was marked by a series of sermons 
from friends of the rector, among whom were the Rev. H. H. 
Sclby-Hele, vicar of Holy Trinity, Rotherhithe, the Rev. 
Canon Burrows, of Rochester, the Rev. E. D. Kershaw, 
domestic chaplain to Earl Delawarr, the Rev. H. R. Bailey, 
rector of Great Warley, Essex, and formerly Fellow and Tutor 
of St John's College, Cambridge, and the Rev. Canon Scarth, 
vicar of Bearsted, Kent 

The new year (1890) was also heralded in by sermons 
from the Rev. Dr Atkinson, Master of Clare, and on Jan. 12 
by the Right Rev. Bishop Barry, D.D., co-adjutor bishop of 
the diocese, who subsequently held a confirmation at which 
148 candidates were presented (44 being from St Mary, 
Rotherhithe). The Lenten preachers that year included 
Canon Burrows, B.D,, the Bishop of Colchester (Dr A. 
Blomfield), Dr Cundy, rector of Beeby, Lincolnshire, lately 
rector of St Paul's, Deptford, and Canon Boger. 

All this revival of church life amongst us was the fruit of 
the renewed beauty of the material fabric of the old parish 
church. 

In November of the same year was held the festival service 
of the London Gr^orian Choral Association, to which all 
London is so deeply indebted for the revival in our churches 
of the ancient ritual music, the rich treasures of which had 
been all but unknown even to professed church musidans. 
The preacher on this occasion was the Rev. C C. Buss, 
assistant curate of St Mar]garet*8, Lothbury, and the diurch 
was thronged with persons anxious to hear the united choirs 
at solemn evensong. 



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The Rev. Wm. Hutchinson. M.A., the first Minister of Holy Trinity. 

Rotherhithe. 



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CHAPTER VII. 

THE CURATES AND OTHER CLERGY OF ROTHERHITHE. 

This account of the rectdrs of Rotherhithe would not be 
complete without some record of the good men who* have, 
served as assistant curates of the'parish» atid without whose 
labours the incumbents w6uld have been quite unequal tb 
the demands made upon them in such a poor and populous 
parish.' 

• The work of the incumbents of the several dtstrict 
parishes miist also find place in' this chapter. 

The curates who acted as colleagues to Mr Blick are of 
course unknown except by name to the present writer. Yet 
some of them were men of power and devoted to their 
ministerial duties. 

His first curate was his brother-in-law, the Rev. Wml 
Hutchinson, M.A., of All Souls' College, Oxford, who became 
the first incumbent of Holy Trinity Church from 1836 to 
1850, and who still survives, as rector of Blurton, in StaflTord-* 
shire, and Prebendary of Curborough in Lichfield Cathedral ^ 

The Rev. Philip Davison Bland, M. A., of University 
College, Oxford, was ordained deacon iii 1847 and priest in 
1848 by the Bishop of Winchester for the curacy of Rother-: 
hithe. And it was owing to his earnest! work and liberitl 
contributions of money and :8uccessful efforts in collecting 
Subscriptions from others. that St Paul's Chapel was built 
He was rector of Worsop, Notts, from 1860 to 187a Ht 
became rector of Drayc6tt-le-Moors,' near Stoke-on-Trent, in 
1870, and he ceased to hold that benefice either by resign 
nation or by death in or about 1900. 

> See Appendix. 

B. 6 



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82 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

The Rev. C. Hine of Trinity Collie, Dublin, was much 
esteemed by Mr Bh'ck. The Rev. E. J. Wade also of Trinity 
College, Dublin, was greatly liked as curate. He was after- 
wards curate of St Anne's, Soho. 

The Rev. James Wilson, M.A., of Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge, became curate of Rotherhithe in 185 1, and 
worked with great zeal and earnestness, first as headmaster 
of the Rotherhithe Grammar School and as curate of the 
parish church. In 1859 he was appointed by Mr Blick to 
succeed the Rev. J. R. Turing as minister of Holy Trinity, 
Rotherhithe, and here he was devoted to the work of the 
schools and of the parish for 29 years, till his health and his 
voice completely failed, and he was constrained to resign his 
chaise, to the great regret of his parishioners and friends, 
and was succeeded by the Rev. Henry Home Sclby-Hele, 
who remained vicar of Holy Trinity till in 1900 he exchanged 
benefices with the Rev. W. D. Sweeting, M.A., the rector 
of Maxey, near Peterborough, who was vicar of Holy Trinity 
until Oct 31, 1905 ; being succeeded by the Rev. H. R. P. 
Tringham, M.A. 

Mr Selby-Hele had a valuable experience as a clergyman 
in the United States of America before he came to England. 
He did not survive his induction to the parish of Maxey 
more than a few brief months. He met his death on the 
last day of 1900 under tragic circumstances. He left home 
to ride his bicycle into Peterborough ; he was found lying 
on the ground quite dead beside his machine. 

The Rev. J. T. Becher was a very devoted curate of 
Rotherhithe, and colleague of Mr Wilson for several years In 
the latter part of Mr Slick's life, but he had a sad ending. 
He was appointed to a small living in the country, and had 
just made the heavy payments which a new incumbent has 
to meet on his induction, when he was stricken with mortal 
illness, and died, leaving two little orphan girk quite unpro- 
vided for. They were happily befriended and educated at 
the Cleigy Orphan School. 

The Rev. John Ludford Gardner was curate at the same 
time with Mr Becher about i860. 



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VII] POST-REFORMATION CLERGY 83 

The Rev. Alfred Walne was curate in 1863. 

The Rev. James Moore, M.A., of Worcester College, 
Oxford, was one of Mr Blick's last curates, from June 22, 
1862, till 1867, a most simple-hearted and devoted clei^man, 
loyal to his rector, and beloved in the parish. On him fell 
the burden when the aged rector was stricken down with his 
last illness. The second curate, the Rev. Ambrose Morris, 
though active and enei^etic, and greatly liked by the people, 
was as yet only in deacon's orders, and with little experience 
in the work of a parish. 

Mr Moore manfully bore the burden, and when the 
present rector took charge of the parish in November, 1867, 
he found in James Moore a faithful friend and colleague, and 
was most thankful to retain his services and to profit by his 
intimate knowledge of Rotherhithe and its schools and its 
people. In 1870 Mr Rathbone presented Mr Moore to the 
parish of All Saints, Liverpool, an extremely poor and 
laborious cure, in which he laboured most assiduously with 
hb young wife (Miss Edell Philips, a niece of the Rev. James 
Wilson, vicar of Holy Trinity). But his health was shattered, 
and he was obliged to resign his benefice. A sojourn in 
Norway failed to restore him, and he died, broken down in 
body and in mind, a faithful servant of the Lord. 

The Rev. Ambrose Morris came in deacon's orders, 
November 25, 1866, to Rotherhithe (as curate); he had 
been ordained deacon in the diocese of Manchester by 
Bishop Prince Lee, February 25, 1866, and he was permitted 
to migrate to the diocese of Winchester on account of the 
death of his incumbent He was admitted to the priesthood 
by Bishop Sumner» of Winchester, at the Christmas Ordination 
of 1867, on the title given to him by the new rector, Mr Beck. 
He continued as curate of Rotherhithe until 1871, when he 
became curate of All Souls', Langham Place, St Marylebone. 
From 1872 to 1877 ^ ^^ incumbent of St James', in the 
Island of Guernsey, and from 1877 to 1892 rector of St 
Thomas', Old Chariton, in Kent Since 1892 Mr Morris has 
been vicar of Wythall, near Alvechurch, in the diocese of 
Worcester. 

6—2 



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84 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

There are still many in Rotherhithe who remember with 
gratitude his kind friendship and diligent ministrations. He 
married, the daughter of the Rev. Churchill Julius, who is now 
the Bishop of Christchurch, New Zealand. 

Mr Morris has a son in holy orders, the Rev. Arthur 
Julius Morris. He was a scholar of University Collie, 
Oxford, and after serving the curacy of Helston, in Cornwall 
(1899-1902), and that of St Matthew's, Fulham (1902-1904), 
he is now curate of St John's, Whetstone, in the London 
diocese. 

In February, 1 869, the Rev. Herbert Thomas Maitland,M.A., 
of Worcester College, Oxford, became curate of Rotherhithe. 
He was ordained deacon at the Lent Ordination of 1869 by 
Bishop Claughton, of Rochester, by Letters Dimissory from 
the Bishop of Winchester (Dr Sumner, then in feeble health), 
and received priest's orders on Trinity Sunday, 1870, from 
Bishop Samuel Wilberforce, then Bishop of Winchester in 
succession to Bishop Sumner. Mr Maitland remained in 
Rotherhithe until Easter, 1871, leaving after two years to 
the great r^^t of his rector. He was an exceedingly able, 
earnest, and diligent young clergyman, and gave promise 
even then of the high' position he has since attained. As a 
faithful pastor and preacher his ministrations were greatly 
valued by all who came under his teaching, and his influence 
for good was inestimable in the parish. But his health was 
delicate, and he found the work in Rotherhithe very trying. 

He became in 1871 curate to his friend and future father- 
in-law, the Rev. Canon Scarth, at that time vicar of Holy 
Trinity, Milton, next Gravesend, with whom he remained till 
1874. He then took the curacy of St Mary Stoke, Ipswich, 
of which parish the Rev. Canon Henderson, formerly Precentor 
of Ely Cathedral, was at that time rector. 

In 1877 he became curate of St Martin's with St Paul's, 
Canterbury, where he passed several happy years till 1882, 
gaining experience and ripening in wisdom, and becoming a 
remarkable preacher. I n 1 882 his rector, Mr Strettell, resigned 
his benefice, and the parishioners earnestly desired that Mr 
Maitland might be appointed to succeed, but the Archbishop 



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VII] POST-REFORMATION CLERGY 8$ 

(Dr Tait) had other views, and he gave Mr Maitland the 
living of Postling near Hythe. Postling is a tiny village with 
a very interesting and ancient church, but offering little scope 
for the great gifts of its new rector. 

In 1884 his old rector, Mr Beck, had the opportunity of 
recommending the munificent founder of the beautiful church 
of St Saviour, Walthamstow, to offer him the incumbency 
of that important church and parish. Here Mr Maitland 
remained as vicar till 1900, grappling wisely and manfully 
with the problems of that district of "London over the 
Border.*' A large and devout congregation filled his noble 
parish church, and missionary work of an earnest kind was 
carried on in the rapidly increasing population which came 
out in thousands to inhabit the new streets of working-class 
dwellings which filled the Lea valley. 

Mr Maitland was appointed in 1900 by the Bishop of 
Oxford to the charge of the important parish of Abingdon, 
with its beautiful churches and a population of 6458 souls. 
He is now rural dean of Abingdon, and has a sphere of work 
in which his remarkable gifts find ample scope 

The Rev. Routh Tomlinson, M.A., of Clare Collie, 
Cambridge, was licensed to Rotherhithe by Bishop Wilbcrforce, 
Lady Day, 1871, for the special charge of the new mission 
district of St Barnabas, and it had been intended that he 
should be the first incumbent of the new church when 
completed. Mr Tomlinson's first experience was in the 
diocese and city of Peterborough in 1863 and he was sub- 
sequently at Lutten%*orth. He gave promise of being a 
most successful clergyman in drawing a congregation round 
him out of the new streets which were conventionally assigned 
to St Barnabas'. The church was rapidly approaching com- 
pletion when in February, 1872, Mr Tomlinson was obliged 
to leave the work he had taken up here on being appointed 
by the Oley trustees to the vicarage of Warmfield or Kirk- 
thorpe, near Wakefield in Yorkshire, and the rector had to 
seek for another clergyman for St Barnabas'. 

This was not an easy task. A temporary arrangement 
was made in March, 1872, with the Rev. Herbert Mather, M.A.^ 



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86 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

of Trinity College, Cambridge, who had been a S. P. G. 
missionary in Newfoundland and incumbent of St John's 
Cathedral there ; and Mr Mather took chaise of St Barnabas* 
district to the great advantage of the people. His work was 
of a remarkably powerful character as may be understood 
by his various spheres of ministerial activity in the church 
at a later period of his life. After being rector of All Saints', 
Huntingdon, and provost of Inverness Cathedral, he was 
consecrated to the bishopric of Antigua in 1897 and con- 
tinued in that charge until 1904. He is now coadjutor to the 
Bishop of Hereford. 

Eventually the charge of St Barnabas' district was accepted 
by the Rev. Robert Russell, M.A., of Oriel Collie, Oxford, 
a most excellent parish priest, who devoted the rest of his life 
to the parish which was committed to his trust Robert 
Russell was bom in January, 1841, at Leek in Staffordshire. 
He was of Scotch parentage. He was educated at the 
Kensington Grammar School under Dr W. Haig Brown, 
afterwards headmaster of Charterhouse. From school Mr 
Russell matriculated at Oriel College, Oxford, and took his 
B.A. d^ree in 1863, proceeding M.A. in 1866. 

He was ordained deacon by the Bishop of Batli and Wells 
in 1864 to the curacy of Ilminster in Somerset In 1866 he 
was ordained priest by the Bishop of Peterborough and 
became curate of Kibworth Beauchamp in Leicestershire 
(1866-68). 

From 1868 to 1872 he was curate of St Margaret's, 
Barking, Essex, serving successively under the Rev. H. W. 
jennyOt afterwards bishop of Brechin, and under the Rev. 
Alfred Blomfield, subsequently archdeacon of Essex and 
suffragan bishop of Colchester. It was under these distin- 
guished clergymen that Mr Russell received that training in 
parochial work which fitted him for what was to be his life's 
work in Rotherhithe, where he officiated for the first time in 
the newly consecrated church of St Barnabas on Sunday, 
August II, 1872. 

In 1873 the new parish was constituted by an order of the 
Queen in council, and Mr Russell became the first vicar. 



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VII] POST-REFORMATION CLERGY 87 

In 1874 the "Go(nm Schools'* were built and quickly filled 
with scholars. These schools of St Barnabas' parish were 
for twenty-six years Mr Russell's constant care, and few 
days passed without a visit from the vicar. The religious 
instruction was constantly given by him and he shared the 
toils of the teachers, himself giving lessons to the elder 
children in Latin and French. The annual prize day was 
always a red-letter day, the Gomm prizes and other rewards 
given by kind friends were greatly coveted and earnestly 
competed for; and at these gatherings the vicar, with a face 
radiant with happiness, would make bis yearly speech, full 
of humour and quaint wisdom, to the assembled parents and 
friends of the school. 

A vicarage house was in due course acquired adjoining 
the church, and here bis aged mother made her home with 
her unmarried son. The annual dedication festivals each 
St Barnabas' Day were always the occasion of happy re- 
unions in which the rector took his part 

The beautiful east window was eventually filled with 
painted glass, to Mr Russell's great joy. He would sit in 
the church and contemplate the noble forms of the Saviour 
surrounded by His saints, and his face would beam with 
reverent emotion. 

But the end of his pilgrimage was drawing near. A fatal 
disease attacked him, and all through the year 1900 he was 
becoming more seriously ilL Shortly before Advent he went 
to Bournemouth, but the hopes of his recovery grew sadly 
less and less as the weeks went by. On a Sunday afternoon, 
March 10, 1901, the end .came; and on the Wednesday 
following, March 13, the rector laid his frieiid to rest in the 
new cemetery at Boscombe^ a little company of Rotherhithe 
fnends standing round the grave. R.LP. 

The Rev. Henry Palin Gumcy, B.A^ Felfow of Clare 
College, Cambridge, was licensed to the curacy of Rotherhithe 
by Bishop Wilberforce (Winton) and preached for the first 
time in the parish church on the first Sunday after Trinity, 
1871. And so commenced a ministry which was singularly 
firuitful of good, and which knit him by the bonds of closest 



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88 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

intimacy and affection with the rector and parishioners of 
this parish. 

Mr Gumey was already in deacon's orders, having been 
ordained on his Fellowship title by the Bishop of Ely (Dr 
E. Harold Browne) in his cathedral. 

The circumstances which led him to seek work in Rotherhithe 
were indeed providential. The rector was taking part in the 
annual Collie Commemoration at Clare, when Mr Gumey, 
at that time one of the junior Fellows, offered his services 
as curate. The proposal was immediately accepted with 
gladness and gratitude. 

The charge of St Paul's Chapel district was especially 
assigned to Mr Gumey. He was ordained priest on Trinity 
Sunday, 1872. 

But Mr Guraey's life's work was not to be the care 
of a parish. He was a bom teacher of science, and after 
some years spent in private tuition he was offered in 1894 
the important post of Principal of the Durham University 
Coll^[e of Science at Newcastle-on-Tyne, in which he con- 
tinued till his death* His brilliant services to the collie 
were well known and highly valued there. He graduated 
D.C.L. in the University of Durham. 

In the midst of this absorbing work Dr Gumey was never 
unmindful of his character as a Christian priest He was one 
of the chaplains of the Bishop of Newcastle (Dr Jacob) and 
was always appredated by the congregation of the cathedral 
when he preached there. But the work that most deeply 
interested him was that of the Diocesan Penitentiary at 
Gosforth of which be was warden. Every Sunday moming he 
celebrated the Holy Sacrament for the sisters and penitents, 
and preached to them at evensong* receiving their confessions 
and ministering to them for their spiritual restoration. 

In July of 1904 be went to AroUa for rest, with two of 
his daughters. On the moming of Saturday, August 13, he 
left the hotel early for a climb on La Roussette. He reached 
the highest point on the rocks when one false step caused 
him to slip and fall, and his wife and children were left to 
moum their irreparable loss. His body was laid to rest by 



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VII] POST-REFORMATION CLERGY 89 

Mr Beck in the beautiful churchyard of Ganarew in Here- 
fordshire, within sight of the parish of Whitchurch, whence 
in 1872 he had brought his bride to share his work in 
Rotherhithe. R.I.P. 

The Rev. William Lamprey Bowditch, B.A., of Clare 
Collie, Cambridge, was ordained deacon Sept 24, 1 871, by 
Bishop Wilberforce of Winchester in St Mary's Church, 
Southampton, to the curacy of Rotherhithe, and began his 
ministry here on Michaelmas Day. He was ordained priest 
by Bishop Wilberforce in Dec. 1872. 

Mr Bowditch was a very diligent clergyman and worked 
hard in the schools and in the district. The curates at that 
time lived together in a house taken for them by the rector 
in Princes Street, known as " St Mary's Clergy House." 

Mr Bowditch remained in Rotherhithe until 1875 when 
he accepted a curacy in the London diocese at St Mary 
Magdalene's, Paddington. He eventually undertook mission- 
ary work in South Africa in the diocese of Natal, and was 
subsequently employed in educational work in Melbourne, 
South Australia. 

The Rev. Richard Carolus Stevens of St John's Collie, 
Cambridge, was licensed to the curacy of Rotherhithe by 
Bishop Harold Browne and remained here 1874-75. 

The Rev. William Donne, M.A., of Brasenose Collie, 
Oxford, became curate of Rotherhithe Jan. 20, 1875. Mr 
Donne had been a Hulmeian Exhibitioner of Brasenose 
Collie, Oxford, and was ordained in 1872 by the Bishop 
of Oxford (Dr Mackamess) to the curacy of Summertown, 
Oxford, under the Rev. W. Jones, now Archbishop of Cape- 
town and Metropolitan of South Africa. 

Mr Donne's work in Rotherhithe was much valued, but 
was all too brief, for in 1876 the rector received a communi- 
cation from the headmaster of Winchester College asking 
whether Mr Donne would be a suitable man to be appointed 
to the charge of the Winchester College mission in St 
Michael and All Angels', Bromley-by-Bow, so that we in 
Rotherhithe too soon lost an excellent curate and Bromley 
had Mr Donne for five years, during which he built the 



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go ST MARY, ROTHERHITIIE [CH. 

beautiful church of All Hallows, East India Docks. His 
friend. Bishop Walsham How, who had known him in 
Oswestry from his boyhood, appointed him in 1881 to the 
rectory of Limehouse. From 1886 till 1892 he was vicar 
of Great Yarmouth. In 1892 Bishop Walsham How, who 
had now become the first Bishop of Wakefield, appointed 
Mr Donne to be vicar of the cathedral and city of Wakefield, 
an honorary canon of Wakefield and archdeacon of Hud- 
dersfield. He is likewise an honorary chaplain to the King. 

The Rev. Edmund James Morris, student of the Chichester 
Theological College, was ordained deacon and priest by the 
Bishop of Winchester and licensed to the curacy of Rothcr- 
hithe, where he worked from 1876 till 1879, when he took 
a curacy at St Agnes', Kennington. He is now vicar of 
All Saints', Weston-super-Mare. 

The Rev. John Percival Golding-Bird, M.A., of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, became curate of Rotherhithe in Novem- 
ber, 1875. He had already worked in this parish as Winton 
diocesan home missionary of the Wilberforce Memorial mis- 
sion, the headquarters of which were at that time in a house 
in the Paragon, Old Kent Road. 

Mr Golding-Bird was ordained priest by Bishop Harold 
Browne on Trinity Sunday, 1876, and licensed to this curacy 
June 30, 1876. 

Mr Golding-Bird was the son of an eminent physician in 
London and had great gifts and devoted himself for two 
years to his ministerial duties in Rotherhithe, where he was 
much liked and obtained considerable influence. His theo- 
logical opinions were however even at that time somewhat 
advanced, and after two years, 1 878-80^ at St Thomas', Albany 
Road, Camberwell, and another year at St Mark's, Coburg 
Road, he became a member of the Society of St John the 
Evangelist, Cowley, and eventually was admitted into the 
Church of Rome. 

The Rev. Christopher Tweddle, M.A«, of Clare College, 
Cambridge, became curate of Rotherhithe in 1876. He had 
been a powerful athlete at Cambridge, and first worked in the 
diocese of Peterborough and later in the London diocoie with 



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VII] POST-REFORMATION CLERGY 9I 

the Rev. Field Flowers Goe, rector of St George's, Bloomsbury, 
on whose consecration to the bishopric of Melbourne in 1889 
Mr Tweddle was free to undertake work in Rotherhithe. 

On the death of the Rev. Robert Jones, B.A., vicar of All 
Saints', Rotherhithe, the rector was able to present Mr Tweddle 
to the charge of the vacant benefice and there seemed every 
prospect of his long continuing in that parish where he was 
gfreatly beloved by all. But a fatal disease attacked him and 
he was taken from us, as we think, all too soon. R.I.P. 

The Rev. Thomas Flook, B.A., of Corpus Christi College, 
Cambridge, was curate of Rotherhithe from 1880 till January, 
1883. He was a very diligent clergyman and much liked, 
but his health was far from robust, and it was thought best 
that he should seek work in a less trying parish. Mr Flook 
was for some time curate of one of the churches in Reading 
but he is no longer living. R.I.P. 

Much excellent work was done in Rotheriiithe by the 
Rev. Canon Boger, M.A., formerly Fellow of Exeter College, 
Oxford ; and headmaster of St Saviour's Grammar School, 
Southwark, from 1859 till 1894. A very able and thoughtful 
preacher, his ministrations were much appreciated by the 
congregation of St Paul's district He at first undertook 
temporary Sunday work after Mr Flook's resignation but 
he remained with us for six months. 

The Rev. George Fenton Hamilton of Trinity Collie, 
Dublin, became curate of Rotherhithe Sept lo, 1883. 

He had previously been curate of Fermoy and afterwards 
an incumbent in the diocese of Cork. His work in Rotherhithe 
extended from 1883 to 1891 and he was greatly beloved 
by all His ministrations were principally in St Paurs 
district, but he likewise took charge of the visitation of the 
shipping in the docks and on the river in connection with 
St Andrew's waterside church mission. To the r^^t of 
all Mr Hamilton left Rotherhithe in 1891 to undertake the 
chaplaincy of the Wandsworth and Clapham Union, a work 
involving much heav>' and trying work. In 1904 he was 
obliged to resign this duty, owing to a breakdown in his 
health, and he died on Whitsunday, 1905. R.I.P. 



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92 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

The Rev. Thomas York, B.D., of Queens' College, Cam- 
bridge, was for some years connected with the staff of the 
parish church. He had been appointed to the chaplaincy 
of the Workhouse and the Infirmary of the Guardians of 
St Olave's Union, and came to reside in Rotherhithe. The 
rector was thankful to avail himself of Mr York's services in 
the district attached to St Paul's Chapel, and he devoted much 
of his scanty leisure to visiting in this part of the parish, and 
was responsible for the Sunday Evening Services at St Paul's. 
He died in harness on Oct 3, 1894, and was greatly regretted. 
His daughter is Mrs Richmond Johnston, the wife of the 
former Medical Superintendent of the Rotherhithe Infirmary. 
She was deeply attached to the parish church, and placed in 
it as a memorial of her parents a beautiful copy of Titian's 
great painting of the ** Entombment of Christ," which hangs 
in the Salon Carr^ of the Mus6e du Louvre in Paris. 
' The Rev. Luke Harrison Blakeston, RA., of Clare Collie, 
Cambridge, after working in this parish for some time as a 
layman, was ordained deacon by Dr Tborold, Bishop of 
Rochester, at St John's Church, Caterham, on St Barnabas' 
Day, June 1 1, 1885, and licensed to the curacy of Rotherhithe. 
He was ordained priest in 1886, and remained in this curacy, 
labouring with great zeal and acceptance and success, until 
on the resignation of the Rev. J. Jervis, M.A^ in 1893 he was 
appointed by the rector to the vicarage of All Saints', and 
was there greatly beloved. He left Rotherhithe in 1901, to 
the sincere r^ret of all, in order that he might seek a village 
charge in Yorkshire for the benefit of the health of his wife 
and children who were pining for the fresh breezes of a 
country parish. Mr Blakeston exchanged benefices with the 
Rev. Henry Humphries, vicar of Womersley near Pontefract, 
a parish in the patronage of the Countess of Rosse. 

The Rev. Henry Toke Scudamore, B.A., was licensed to 
the curacy of Rotherhithe Jan. i, 1893, but left after nine 
months to take work in Leytonstone. 

The Rev. Henry Leigh Murray, A.K.C.9 was ordained 
deacon by Dr T. Randall Davidson, Bishop of Rochester, in 
his cathedral on Trinity Sunday, 1893, ^^^ licensed to the 



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VII] POST-REFORMATION CLERGY 93 

curacy of Rotherhithe. Mr Murray was ordained priest in 
1894 and worked very happily and successfully in this parish 
for nearly six years, when he left to become curate of 
Boughton under Blean in the Canterbury diocese. He is 
now vicar of Sheepstor on the borders of Dartmoor, having 
been presented to that parish by Sir Massey Lopes, Bart, 
the patron. 

The Rev. Edgar Percy Higham, Theological Student of 
St Aidan's College, Birkenhead, was ordained deacon to this 
curacy by the Bishop of Rochester (Dr E, S. Talbot) on 
Trinity Sunday, 1899, and priest at the Trinity Ordination 
of the following year, and worked zealously till in 1902 he 
took the curacy of St John the Evangelist, East Dulwich, 
where he has charge of a mission district. 

The Rev. Jacob Everts Reysek Polak, M.A., of the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge, became curate of Rotherhithe in January, 
1902. He is a native of Paramaribo in Dutch Guiana, but 
has long lived in England. He was ordained by the Bishop 
of Ely, Lord Alwyne Compton, to the curacy of the church 
of the Holy Sepulchre, Cambridge. Mr Polak has had 
a varied experience: for six years he was a missionary 
among the Indians of the Ipurina River, a tributary of the 
Amazon, under the South American Missionary Society, 
whose ^missions are widely spread from Tierra del Fuego 
in the extreme south through the vast continent of South 
America. Mr Polak has a remarkable gift for foreign 
languages, and he kindly devotes time to teaching a French 
class in St Mar/s Girls' School. He also visits the shipping 
in the docks and on the river, for which work his experience 
as a saflor has well fitted him. 

The Rev. Henry Evan Brandram Peele, M.A., of Jesus 
College, Cambridge, became curate of Rotherhithe in 1902. 
He had been curate of Bermondsey and migrated with the 
rector (Rev. C. D. Lawrence) to Lowestoft, where he re- 
mained until Canon Lawrence became archdeacon of Suffolk, 
when he offered himself for work in Rotherhithe, with which 
parish be had been long connected, his father having been 
senior partner in the firm of Brandram Brothers & Co. 



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94 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

Mr Peek has devoted himself to the interests of St Paul's 
district of this parish, where he has set on foot various 
institutions for the good of the people. 

Two schemes for the erection of church institutes are now 
in course of being carried out (June, 1905) for the better 
working of the two parts of the parish. The. first is for the 
Clarence Street district, where a plot of surplus ground has 
been acquired from the Lx>ndon County Council where houses 
have been demolished for the approaches to the Rotherhithe 
and Shadwell Tunnel. The building on this site has been 
proceeded with during the present sunimer (1905) in time for 
the winter's campaign. The other institute is needed for 
St Paul's district and in default of aiiy other site it will have 
to be built on part of the church garden. But although the 
site has not to be purchased a large sum will be required for 
the buiMing itself, and contributions are earnestly asked for 
the purpose. 



The Clergy of the District Churches. 

Among the clergy who have been incumbents of the 
district churches the following should be mentioned here. 

Holy Trinity. The Rev. J. R. Turing, M.A., of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, was in charge of Holy Trinity parish for 
eight years, 1851-59, and was much liked by his parishioners. 
In i860 he printed a volume of six sermons preached in 
Trinity Church on various occasions. One of these sermons 
was preached on November 6, 1859, the 21st anniversary of 
the dedication of Trinity Church, which had been consecrated 
on November 6, 1838. 

In 1859 Mr Turing became one of the chaplains of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and was minister of Great St Mary's 
from 1859 to 1864. He afterwards became curate of the 
parish of Tydd St Mary, and was perpetual curate of St 
Andrew's, Watford, from 1870 to 1873. 

All Saints. The Rev. Robert Jones, B. A., of Jesus College, 



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Holy Trii.tty Church. Rotherhithe. 



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VII] POST-REFORMATION CLERGY 95 

Oxford, was for many years incumbent of All Saints'. He 
had been curate of Barmouth in Wales and was an acceptable 
preacher. During his incumbency the parsonage house was 
built He was a highly cultivated man, especially conversant 
with the ancient Welsh literature. He was well known 
throughout the Principality as a Welsh scholar, and the 
Welsh residents in London frequented his church. 

On Mr Jones' death the Rev. Christopher Tweddle, M.A., 
of Clare College, Cambridge, one of the curates of the parish 
church, was appointed vicar of All Saints', but he did not 
long survive. His influence was very great, especially among 
-young men. He was a native of Cumberland, and was buried 
in his own county. R.I.P. 

The Rev. Dr William Delancy West, D.D., was the next 
vicar of All Saints'. He was a native of Rotherhithe, his father 
being a shipbuilder in the neighbourhood. His career was 
a most distinguished one. He was educated at Merchant 
Taylors' School and at St John's College, Oxford, of which 
Society he was a Scholar. He married Isabella, daughter of 
Mr Daniel Roberts, of the firm of Leamonth & Roberts, leather 
manufacturers, of Bermondsey. Mr West was headmaster of 
the Church of England School at Hackney, and while there 
assisted the Rev. H. H. Norris, of the Church of St John of 
Jerusalem, South Hackney. He was then appointed head- 
master of Brentwood School, and eventually headmaster of 
Epsom College for the sons of medical men. 

On the death of Mr Tweddle Dr West was appointed 
vicar of All Saints', but owing to the ill health of Mrs West 
he resigned the charge at the end of a year, to the great 
r^ret of all the parishioners. His eloquent sermons and 
spiritual instructions were highly valued by all who had die 
privilege of profiting by them. 

He was succeeded by the Rev. John Jervis^ M.A., of 
Queens' College, Cambridge, a favourite pupil of Dr West, 
who for several years laboured earnestly and successfully in 
All Saints' parish till 1893. The parish room was built at 
this time, and was used for Sunday Schools, parochial guilds, 
and other objects. 



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96 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

Mr Jervis was eventually appointed by his college to the 
parish of Oakington in Cambridgeshire. 

Christ Church. This church, though b^^n by Mr Blick, 
was completed by the trustees of Miss Hyndman's will, who 
became the patrons of the benefice. The Rev. Frederick Perry 
was for some years incumbent of Christ Church till his appoint- 
ment in 1 86 1 to one of the district churches of St Pancras. 

The Rev. Henry Clark Mitchinson, M. A., of Clare College, 
Cambridge was for many years the vicar of Christ Church, 
and was greatly beloved and respected by a large and 
united congregation, over whom he had great influence. He 
died in 1892, greatly r^^tted. 

Mr Mitchinson was succeeded by the Rev. Samuel Martyn 
Bardsley, M.A., of Christ Church, Oxford, who was quickly 
recognized as a man of power. He devoted much energy to 
the National Schools of Christ Church parish, and obtained 
a valuable site for new buildings in a commanding situation in 
Union Road. A considerable sum of money was raised for 
the purpose of erecting schools for boys and girls on this 
site, and had he remained he would have carried this scheme 
to completion. But he was appointed in 1901 by the Crown 
to the large and important parish of Greenwich, of which he 
is still vicar. 

The Rev. Louis Bredin Delap, M.A., of Pembroke College, 
Cambridge, succeeded Mr Bardsley at Christ Church in 1901 ; 
he had been curate of Penshurst and afterwards of the parish 
church of St James, Paddington, and has thus had great 
experience in parish work. 

St Barnabas. This church in Plough Road has been the 
centre of excellent work since its foundation. The first vicar 
was Mr Russdl, whose devoted labours are still gratefully 
remembered. See p. 86. 

The present vicar is the Rev. Francis Swales, who had 
been curate of St Michael's, Woolwich. He has organized 
the parish with great care and earnest devotion, and has 
devdoped mudi new work. 

The new parish of St Katharine's, Rotherhithe, has been 
the centre of much devoted work. Its first vicar was the 



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VII] POST-REFORMATION CLERGY 97 

Rev. T. C. Johnson, who was the pioneer of all the church 
work in that part of Rotherhithc. 

The present vicar is the Rev. E. M. 0*Hara Lee, who is 
greatly beloved, and has very large Sunday Schools and 
many church guilds and other useful institutions. 

The Clare College Mission in Abbeyfield Road has been 
organized with great care. The first missioner was the 
Rev. A. E. King, M. A., of Clare College, who is now the vicar 
of St Philip's, Sydenham. 

He was followed by the Rev. Andrew Amos, M.A., of 
Clare, who was also greatly beloved by all, and much 
regretted when he was appointed to the rectory of Datch- 
worth in Hertfordshire in the gift of the college. 

The Rev. J. R. Pridic, M.A., was the next Clare missioner, 
and his spiritual ministrations were greatly valued. 

The present missioner is the Rev. J. P. Godwin, M.A., 
who has still further developed the work by the founding of 
the Men's Brotherhood and by the acquisition of large railway 
arches in Raymouth Road. The assistant missioner for some 
years has been the Rev. H. R. P. Tringham, M.A., of Clare, 
who has most ably seconded his chief in all good works. 

Mr Tringham has recently been appointed by the rector 
to the vicarage of Holy Trinity, Rotherhithe. 

It will be seen that the parish of Rotherhithe has been 
mapped out in a very complete manner for church work, 
and a great number of devoted men and women have been 
engaged in various ways in bringing home the power of the 
Gospel to the hearts and lives of the inhabitants. 



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CHAPTER VIII. 

THE PARISH CHURCH PLATE. 

The old parish church possesses a great deal of valuable 
plate, the gift of many good and pious men who have oflered 
of their substance for the divine service of the altar. 

A careful catalogue of these sacred vessels was made in 
1900 under the direction of the Surrey Archaeological Society 
by the Rev. T. S. Cooper of Cbiddingfold near Godalming. 

The following description given by him will be found of 
great value and interest 

ROTHERHITHE. S. MARY THE VIRGIN. 

Siher O//.— Weight, 14 oz. 1 1 dwt Height, 9J in. 

Diam. of bowl, 4 in. ; of foot, 3f in. Depth of bowl, 5 in. 

London hall-marks of 1619: — i. Leopard's head crowned, 
in outline. 2. In a shaped stamp a key between CM*. 
3. Italic small b. 4. Lion passant 

This is a graceful cup of Elisabethan type. It has a narrow, deep, 
straight-sidcd bowl slightly splayed at the lip ; a round knop divides the 
plain stem which has vertical ends ; the upper part of the loot is rounded 
off into a narrow moulded band of raised oval omamenution, and has on 
the edge a variation of the usual egg and tongue moulding. There is a 
single band of arabesques round the bowl with pendent ornament at 
intervals, in the centre of one of which is ** AA Dofi^ 162a'' 

Silver Cup. — Weight and dimensions as above. 

London hall-marks of 1672 : — i. Leopard's head crouTied 

> OUEm^itk PltOi, p. 117. 



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CH. VIIl] THE PARISH CHURCH PLATE 99 

and outlined. 2. In a heart-shaped stamp W N, a pellet 
below. 3. Black letter capital ^. 4. Lion passant 

This is a copy of the older cup. The bowl is inscribed : ** Ex Dono 
Mathaei Crouch hui^ Parochiae Rothonth gen Qui 20° die Augusti 
Anno Doni 1672 et iEtat: sua? 51 Obijt." Above are the donor's arms, on 
a pale, three crosses patt^, within a bordure. Crest, a lamb couchant. 

Silver Pateti, — Weight, 12 oz. 15 dwt. Diam., 6} in. 
Height, 2j in. 

London hall-marks of 1632 : — i. Leopard's head crowned 
and outlined. 2. Indistinct. 3. Italic small p. 4. Lion 
passant 

This is a large paten on a foot In the sunk centre of the plate is 
engraved a seeded rose, with this inscription in pricked lettering encircling 
it : ''The Gift of Aron Woodcock." There is a wreath of laurel leaves 
on the rim, and a band of raised oval ornament, similar to that on the 
foot of the earlier cup, round the stem. 

Silver Pateft.— Weight, 7 oz. 5 dwt Diam., s| in. Height, 
\\ in. 

London hall-marks of 1639 : — i and 4« as above. 2. In a 
round stamp T I between pellets, some object between the 
letters. 3. Court-hand B. 

Plain, raised on low stem and foot 

Silver Paten, — Weight, 7 oz. 5 dwt. Diam., 5} in. Height, 
I A in. 

London hall-marks, arms and inscription as on the cup of 
1672. 

Silver Patett. — ^Weight, 23 oz. 13 dwt Diam., loj in. 
Height, 3^ in. 

London hall-marks of 1715: — i. Britannia. 2. In an 
oval stamp L O, linked letters, the mark of Matthew Loft- 
house'. 3. Court-hand U. 4. Lion's head erased. 

This is a large paten with thick stem. It is intcribedy **S^ Mary 
Rotherith. This, with a smaller talver» was the gift of Cap^ Plaford 
Clarke Anno 1716.'' The donor's arms are in the centre, vit., a bend 
engrailed. There is a wreath on the rim similar to that on the paten of 
1632. 

I OU EngHtk PUlU^ p. 337. 

7—2 



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lOO ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CII. 

Silver Paten. — Weight, 12 oz. Diam., 6\ in. Height, 
2j in. 

London hall-marks of 171 5, as above. 

This is like the other, but not so lai^g^e, with the same arms and 
inscription, except that " larger" is substituted for "smaller." 

Silver Flagon. — Weight stamped on, 55 oz. 4 dwt. 
Only the maker's mark legible, viz., in a plain shield R S, 
a pellet above and below. 

A large tankard-shaped flagon, with flat cover. Inscribed, "The Gift 
of Captaine Thomas Stone ye younger Aug. 9^ 1666,'' which is about the 
date of the flagon. Arms, a two-headed eagle displayed ; crest, the same 
on an £squire|s helmet 

Two silver Covers for the Cups. — 

Inscribed, " Sep^ 12 . 1713." This is about the date of these covers ; 
the hall-marks are too much worn to decipher. 

. Silver Alvis Bason. — Weight, 18 oz. 4 dwt Diam., 10 in. 
London hall-marks of 1703 : — 1 and 4, as on the patens 
of 17 1 5. 2. 38a black letter, an arrow-head below, in a heart- 
shaped stamp. 3. Court-hand H. 

Inscribed, "The Gift of M" Sarah Seaman Widdow of Cap* Robert 
Seaman of the Parish of Rotherhith 1703." 

. T^vo silver Alnis Plates. — Weight stamped on, 21 02. 
4 dwt. and 20 oz. 16 dwt respectively. Diam., io| in. 

London hall-marks of 1745 : — 1. Leopard's head crowned, 
in shaped shield. 2. In a shaped stamp I E, script letters. 
3. Roman small k. 4. Lion passant. 

Inscribed, "the Gift of Cap* Thomas Bayly to the Church of S^ 
Mary Rotherhith, I74S*" 

Siher Salver. — Diam., 11} in. 

Probably foreign, of the early part of the seventeenth 
century. 

This beautiful salver, which was certainly not originally intended lor 
sacred purposes, is ridily and profusely ornamented with repooss^ 
work. The centre of the salver is raised in the tame manner at a rote- 
water bowl ; round this are ttx circukr compartmentt, three of whidi 
are filled in with couchant animals, a ttag, a hare, and a goat, the tett 
with tcroll ornament ; outside and around thit raised portion tt a kind of 



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Silver Alms-dish, of foreign work. 



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VIII] THE PARISH CHURCH PLATE lOI 

cable pattern arranged in spiral lobes. On the rim are the heads of winged 
cherubs and lions' masks alternately spaced, with a scroll ornament in 
which fish appear between. It is altogether a fine piece of plate, but 
somewhat the worse for wear. 

Silver Spoon. — 

Hall-marks illegible, except the maker's, which is E B 
under a crown in a shaped stamp ; the mark of Edward 
Bennett, entered 173 1*. Date about 1740. 

This is a plain rat-tail spoon, with a portion of the bowl perforated. 
On the back of the handle are the initials g^M and the sacred monogram 
with cross and nails in rays. 

BtadUs Staff.— 

The top is silver-gilt, surmounted by the effigy of the Virgin and Holy 
Child, and is dated 1808. 

In use at S. Paul's Chapel-of-Ease is a well-designed 
small silver-gilt Cup, together with two Patens, all modern. 

> Old English Plate, 6th Ed., p. 415. 



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CHAPTER IX. 

THE PARISH REGISTERS. 

The roisters of St Mary, Rotherhithe, date back to 1555 
(i Elizabeth). They are contained in 41 volumes, and have 
been very carefully kept From 1674 to 1854 they have 
been indexed at great cost of time and labour; and the 
indices, which are exce^ingly accurate, greatly facilitate the 
search for entries required by various persons for antiquarian 
or other reasons. 

The earliest volume, 1555-1630, is of a long and narrow 
oblong shape, of vellum leaves : it contains baptisms, mar- 
riages, and burials, written in a clear hand. The opening 
page commences thus: 

Anno 15 33apti;tng9 56 

John HuDte Baptized the first of August 
Joane Hogge Baptized the first of August 
Brian Lack and John Lack the xv^ of October 
Agatha Langley the xviij^ daie of October 
Marmaduke Wrighte the first day of January 
Walter Spuddle the second daie of ffebniary 
Thomas Woodcock the xiij^ daie of ffebniary 
Edward Harding the xvij^ daie of ffebniary 
John Wynkles the xvij** daie of March 
Marmaduke Pynder the xxj"^ daie of March 

The year's baptisms numbered eleven, in ten entries, of 
which 9 were boys and only 2 girls. 

In 1557 there were only nine baptisms. 



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A comer house 



in old Rolherhhh^jg,.^^^^^ Google 



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CH. IX] THE PARISH REGISTERS I03 

15 SSudals 56 

Thomas Lobly Buried the xxx** of July 

Robart Dyet the x** daie of August 

Susan Purser the xv^ of August 

Steven Bray the xvi^ of August 

Martha Dyet the xxiiij^ of August 

Ann Lynge the first of September 

Ales a Nurse childe the ij™* of September 

Margaret Chicket the vij"> of September 

Julian Welden the xj"» of September 

Daniel! Dawe the xij**» of September 

Joan Hogg the vi*** of October 

Edeth Richardson the viij'*' of October 

Jeames Cullam the xvi** of October 

Briand Lack the xviij** of October 

John Lack the xxij'»*' of October 

Jarman Clarke the xxiij*^ of October 

Edeth Hurste the xxv»*» of October 

Katherin Hansom the xxv'** of October 

Grace Harrys the vij*** of November 

Andrew Nelson the first of December 

Margaret Wakefelde the xiij*** of December 

Elizalieth Homer the xvj*"* of December 

Aristotle (fisher the xviij"» of December 

Ales Dudley the xxvij'"' of December 

Elixabeth Moy the viij^ of January 

Margaret Elmer the xxv^ of January 

Thomas Steven the xxviij*'' of flebruary 

John Wrighte the xxi* of flebruary 

Edm*ard Master the xxi"^ of flebruary 
Twenty-nine deaths in the year 1556 as against eleven 
births! 

Joane Hogge had been baptized ist August. 

Brian and John Lack had been baptized the 15th October. 

15 iVlariagrs 55 

Thomas Austen to Joane Smith the vi^ of January 
Robert Symons to Katherin Brookes the iij'' of May 1556 
William Erbikc to Ales Osteme the iiij^ of July 



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I04 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

William Pinder to Joane Richardson the vij'*» of July 
John Klies to Agnes Parker the xxix^ of October 
Markes Symons to Julian Byrne the xvij** of January 
Thomas Harris to Cysile Rutter the xviij^ of January 

Six weddings in the year 1556. 

On the closing pages of this volume are these lines : 

To the Churchwardens 
of Redderith 

I do thinck reson you give y' Clerk for the writing of 
such matters of Christning burial & Mariages as are entered herein 
40 shillings & yf you lack money to fatisfie him I wold have you 
make a siafement for it in such order as you have done for the 
reparation of y' church heretofore 

primo Aprilis 1601 

Thomas Ridley. 

Re'' by me Giles Wrighte Clarke of Redderith of^ 
M' Kellet one of the Churchwardens for the wrighting of 
this Regester Booke according to the appoyntment of the y xl x. 
Ordenary M' Doctor Ridley the some of fibrtie Shillings 
I say rec the sixth day of July 1601 the some of 

By me Giles Wrighte. 

On opposite page : 

1655 63 — 63 

69 30 — 40 



86 33 — a3 




William Baldwin 




Rec^ of Rothreff 




1690 
Wrettemg by his Son W" Baldwin 




1655 
1589 

66 




16SS 
This Book 1655 




ded once belong 69 
too M' 86 






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IX] THE PARISH REGISTERS I05 

Volume II covers the period 1630- 1673, a longer and 
thicker book than the preceding one and the entries are in 
Latin on vellum leaves. 

On the first leaf are these words : 

p. I. Anno 1630 SSaptt^tngs 

John filius Johannis Burre bapt. 5 Decern bris 
Joseph fil. Henrici Bacon bapt. 1 2 Decembris 
Sarah fil. Rogeri Reed bapt. 12 Decembris 
flraunces fil. Johannis Cros6eld bapt. 19 Decembris 
Marie fil. Thomae Burley bapt 19 Decembris 
« « « « 

In 1642, October 16, b^ns a new handwriting. 

In September, 1653, begins a list of births, baptisms 
having become of less account under the Commonwealth. 
The entries are still in Latin, but instead of Baptizings we 
have now : 

Anno: 1653. i5iU\tt%: 

William fil. William et Margaret Greene 

Borne September 29^ 

This continued until once more at the Restoration of the 
King and the return of Church ordinances, we read: 

1660 & 1661 SSapti^tngs 1660 & 1661 

Elizabeth fil. William & Joshuan Cox bapt. Octob. 4 

Still for a considerable number of entries only births are 
recorded ; it would be long before the Sacramental system of 
the Church would prevail over Puritan n^lect 

In 1664 we have another change in the handwriting, a 
veiy clear bold hand 

In 1666 this in turn gives way to another and more 
archaic type. 

The burials follow in due course. 

In October, 1653, an entry is made in these words : 

Surry . Whereas Robert [?] Aoyte [?Coytc] is by y* generall 
Suftadge uf the Pish of Rethriff chosen Register for the said Pish 



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I06 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

in pursuance of a late Act of Parliam^ for marriages, births and 
burialls and hath likewise uken the oath before me directed by the 
said Act... I doe therefore hereby confirme him in the said office of 
Register for the said Pish Witness my hand y** lo*^ of October 1653 

Rob* Houghton one of y* Justices of 
peace for y« said County of Surry. 

In Volume II the marriages 1630-1673 occupy only 
twelve pages. 

Volume III is from 1674 to 1698, comprising 490 mar- 
riages in 19 pages. 

Christnings fol' 20 to 135 (1674 to 1695) and at the end of the 
book 265 — 282 (1695 to 1698) 

Burialls from fol. 136 to 265 (1674 to 1698). 

In Volume IV is contained the period 169I to 172 1. 
The burials are occasionally signed, e.g. 



p. 180 




Ric^ Wright John ffindaU 


p. 181 




John Pierson Curate 
Ric^ Wright John ffindall 


Marriages p. 


30 


John Pierson Curate 
Jos. Gallopp 
RiC* Wright 


Mr Pierson's 
made the entries. 


handwriting is good and clear and he has 



In V^olume V is contained the period 1722 to 1733. 

The signature of John Pierson, curate, is continued on 
each page until June, 1726, after which time the roister is 
signed by Edw. Lovell, D.D., rector, and the entries appear to 
be all in his handuTiting, and they are often very ill^ble, 
whereas the entries up to that date were well and cleariy 
written. There are two intervals, from November, 1730, to 
January, 1 730-1, and from October, 1732, to January, 1732-3, 
during which the entries are clearly written ; but once more 
Dr Lovell's handwriting appears, till June i, 1733, when the 
beautiful writing of M. Audley, curate, first occurs. 

In Volume VI is contained the period from August 1, 



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IX] THE PARISH REGISTERS IO7 

I733> to 1764, A few of the entries in this volume are in Dr 
Loveirs handwriting, but Matthew Audley has written the 
great majority until May, 1741, when the book is signed by 
Thomas Curling, rector. But M. Audley takes up the regis- 
tration again in March, I74i,and continues till the end of the 
volume. 

In July, 1760, the entries of burials begin to record the 
profession of the deceased person, e.g. 

Samuel Farrant Attorney at Law 
and a month later the abode, e.g. 

Mary Thompson Gillam's Court 

Elizabeth George Sailor's Child Two Necked Swan 

William Drover Taylor Boatswain's Call 

John Howton Rose and Rummer 

Francis Hawkins Shipwright's child Behind the Meeting 

In Volume VII are contained the marriages and publica- 
tions of banns for the period 1754- 1765. This book was 
bought of J no. Leapidge, stationer, under the piazzas of the 
Royal Exchange, Cornhill, London. The entries of marriage 
are now more fully made in a set form, e.g. 

Edward Hollinske of this Parisli and Elisabeth Morgan of the 
same Parish were married in this Church by Banns with consent of 
parents this twenty second Day of April in the year one thousand 
seven hundred and fifty four 

by me M. Audley Curate 

Stephen Ogle was parish clerk at this time, and he was 
also master of the charity school. He died in February, 1787. 
The first marriage solemnized by Thos. Negus, rector, was on 
March 12, 1758. 

His own wedding is recorded in this register book, p. 152 : 

Thomas Negus, Doctor in Divinity, of this parish and Sarah 
Margaretta Johnson of St Sepulchre London were married in this 
church by licence this twentieth day of June one thousand seven 
hundred and sixty five 

by me Mark* Sodor and Mann curate pro hac vice 

■ Thb WM Dr Mark llildcsky. BUhop oT .Sodor and Man 1755 to 177a. lie 
•■ooccdcd Bisliop WihoQ. lib great work was that he gave hb Manx people 
ihe whole Bible iranUaled inlu ihetr own language. 



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I08 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

This marriage was solemnized between us, Tho. Negus 

Sarah Margaretta Johnson 
In the presence of Henry Hitchcroft, jun** 
M. Audley 
Tho. Corlett 

In Volume VIII are contained the marriages and publica- 
tions of banns during the period from 1765 to 1785. 

The first entry signed by Thos. Cokayne, rector, was on 
May IS, 1767. 

The marriage of Jesse. Curling B' and Elisabeth Halium 
Sp' both of this parish is recorded on June 16, 1770, the 
witnesses being Sam. Gillam and Henry Curling. 

The marriage of Richard Addams B' of this parish and 
Mary Curling Sp** of Ramsgate in the county of Kent on 
Aug. 12, 1773, is also recorded. 

The last entry in the handwriting of Matthew Audley in 
this volume is on March 28, 1784. He had served as curate 
under four rectors — Dr Lovell, Dr Curling, Dr Negus, and 
Mr Cokayne — from 1733 to 1773, a period of forty years. 
But in the next register book his entries are continued till 
June 27, 1784, under Dr Myddelton, in addition to the four 
rectors above mentioned. He was also Afternoon Lecturer. 

In Volume IX are contained the entries of baptisms and 
burials from 1765 to Dec., 1792. Mr Audley *s entries are 
continued till June, 1784. He had therefore been curate of 
Rotherhithe for over fifty years under five rectors. 

On Oct. 28, 1765, is recorded the burial of Dr Negus: 

Thomas Negus D.D. Parsonage House buried at Lee Kent 
Rector 
1773 Samuel Atkinson Esq. from Croydon 72 
1782 John Bindley Gentleman from Old Gravel lane 46 

1784 Elizabeth Wife of Robert Williams East India Company's 

Surveyor Paradise Row 68 

1785 lliomas Spredbrow son of Thomas & Jane Warren 

Gentleman Paradise Street i 
Anthony Son of Charles \Vhite Penike-maker King Street 
May Turner Wife of John Turner Peruke M' Lower 

Queen Street 39 



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IX] THE PARISH REGISTERS IO9 

1786 William Ayles Son of William Punnett Shipwright near 

Noah*s Ark 

1787 Henry Mills Timber Merchant near the Pageants 72 

On Dec. 29, 1784: 
Prince Lee Boo buried from Capt" Willson's Paradise Row 20 

Several deceased persons are described as Farmers. 

1789 Samuel Short Sexton 80 

1790 Joseph Hall Nightbeadle near Globe Stairs 42 
Mary wife of Robert Chignell Bellman 64 
Edward Bayly Night Beadle Elephant Lane 55 

Clarence Street first mentioned Oct 20, 1790. 
Swan Lane first mentioned June 8, 1791. 

In Volume X are contained the entries of baptisms and 
burials from 1792 to 1 8 10. 

From Sept. 11, 1796, the entries are made and signed by 
Robert Myddelton. D.D., rector; those previously having 
been made and signed by John Sherman, curate. 

Dr Myddelton had for his curate his son John Myddel- 
ton, B.D., who became Registrar. 

Mary Wife of John Clark Packthread-Spinner 

Swan (Lane) 42 
Thomas Best Paradise Street a superannuated 

Master in the Navy 83 

1793 July 13 Samuel Gillam Surgeon near Rotherhithe Stairs 

74 
Adam Place occurs for the first time Jan. 19, 1794. 
Eve Place 9$ n n 

1794 Henry Tillott S. of Hemy TiUoC of the foundry* 

Baker^s Buildings first occurs in May, 1794. 
Adam Street first occurs in August, 1794. 
Neptune Street first occurs November 30^ 1794. 

1795 Jan. 9 Lewis Cenche French Emigrant Paradise Street 26 
Feb. 3 John Gray Surgeon Princes Street 64 

* i.e. the Iron Foondry netr the King and Qvcoi in Rochcrliltht Street, 
afterwmrds owned by Utttn Howmid and Ravenldll. 



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no ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

^796 Feb. 21 Elizabeth Wife of John Lenham Gent Church 
Street 40 
Oct. 9 Robert Jackson De La Cour Mariner Queen 
Street 25 

Deptford Road occurs for the first time Nov. 9, 1796. 

1797 Feb. 12 John Airson Surgeon Paradise Street 33 
May 26 Eliza Townsend D. of James Saward Gentleman 

Princes Street 

1798 May I Eliza Goldsmith D. in Law of ... Roberts Surgeon 

Princes Street 10 
27 Elizabeth D. of Henry Shiers Attorney Adam 
Street 
July 20 EleanorD. of James Grice Anchor Smith Rother- 
hithe St: 
29 John Nowne Sail maker Paradise St: 65 

1799 Aug. 4 Jehoiachin Smith Gentleman Paradise St 64 

19 James Hill Gent: from the Royal Oak Dept- 
ford R* 56 

1800 Jan. 9 Henry S. of Henry Crosby Robe maker Silver St 
Apr. 18 John Davis Gent Vestry Clerk P^uadise Row 

76 
May 22 James S. of Rich"* Garth Mathem* Instru^ Maker 

near Kings Stairs 
June 13 George S. of George Brown Surgeon Princes St i 
Nov. 20 John Kell Surgeon Paradise St [of a brain 

fever] 30 

1 801 Apr. 21 Edward Howe Son of William Gaitskell Surgeon 

Paradise Street 
July 9 John Batow Serv^ to Capt" McDonald Paradise St 

1802 Jan. 16 Caroline D. of Thomas Dunn a Plainer Princes 

Street a 
18 James S. of William Dixon Limner Trinity 
Street 
Mar. 13 Samuel Meeke Esq' from St Pancras Middlesex 

Sept 4 Joseph S. of John Younger Surgeon Lower 
Queen St. 
1^3 Mar. 6 Charies Umfreville Attorney Adam St 76 



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IX] THE PARISH REGISTERS III 

July 19 Alexander S. of Alexander Brown Lieut' of 

Marines Randalls Causeway 
Oct. I John Hancock Gent: Paradise Row 37 

9 Joshua Garrett Attorney Deptford Road 28 

Kenning's Buildings occurs for the first time January 8, 
1804, 

1804 Feb. 9 Peter S. of Peter Murdock Timber measurer 

Deptford Road 2 
June 18 Caleb Pearson Capt** in the Army Neptune St 60 
Aug. 9 Elizabeth Wife of Thomas Wallace Gentleman 

Paradise Row 68 

York Street first occurs Oct. 24, 1804. 

Dec s Rebecca Wife of John Curling Gent Princes St' 

74 
10 Richard David Son of David Blair Gentleman 
Adam Street 

Stringer's Row appears first Jan. 2, 1805. 

1805 May 21 Charles Son of Charles Carter Gentleman Princes 

Street 15 

Cross Street, King Street (or Queen Street), occurs first 
Aug. 25, 1805. 

1806 Jan. 31 Elizabeth D. of Matthew Nottingham Surveyor 

Lucas Street i 

New Street' occurs November 8, 1805. 
Albion Street occurs first March 23, i8od 
Dodd's Place occurs first March 26, 1806. 
'' On the Level ** occurs first April 9, 180& 
Slater's Court, Adam Street, occurs June 1 1, 180& 

July II Ardiibald Smith Gentleman near China Hall 

Deptford Road 80 
Aug. 17 Mary Ann D. of David Beatson Shipbreaker near 

the Canal 
H Elizabeth Agnes D. of David Beatson Shipbreaker 

near the Canal 



* New Sti«et, Adam Street, b now oUled Hatteraidc Street. 



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112 ST MARY, ROTHERITTTHE [CTf. 

Bickley Row first occurs 22 Aug. 1806. 
Prospect Place occurs Apr. 19, 1807. 

Sept. 1 1 Esther D. of William Kemp Gentleman Prospect 
Place I 

1807 July 6 Richard Hawes^ Parish Clerk Church Street 56 
Sept. 2 Elizabeth D. of Arthur Ormsby Gentleman Para- 
dise Row 

The Brickfield occurs Nov. 26, 1807. 

"Police Officers" are mentioned about this time (were 
they river Police?). 

Manor Row, Deptford Road, occurs Jan. 24, 1808, and the 
Miller's name' was Nathaniel Deye Willis, whose burial is 
recorded. 

1808 Feb. 16 Joseph Hayne Esq' Princes Street (Bell away") 66 
Apr. 23 Alfred S. of Jam^ Saward Attorney Princes 

Street 
Oct 21 John Polglass Permit Writer King Street 70 

Surry Place (in Deptford Road) first occurs Nov. 20, 
1808. 

Dec. 14 Charles Rich Esq' from Limehouse 77 

Essex Place near the Horse Ferry first occurs July 7, 
1809. 

Rogues Lane occurs Aug. 25, 1809. 

Dodd's Place first occurs March 14, 18 10. 

China Hall Fields occurs Aug. 27, i8ia 

Orange Place, Deptford Road, occurs Sept 23, 1810. 

Slate Buildings, Adam Street, occurs Dec 22, i8ia 

In Volume XI» though it is of the same large size as its 
predecessor, the entries are only of two years, baptisms and 
burials from January i, 181 1» to Decembo*, 1812. 

The greater part of the book is blank. The reason for 
this was that from this period die Church R^'sters were 
kept in an authorized printed form* 

> Richaid Cooper Moeeedcd him M Parish Ocrk. 

• U. of the Mam^r mmd-MUL 

* U. the Great Bell was to be tolled for bin. 



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IX] THE PARISH REGISTERS II 3 

We meet with a few new street names, e.g. Lower Neptune 
Street, showing that Neptune Street had by this time been 
extendecj. The Seven Islands are now having dwelling- 
houses erected upon them. Riches Place, Deptford Road, 
occurs in June, 181 1. Commercial Dock is mentioned for 
the first time in August, 18 11. John Place, Cow Court, 
occurs in April, 181 2. Adam's Gardens first occurs April 27, 
18 12. Somerset Place first occurs Dec. 3, 181 2. 

181 2 June 13 Withers Kemp S. of Ebenezer Randell Surgeon 
Prince's Street 

In Volume XII are contained the marriages from Feb. 13, 
1804, to Dec 25, 1812. 

The Rev. John Lake, A.M., was curate at this time 
and he was likewise a Surrogate of the Worshipful John 
Sayer, A.M., Commissary in and for the parts of Surrey. 

The Rev. Henry White was the afternoon Lecturer of the 
Parish Church. 

This volume like the last is only half filled with entries. 

With Volume XIII we begin the printed registers issued 
by the King's Printers " in pursuance of the Act of Parlia- 
ment 52 Geo. Ill, Cap. 146" (passed July 28, 1812). 

This volume contains the burials from Jan. 181 3 to 
Dec 31, 1819. Many of the entries state that the officiating 
Ministers were the Rev. Mr Bird, the Rev. Mr Flockton and 
the Rev. Mr Jones, but the Rev. John Lake was still the 
curate. 

On May 19, 181 3, a man was buried from ''Legom 
Alley.'* Baltic Place, Deptford Road, occurs Dec 3» 1813. 

1814 Feb. 16 Elizabeth Daughter of Benjamin Bishop Stone 

Sawyer Manor House Deptford Road 37 
May 33 Sarah Daughter of Frederick Daniell Caulker 
Providence Row near The Albion 

18 1 5 May 30 Lucy Sarah Frances Daughter of John Dudman 

Gent Goldsworthy Terrace 

Harrison's Buildings, Deptford Road, occurs Sept 17, 181 5 
The Deptford Road is gradually being built along. 

B. 8 



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114 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

The rectors death is recorded in 1815 : 
Rev** D' Myddelton Rector died at Gwaynynog on Nov"" 28 
buried at Denbigh. 

Lemon Valley near St Helena occurs first on Dec. 24, 
1816. 

Stroud's Buildings, March 31, 1816. 

Steel's Buildings, Lower York Street, Sept. 15, 18 16. 

Cape of Good Hope, Lower Deptford Road, Sept 15, 
1816. 

The first funeral taken by the Rev. James Speare, the 
new rector, was on Dec 8, 1816. 

Mestaers (or Mastaers, or Maestaer's, or Mestairs) Build- 
ings' occurs for the first time on Dec 20, 1816, when Martha 
Bennett, widow, aged loi, was buried from that Court. 

1817 Jan. 31 Frederick son of Robert John Halbert Attorney 

near Elephant Stairs 14 
Aug. 14 Alfred son of Samuel Travers Secretary to the 

Grand Surrey Canal Company Deptford 
18 19 Jan. I Henry King son of John Fowler I..eather Dresser 

near the Dock House 
Jan. 13 James son of James Bume Gardener Bone*s 

Garden, Level i 
Feb. 21 Hannah Daughter of George Baines Engineer 

Stroud's Cottage Trinity Street 4 

Note. The total of burials recorded for the years 181 3 
to 18 19 inclusive is 237a But there are some blank spaces 
and a number of funerals were brought here from other 
parishes. Reckoning the deaths of resident parishioners as 
2300 we have an average for the five years of 46a The 
population of Rotherhithe at this time was probably about 

12,500. 

Read's Passage, July 8, 1818. Skinner's Rents and 
Bryant's Buildings occur at this time; also The Broadway, 
Cobourg Street, Sept 17, 1819. Callender's Garden, Nov, 14. 
Norfolk Place, Nov. 28. Pitt's Cottage, Dec 19, and Screw 
Post Row, 

* This was the property of Peter BfcftAin, Esq., a ShipbaUder. 



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. H 



« . § 

< S §• 
H £ g 
CO £•£ 

£: II 

X . E 

OS . -55 

a: :^* 

k- *> 2 C 

- ♦* c . 

CO bo « £ 

Ci] C •a ca 

S 5 «I 

< -O -• T) 

I S 2 

h e ;; 

ca c. 
O I 

-- >, . 

O ^ £ 

> ^l 



« 



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IX] THE PARISH REGISTERS 11$ 

But Allard's Hill ceased to appear after August 22, 1817. 
It had for very many years been the home of Shipwrights, 
Mariners, Caulkers and others of like occupation. It prob- 
ably became so dilapidated from age that it had to be pulled 
down. No living person has been able to remember where 
it was. 

In Volume XIV are contained the burials from Jan., 1820, 
to July 30, 1826 (2400 entries). They are chiefly signed by 
the Rev. Mr Lincoln. 

Claremont Row occurs for the first time Aug. 22, 1820, 
but it had been erected 181 8 as appears on a stone tablet 

Oak Place likewise occurs for the first time Sept. 3, 1820. 

Half-penny Hatch occurs Oct 13, 1820. 

George Street occurs first March 30, 1821. 

St Mary's Place occurs first Dec 5, 1821. This is the 
new name given to Spread Eagle Court. 

On March 2, 1822, appears for the first time the hand- 
writing of the Rev. Dr Hardwicke, who became curate of 
Rotherhithe, apparently replacing the Rev. T. A. Lincoln. 
It is not until July 31, 1822, that Dr Hardwicke officiated 
himself ; but he wrote up the entries from March 2 of burials 
which Mr Lincoln had left unregistered. 

Church Passage occurs Nov. 6, 1822. 

Thctford Place Jan. 17, 1823. 

Bond Street May 13, 1824. 

Augusta Place (Deptford Road) June 2, 1824. 

Providence Island Jan. g, 1825. 

Edward's Place(Adam's Gardens) occurs first July 31, 1825. 

East Country Dock Aug. 26, 1825. 

Mary Street Sept 17, 1825. 

Galley Wall Road May 28, 1826. 

Dantzic June 5, 1826. But this does not mean Dantzic 
Wharf. Rolherhithc Street, for the entry is 

Reichard Tiii Schulti (drowned) Dantzk 

In Volume XV are contained the burials from July 30, 
1826, to June i» 1832 (2400- 16 -> 2384 entriesX 

Sarah Cottage occurs Jan. 23, 1827. It is in Swan Lane. 

8 — 2 



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Il6 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

Walker Place occurs March 22, 1827. These are the 
houses in Deptford Road built by Mr Walker, and the first 
burial is that of Mary Walker, spinster, aged 86. 

1828 Feb. 28 Thomas Collins Tunnel man drowned in the 

Tunnel 28 

This was when the water broke in during the construction 
of the Thames Tunnel. 

Mar. 14 Jeptha Cook was also drowned in the Tunnel 28 
May 25 Isabella D' of Richard Wright Surgeon Plat- 
form a 

1829 Apr. 24 Ito Bring Mariner A native of New Zealand 22 

Sedger's Buildings occur Sept 15, 1829. 

In Volume XVI are contained the burials from June 5, 
1832, to Nov. 24, 1837 (2400 entries). 

Mar>' Street occurs first July 29, 1833. 

Trafalgar Place occurs first Dec 3, 1833. 

On April 12, 183s, the first entry is made by the new 
rector, the Rev. Edward Blick, and from that time except 
once Dr Hardwicke ceased to officiate. 

The name of Francis Blick, rector of Walton-on-Trent, 
occurs as officiating on May 27, 1835. 

On Nov. 18, 1836, the Rev. William Pike Hargood 
Hutchinson is acting as assistant curate of Rotherhithe. 

In Volume XVII are contained the burials from Nov. 26, 
1837. to March 3, 1844 (2400 entries). 

In Nov., 1840, are three entries of clergymen officiating at 
burials : the Rev. John Johnstone, Minister of All Saints' ; 
the Rev. J. C. Saunders, Minister of Christ Church ; and the 
Re\'. W. Hutchinson, Minister of Trinity Church ; diese three 
new parishes having been constituted within five yemn. of Mr 
Blick's becoming rector. 

1841 Feb. 18 Martin Hatherly Boatswain of the Dreadnought 

Hotpiul Ship Rotherhithe Street 49 

1842 May 5 William Nowne Sexton Church Street 67 

The Re\% R. Jones, Minister of All Saints', officiated at a 
burial, Nov. 23, 1842. 



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IX] THE PARISH REGISTERS II7 

1842 Dec. 21 William Curling Gent" Hitchin Hertfordshire 81 

William Curling Offg. Min^ 

1843 Mar. 8 John Wing Barmby Son of John, East Cheap City 6 

Clare Hall Cottages first occur Dec. 10, 1843. They were 
built upon the Glebe. 

Midway Place first occurs Jan. 21, 1844, but it must have 
been an old street 

In Volume XVIII are contained the burials from March, 
1844, ^o J^n. 6, 1 85 1 (2400 entries). 

Hambly Place (Deptford Road) first occurs Dec. 9, 1847. 

The Rev. Philip Bland and the Rev. R. G. Foot appear as 
assistant curates on Dec 22, 1847. 

1849 Feb. 10 Elizabeth Ann Wing East Cheap 79 

Aug. 18 Jonas Heydelbach AVharfinger Platfonn Wharf 

Rotherhithe St^ 66 
Sept 15 Everilda Bracken Spinster Rectory Church 

Street 47 

This lady died during the outbreak of cholera, when 363 
deaths occurred from July 1st to Oct 4th. 

1850 Oct II Elizabeth Curling Widow Hitchin Herts 82 

Rev. W. Curling Offg. Minister 

In Volume XIX are contained the burials from Jan. 6, 
1851, to 1855. 

It is an exceptionally large register, with space for 3200 
names, but owing to the closing of the churchyards of the 
metropolis April 30, 1855, only 188 of the 400 pages in the 
volume are filled. 

The curates at this time were the Rev. Charles Clark and 
the Rev. Charles Hind. 

St Paul's Lane and Robinson's Place occur in 1851, the 
former being so named from St Paul's Chapel-of-ease which 
was lately erected, its former name having been Ram Alley. 

Slipper's Place, Swan Island, occurs April 6, 1851. 

The Rev. James Wilson is curate of Rotherhithe Dec 31, 
1 85 1, and the Rev. Mr Turing Minister of Trinity Church» 
April 26, 1852. 

New Commercial Street occurs first Aug. 1 1, 1854. 



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Il8 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

In 1854 the cholera again raged in Rotherhithe ; from 
Aug. 2 till Oct. 29 285 deaths are recorded. 

After the final closing of the church}'ard and burying- 
ground six interments have been made by special permission 
from H. M. Secretary of State. 

On July 2, 1867, Edward Blick, rector of Rotherhithe, 
was interred in a brick grave at the east end of the chancel, 
the officiating clergy being the two curates, James Moore and 
Ambrose Morris, and a former curate, the Rev. James Wilson, 
Incumbent of Holy Trinity, 

The last interment is that of Ralph Walker, aged 84, by 
the present rector on May 25, 1878. 

In Volume XX are contained the baptisms from Jan. i, 
1 81 3, to Sept 28, 1817 (about 2370 entries), in a printed 
book. A few extracts are appended. 

1 81 3 May 17 Ellen daughter of Henry Beeby & Catharine £il- 
beck Commercial £>ock Superintendent 

1817 Mar. 3 Frederick Josiah S. of Josiah Ferdinand & Eliza 

Reddie Clarence St Organist 
July 9 William Kendrew S. of John & Ann Terry Lewth- 
wtitc Prince's Street Schoolmaster 

The Rev. H. G. White, afternoon Lecturer, signs the 
register, July 13, 18 17. 

In Volume XXI arc contained the baptisms from Oct. i, 
i8i7» to Aug. II, 1822 (about 2380 entries). 

1818 Apr. 3 Nathaniel Waters S. of Jacob Waller & Julia Smith 

Paradise Place Purser R. Navy 
June 16 Richard S. of George & May Cariis Near the 

sign of the Jolly Caulker Gold Beater 
Nov. 1 3 PrisdlU Prichard S. of David & Jenny Hilt (? Ilitt) 

Waters Commerdal Docks Accountant 

(became aAcrwards the Superintendent) 

1819 Mar. 34 Prudence Sarah I>. of John ^* Sarah .Allen Lucas 

Street Solidlor 
Apr. 14 Emma D. of William & Ann Robinson Albion St 

Schodmasler Royal Navy 
May 9 John Steward S. of John & Hannah Tabram King 

Street Gentleman 



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IX] THE PARISH REGISTERS II9 

June 4 Marian D. of Richard Lowne & Mary Ann Bay- 
field Lavender Lane Gentleman 
6 Jennet Maria D. of Robert & Maria Cox Lower 
York Street Gentleman 
Aug. 13 Alfred Frederick S. of James & Elizabeth Ann 

Saward Paradise Row Attorney 
Oct 27 Eliza Ubsdell D. of John & Elizabeth George 
Paradise Street Gentleman 
31 Mary D. of Archibald & Mary Johnston Seven 
Islands Gentleman 
Dec 8 Charles Frederick S. of Samuel James & Margaret 
Harriet Tibbs Princes Street Gentleman 
24 Eliza D. of Silas KembalP & Margaret Randall 
Cook Paradise Row Schoolmaster 

1820 May 9 George Dundas S. of the Rev^' Robert & Agnes 

Jones Rectory House D.D, baptized by 
Rev. R. Jones D.D. 

Dr Jones was apparently at the time curate-in-charge, 
occupying the Rectory House in the absence of the Rev. 
J. G. Hcwett the recton 

May 24 Georgianna Maria D. of John Marlett & Jane 
Maria Boddy Trinity Street Gentleman 

Oct. 25 Caroline D. of Henry & Harriott Fraser. Broad- 
way Master in the Royal Navy 

Nov. 5 George Luck S. of Peter William Campbell & 
Mary Ann Harvey Lower Queen Street 
Gentleman 
22 Charlotte Catharine Vaughan D. of Edward 
Vaughan & Charlotte Chowne Paradise 
Street Gentleman 

Dec 7 Edward S. of Edward & Susannah Brewman 
Hawks Rotherhithe Street Ship Builder 
29 Eliza D. of Henry William & Catherine Billinghurst 
Paradise Row Gentleman 

182 1 Mar. 21 Emily Ann D. of James & Elizabeth Fell Paradise 

Street Gentleman 

> Mr Cook was \ugt\y emptoyed by Mr Blick in nuking the indexes to the 
Parish Rtgtsten and in drawiqg up leases of the Glebe land. 



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I20 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

July 6 John* S. of John & Charlotte Hannah Mews 
Rotherhithe Street Ship Wright 

1822 Feb. 27 Henry Mark S. of Joseph & Elizabeth Sampson 

Hanover Street Gentleman (3 children 
christened at the same time) 
Mar. 27 Adolphus Frederick S. of Thomas & Betsey Beech' 
Rotherhithe Street Ship breaker 

In Volume XXII are contained the baptisms from 
Aug. II, 1822, to April 29, 1827 (24CX) entries), which are 
entirely in the handwriting of the Rev. Thos. Hardwicke. 

1823 May 7 Fanny Isabella D. of Thomas John & Elizabeth 

Ley Trinity Street Lieut R.N. 
Aug. 20 John S. of John & Sarah Beatson Rotherhithe St. 
Ship Breaker 

1824 Mar. 21 Emma Jane D. of Robert & Sarah Jane Hall' 

Cross Street Carver 
Apr. 21 Edward George Son of Benjamin & Ann Boynton 
Golds worthy Place Lieut. R.N. 

1825 Bom Sept. 28th 1822 baptized at Bruges Jan. 11, 1824 

Henry James Son of James & Mary Anne 
Stephens British Residents at Bruges French 
Flanders Hotel Keeper William Smyth A.B. 
acting British Chaplain at Bruges 

1826 Mar. 26 Charles Carter Son of Thomas^ & Harriet Stephen- 

son Simson Princes St Gentleman 
Sept. 8 Ellen Carr D. of John & Elizabeth Jackson* 

Paradise Street Surgeon 
Oct 8 Maria D' of Peter & Maria Latreille* Seven 
Islands Letter Carver 

> This was eventually John Mews, Esq., one of the Difedors of the Swicy 
Commercial Dock Co. 

* Mr Beedi was foreman to Mr Bcataon the shipbreaker and suc ceed ed Urn. 

' Robert Hall was the last of the old race of ship carvers of Ratbctlnilie. 
His men Hiram Long and Cnlmoie continned the bittinew in a hamble way. 

* For many jrears a Director of the Surrey Co mm ercial Dock Co. Uvcd 
afterwards at St John's* Deptford, and died there. 

' Mr Jackson and his son after him were medical practitioners in Paradise St. 
for some years and afterwards at the West End of London. 

* The fomUy of LatreiUe were Uk^ connected with Rotherhhbe. Mr Ulyise* 
Latreille was Manager at Mai^les Wharf in Rotherhithe Street 



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IX] THE PARISH REGISTERS 121 

In Volume XXIII are contained the baptisms from 
April 29, 1827, to May 27, 1832 (2400 entries), all in the 
handwriting of Mr Hardwicke. 

1827 May 23 Emily D^ of William & Susannah Barnard Golds- 

worthy Terrace Lieutenant in the Royal 
Navy 

1828 Nov. 14 Thomas Son of Robert & Rose Bateman Bedford 

Row Captain 79th Highland Regiment 

In Volume XXIV are contained the baptisms from 
May 30, 1832, to July 5, 1837 (2400 entries). They are 
entered by Mr Hardwicke until April 10, 1835, when Mr 
Blick became rector, from which time they are almost all in 
his handwriting — occasionally a few appear in other hands. 

1835 Apr. 10 Emma Ann & George John Robert children of 
Francis John & Harriot Hall Episcopal 
Floating Church Officer R.N. James Hough 
Chaplain and John Davis Chaplain 

In and after 1835 we first find Metropolitan policeman 
and police constable. Up to this time they have only been 
called policemen, a description equally applicable to the 
Thames Police. 

In Volume XXV are contained the baptisms from July 5, 
1837, to Sept II, 1844 (2400 entries). On July 14, 1837, 
one baptism was solemnized by Francis Blick, vicar of Tam- 
worth, the rector's father, and in Sept, 1837, several were 
taken by J. W. Lodington, Clare Hall, Cambridge, one of 
the Fellows of the collie, also several by the Rev. Thos. 
Sedger. 

1839 Mar. 17 Martha D. of late John Albiutt & Elizabeth 
WiUans' Paradise St< late Clerk of the 
Works at Paraclise Row Church 

> Thb was a posthttiiiotts child. Mr WUlans met his death by a (all (torn a 
looie plank on the icafrold during the Imilding of Christ Church. His widow 
was appointed a pew-opener when the church was completed. She eventoallj 
became one of Mrs Bayly's PenMoners and died at a very advanced age In 
Neptnne Street. 



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122 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

1840 Jan. 8 James Henry Son of James & Caroline Matilda 

May^ Prince's Street Master Mariner 
June 28 John Son of John & Elizabeth Spnint^ Paradise 
Street Pawnbroker 

1 84 1 Apr. 4 Phoebe Jane D' of George Allen & Elizabeth Jane 

Lulham' Princes Place Mariner 
Sept. 6 Louis Waistell Son of William & Mary Ann Phillips 
Princes Street Master Mariner 
1 2 Squire Bancroft Son of Secundus Bancroft White 
& Julia Butteriield Oak Cottage Merchant 
19 John Robert Son of John & Susan Stranack. 
Claremont Place Master Mariner 

1842 Jan. 28 Louisa Matilda D. of Thomas & Mary Elizabeth 

Morrison Skey^ Princes Street Master 
Mariner 

1843 Mar. 15 Cecilia* Mary d' of Frederic & Mary Elizabeth 

Lonsdale Claremont Place Master Mariner 

In Volume XXVI are contained the baptisms from Sept 13, 

1844, to Oct. 13, 1852 (2400 entries). 

1845 Nov. 2 Antonia Sophia d' of Francesco Michael & Mary 
Sophia Michelli Clare Hall Cottages Inter- 
preter 

1848 Dec. 13 Vincent Thomas* son of Thomas & Emma Eliza- 
beth Murche 49 Albion St. Mariner 

Rev. Charles Clark, curate, Feb. 5, 1851, and Rev. Charles 
Hind, curate, a little later. 

1852 Oct. 4 William son of Charies & Sarah Hind Golds- 
worthy Terrace Curate of Rotherhithe 

* Capuin May lost his life at aea« and no certain tidinfii of the manner of his 
death erer reached his widow, who lived for many years after in Church Street : 
her only child emigrated and his mother never saw him again. 

* Mr Sprunt was the founder of the charity known after his name as *'Sprant's 
Gift." 

' Captain Lulham after becoming a Master Mariner commanded a sailing ship 
and traded to Tasmania. 

* Captain Skey was reUted to the eminent London smgcon Mr Fred. C. Skcy. 

* Mis» Lonsdale afterwards became mistrem of the St Ptal's National School. 

* Mr Vincent T. Marche was afterwaids a pnpfl teacher in Rotherhithe 
Schools and a certificated master. He wrote teveral admirable school books of 
Elcmentaiy fSdence which are nnich used in tchoob and were highly approved by 
the Education Department. 



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IX] THE PARISH REGISTERS 1 23 

In Volume XXVII are contained the baptisms from 
Oct. IS, 1852, to July 21, 1 861 (2400 entries). 
George Toulson Cotham, curate, Jan., 1855-. 

'85 7 Apr. 9 George son of Thomas & Sarah Sedger* New 
Peckham Surrey Clerk in Holy Orders 

Edward John Wade, curate, 9 July, 1857. 

Sept 26 Claude Preedy Fosbrooke son of Robert & Ellen 
Mary Ann White Orchardleigh Villa* Dept- 
ford Lower Road Gentleman 
1859 Nov. 23 William Robert son of William & Charlotte Eliza- 
beth Marillier' 2 Broadway Neptune St 
School Master 

Dec. 25 John Warren son of John & Mary Elizabeth Stubbs^ 
Church Street School Master 

Rev. J. T. Bccher, curate, April 8, i860. 
Rev. J. L, Gardner, curate, May 27, i860. 

i860 Oct 5 Mabel Henrietta Margaret daughter of John 
Ludford & Mary Gardner 3 Surrey Place 
Lower R^ Clerk in Holy Orders 
Nov. 18 Geoige William son of George James & Catherine 
Eve' School House Clarence Street School 
Master 

During many months at this time no entry appears in 
Mr Blick's handwriting — he was probably ill and unable to 
officiate. 

In Volume XXVIII are contained the baptisms from 
July 24, 1861, to Jan. 12, 1868 (1600 entries^ 

1862 Mar. 12 Theodora Susan daughter of John Thomas & 
Maria Becher Rotherhithe Qerk in Holy 
Orders 

* Mr Scdfcr was in i860 living at 3 Hampton Grove, Surbiton, S.W. 

* Tim bonae b nam the pfoperty of the Dock Cumpany and (he residence oC 
the Snperintendent oC the Docks. 

* Martcr fli the Rotherhithe Gramaiar School. 
« Master of the Charity School, Chnrch Street. 

* This nrast have been the reaadence oC the Master of the lUf^gcd School and 
Mr Eve the fir»t Master. His snoccaor was Mr Casseklen. 



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124 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

Rev. James Moore, curate, June 22, 1862. 

1863 Sept. 2 Victoria Sydney d' of Joseph & Phoebe Neatby* 

Dartmouth Terrace Master Mariner 

Rev. Alfred Walne, curate, Oct 4, 1863. 

Oct. 14 Marian daughter of William Matthew & Mary Ann 
Marshall 14 Rotherhithe Wall Collector of 
Taxes 

1864 May 4 Jane Maude d^ of Thomas Spence & Julia Harriet 

Hawks Paradise St^ Captain in the Madras 
Staff Corps 
25 William Henry son of ^Villiam Robert & Harriet 
Fuller 5 Stringers Row Lower Road Mis- 
sionary 

1865 Nov. 30 James John son of James John and Agnes Stokes 

Paradise St Solicitor Edward Blick Rector 

Rev. Ambrose Morris, curate, Dec. 2, 1866. 

1867 Aug. 6 Amelia Eleanor Elizabeth Daughter of Frederick 
Gerard & Elizabeth Brown 47 Prince's St 
Captain in H.M.*s 20th Regiment Fusiliers 
28 Ella Beatrice daughter of Thomas William & Mary 
Ann Casselden The School House Clarence 
St School Master 

Rector Edward Blick departed this life June 25, 1867. 
Edw. Josselyn Beck, rector, Nov., 1867. 

In Volume XXIX are contained the baptisms from 
Jan. 12, 1868, to April 6, 1873 (1600 entries^ A trace of the 
abolition of church rates occurs in the early part of this 
volume in a marginal note. **2% March, 1869. Copies of 
Registers up to this date transmitted to the Bishop of Win- 
chester's Surrey Registry." The churchwardens having no 
longer the means to defray the cost of making copies, the 
practice had to be discontinued. This was certainly a result 
of the abolition of church rates not contemplated, and one 
which might easily prove disadvantageous : for the old custom 

' Captain Ncatby bcqiicathcd /500 to the School oC Industiy in Qarcnce 
Street. 



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IX] THE PARISH REGISTERS 12$ 

had ensured a double record, viz. in the Bishop's Registr>'^ as 
well as in the parish books, corresponding with the duplicates 
kept of marriages at Somerset House as well as in the church 
where the marriage is solemnized. 

On May 31, 1868 (Whitsunday), the new font was dedi- 
cated by the rector as a memorial to the late Mr Blick. Ten 
children were baptized on this occasion, and an adult on 
June 6. 

In Volume XXX are contained the baptisms from 
April 6, 1873, to May 27, 1881 (2400 entries). On April 13, 
1874, 40 children were baptized, and again on Sept. 3 of the 
same year 40 more ; 8, 9, or 10 children were often brought 
to the church every Sunday iii those times. 

Between March 19 and March 21, 1878, nine adults were 
baptized before a confirmation ; and two more adult baptisms 
in April and three in May. 

In Volume XXXI are contained the baptisms from May 27, 
1881, to June 20, 1900 (3200 entries). 

In Volume XXXII are contained the baptisms from 
June 24, 1900, and it is in use at the present time (800 entries). 



There is also a baptismal register in use for baptisms 
solemnized in St Paul's Chapel-of-ease in the parish of St 
Mary. Rotherhithe. This we will call Volume XXXIII. It 
begins on June 2. 1850, the day following the consecration of 
the church, and the first entry is that of Emily, daughter of 
Charles Henry and Susannah Stone, of 24 Mestears Build- 
ings, the ofKciating minister being the Rev. Philip Bland 

It has spaces for 2400 entries, and up to the present time 
there have been 967 baptisms (Aug. 20^ ISK>5)> Very few 
baptisms were solemnized for the first few years, sometimes 
not more than eight or ten in twelve months, the parishioners 
naturally preferring to bring their children to the parish 
church as of old. In the first ten years there had been only 
87 l>aptisms. For the second decade there were only 106 
baptisms. 



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126 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

But in August, 1871, the Rev. H. P. Gurney began his 
work in St Paul's district, and when he left it at the end of 
May, 1874, 152 additional baptisms had been recorded ; on 
one day (May 22, 1873) ^^ '^ss than 51 children were baptized 
by him, and two adults on June i. 

During the third decade 316 baptisms had been recorded, 
but it should be remembered that in 1876 when the old church 
was closed for some months for extensive alterations the 
baptisms had all to be taken to St Paul's Chapel, and this 
accounts for 70 of the above total. 

In the fourth decade the baptisms were only 159; in the 
fifth decade 173. 

During the five years ending May 31, 1905, there have 
been 125 baptisms, the Rev. E. P. Highan having been ex- 
tremely active in searching for unbaptized children and 
adults. 

During the month of February, 1900, no less than 22 were 
baptized, of whom 8 were adults ; and this rate of increase 
has been well maintained up to the present time by the efforts 
of the Rev. H. E. R Peclc. 

It must be noted that the building of so many new 
parish churches in Rotherhithe has in course of years 
necessarily diminished the number of baptisms at the mother 
church. 

The population of the civil parish of Rotherhithe, which 
had risen from 26,000 in 1861 to nearly 4OJOOO in 1901, is no 
test for that of the mother church district* which has greatly 
decreased. When the present rector came in November, 1867, 
the population under his charge was about lo^xxx In 1905 
it is probably under 600a The carelessness of large numbers 
of people in seeking religious oidinanoes for themselves and 
for their children is very much greater than it was 50 years 
aga And the average attendance at divine service as well as 
the average of baptisms, confirmations, and still more of 
attendance at the holy communion, has as a natural conse- 
quence of the general indiflerence to religion at present 
become very much lower than it was in the middle of the 
19th centur}'. 



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IX] THE PARISH REGISTERS 12/ 

In Volume XXXIV are contained the marriages from 
Jan. ID, 1 813, to Feb. 9, 1827 (nearly 900 entries). They are 
in the old printed form sanctioned by Act of Parliament, 
52 George III, Cap. 146, which was in use until the present 
form was adopted. 

John Charles Tarver* Bachelor of the Parish of St Luke Chelsea 

in the County of Middlesex and Mary Cristall Spinster of this Parish 

a Minor were married in this Church by Licence by and with consent 

of Joseph Cristall the natural and lawful Father of the s^ Minor this 

Seventeenth Day of July in the year One thousand eight hundred 

and nineteen 

By me John Lake Curate 

«,, . , • J u * (1^^^ Charles Tarver 

This mamace was solemnized between us ^:: . ^ . . „ 
^ (Mary Cristall 

In the Presence of Elizabeth Cristall Joseph CrisuU 

Adelaide Elizabeth Tarver 

Ann Batten Cristall 

1821 Jan. 18 George Bainbridge and Susan Mews 

1822 June John Beatson and Sarah Anne Punnett both Minors 

with consent of their Fathers David Beatson 
and William Punnett 

In Volume XXXV are contained the marriages from 
Feb. II, 1827, to July 23, 1837 (521 entries); the latter part 
of the book is blank, as the new register forms had to be 
adopted 

April 17, 1834, the marriage of Henry Cristall and Mary 
Ann Dummelow was solemnized. The .register is signed 
by James and Sarah Dummelow and by Joseph and Ellen 
Cristall. 

On Sept 26, 1835, the marriage of George Hanks and 
Mary Ann WoodruflT was solemnized by the Rev. Thomas 
WoodruflT. 

On June 18, 1836, the marriage of John Simson, of St 
Mary Magdalen, Bermondsey, and Mary Ann Hartree was 
solemnized by the Rev. Edward Blick, rector. 

* The Reverend Cftnon Charlet ¥Mi Tarver, M.A.« mni of the above, FeUow 
of King*i College, Cambridge, was Tutor to the Prince of Wales, now King 
Edward VII, Rector of Stisted and afterwards Canon of Chester Cathedral. 



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128 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

On Oct. 31, 1836, the marriage of George Harrison, 
widower, clerk of Langdon Hills, and Emma Joan Brunei, 
spinster, was solemnized by the Rev. E. Blick. The witnesses 
were M* P. Brunei, Charlotte WoUaston, R. Harrison, and 
Sarah Rains. , 

This was plainly a relative of the great engineer of the 
Thames Tunnel. Mr Wollaston was the chairman of the 
shareholders in the Thames Tunnel Company. 

Very many of the parties to be married and their witnesses 
at this time were unable to write their own names. In one 
instance both bridegroom and bride and all three witnesses 
had to make their mark. The rector and sexton were alone 
capable of writing. Verily Mr Blick did well to build schools 
when he came into the parish! 

In 1837 the modern form of marriage rasters came into 
use pursuant to the Act 6 & 7 Gulielmi IV, Cap. 86. 

In Volume XXXVI are contained the marriages from 
July 5, 1837, to Feb. i, 1847 (5^^ entries). There is a blank 
in the line signed by the officiating minister which seems to 
have caused doubt as to the way in which it should be filled 
up, and we find it variously written *" according to the Rites 
and Ceremonies of the Church " or •*of the Church of England " 
or " of the Established Church." Mr Blick usually preferred 
the former designation, but the latter is often employed. 

The ages are sometimes given in j-ears, sometimes the 
words " of full age " or " minor " are entered. Much additional 
information is given in these forms as to rank or profession of 
the bridegroom and the names and occupations of the fathers 
of the contracting parties. 

A few extracts from the marriages are made below. 

1837 Oct. 30 Edmund Hurd of Ashboum [Derbyshire] ion 

of WUliam Hurd Painter and Gikler and 
Therese Cornelia Vanderse}*pen of Rolber- 
hithe daughter of John Vanderseypen Inn- 
keeper. 

The witnesses are Eliza Hurd and James Hurd. 

1838 Nov. 3 Captain James May and Caroline Matilda Naylor 



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IX] THE PARISH REGISTERS 1 29 

1839 Aug. 8 William Christie son of Captain Christie and Eliza- 

beth Kelsey daughter of John Kelsey Builder 

1840 July ^1 Captain John Stranack son of Captain Robert 

Stranack and Susanna Stranack daughter of 
Captain James Stranack 

1 84 1 Feb. 22 William Hutchinson Oliver son of William Sanford 

Oliver Captain R.N. and Rachel Frances 
Hutchinson daughter of Thomas Hutchinson 
Barrister-at-Law 

Louisa Blick is one of those who signs the register as well 
as her brother, Rev. W. P. H. Hutchinson. 

Oct s John La Thangue son of Robert La Thangue 
Master Gunner and Felida Catherine Wood- 
man daughter of W*" Ingle Woodman Lieut^ 
in R.N. 

1842 July 13 John Jethro Sandveell Master of the Workhouse 

and Caroline Harriet Emery Widow Matron 
of the Workhouse daughter of Alexander 
Henry who had been Master of the Work- 
house 

Mr Charles Erwin is one of the witnesses. 

1843 May 29 Nicholas Tyack son of Captain Tyack and Ann 

Stranack daughter of Captain Robert Stranack 

In 1844 William Archer succeeded John Dozell as parish 
clerk. 

1844 July 30 Capuin John Pook son of Henry Pook Com- 

mander in H.M.'s Navy and Susan Maria 

Hartree daughter of W" Hartree Gentleman 
Aug. 1 3 Richard Gaywood Gentleman son of John Gaywood 

Market Gardener and Amelia Taylor Widow 

daughter of James Bone 
Nov. 13 James John Hatherley^ Shipjoiner son of James 

Hatherley Lighterman and Frances Caroline 

Nottingham daughter of Matthew Nottingham 

Surveyor 

* Mr Hatherley became a schoolmaster in the Colonies, and was an eneigetic 
member of the Church in Australia. He returned to England and lived for some 
years agaiii in Rotherhlthe. 

B. 9 

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I30 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

The register is signed among others by Joseph Hanby 
Oliver and his wife Ann Oliver (sister to the bride), by Eliza 
Nottingham, and Charlotte Tucker. 

1847 Jan. 6 John Bing* (Widower) Shipwright son of William 
Bing Farmer and Sarah Ann Akam daughter 
of Edward Akam Cooper 

In Volume XXXVII are contained the marriages from 
Feb. 10, 1847, to Oct 29, 1855 (494 entries). 

In Volume XXXVIII are the marriages from Nov. 4, 
1855, to March i, 1867 (500 entries). 

In Volume XXXIX are the marriages from March 17, 
1867, to Dec 10, 1 88 1 (SCO entries). 

In Volume XL are the marriages from Dec 19, 1881, 
to Oct 26, 1901 (SCO entries). 

In Volume XLl the entries b^in on Nov. 17, 1901, and 
this is the register in present use. 



Memoranda as to Rotherhithe Population^ &c. 

1739. 
In Maitland's Hist, of Lofidon, printed in 1739, it is said 
that there were then 1320 houses in this parish, and only one 
person who kept a coach. 





In 1792. 




Nnmber of bouses 




Number of InbsbiunU 


1600 




9600 circa 



George III. 51. Act, 181 1. Rotherhithe. 

Oocapatioot 
Inhabited Uninhabited AgrictU* Manuiac- Persons 

houses Families Buildings tural tures Male Female Total 

»69S 3530 12 140 3390 5694 6620 1 23 1 4 

^ John Bing was afterwanls the Scripture Reader. 



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IX] THE PARISH REGISTERS 13 1 

In June 1840 the population of Rotherhithe amounted to 
13,917. 

The population of Rotherhithe in. 1556 may be approxi- 
mately inferred from the above statistics. 



Further extracts from the Registers\ Made by the 
Rev. W. D. Sweeting. 

1566 15 Sep. Ann being a Skape* 

1584 22 Jan. Christopher the Irishmans Child that was bom in 
M' Shackletons Bame 

1584 18 Dec Isahak Vanwinghen borne in our towne and bap- 
tized in the Duch Church 

1594 14 Sep. Saray the supposed Child of Philip Mason being a 
Skape 

1613 22 Mar. Alice y^ supposed daughter of Thomas West bap: 
aa"* of Marche borne out of y* Pishe : by a 
servaunte (of Rowland Swynzfeilds a fishmonger) 
named Elizabeth 

[The above from Baptisms : the rest from Burials.] 



ISS7 


2 Nov. 


A Stranger 




10 Nov. 


Mother Willowes 


1558 


7 Dec 


John the Tynkarpman 


1563 


9 May 


John A marrener that was drowned out of a shipp 
oftheWestCountery 




24 Aug. 


Goodwife Andrewes 


1563 


30 Sep. 


John the Welshe boye 




6 Jan. 


Johon A scotish man 


1565 


13 Oct 


John Wrighte howseholder 


1566 


aS Jooe 


John baptist Tuck 




a3Dcc 


Richard Stevenson out of the John of Newcastle 



* The day of the month is put at the hcgiimiiig of each extract, and u omitted 
from the extiact itwlf. In the Baptisms, after 1600 the Other's name is some- 
times given, and alter 1603 always. In the Burials a woman is often entered as 
'* A wile," b«t hasband*s name not given. 

* A Scape, or Skape, is an illegitimate child. It occurs six or eight times. 
I do not 6nd the word in any dictiooary. It occurs in this sense in Winitf^t 
Tmk^ iii. 3; when the old shepherd finds the child, he says, " Sore, some scape." 
W. D.S. 

9—2 

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132 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

Peeter Becket a french boy 

Archer a Skotishman 

Isahac Breball a Childe of a french ma 

Richard M' Lee his servant 

Richard out of Rowlands howse 

Andrew a sayler 

Frauncis Chidley (a woman) 

Richard a scape out of Garrats hale [or perhaps 

hall] 
William Thomas and Tower [or perhaps Turner] 

who suffered ' at Wapping 
John Bonam out of the Hounde of Lee 
John Clark dwelling in Hackney 
Thomas Hart out of the Sallomon of Alberowe' 
Thomas Dockson a newcastleman out of the 

Nyghtingall of Newcastle 
John Sewell out of the Providence of Alberow 
William Barnes sailer buried out of the Richard 

and Jayne of London 
A man murthered in the (Teelde 
Rowland Peirson drowned out of persons whery' 
Edward Hedley out of the Roger and Katherin of 

Newcastle 
Honour an Irishwoman buried out of W Shakle- 

tons Bame 
Jeffery Walsh sailer out of the Barke Pamell of 

Bricklesea* 
Jeames Spill Tymber an infant 
William Boaner sailer out of the Mary Ann of Lee 
Robert Danse drowned 

[From a later volume.] 

1784 29 Dec. Prince Lee Boo buried from Capt" Willson's 
Paradise Row [aged] 30 

' No dovbl, ttiflered death a were execnted. 
s am this be AMborough, in Suflblk ? 
• Peinon't Wherry. 

« It looks odd to see the date 19 Feb. in the year 1583. But, of conise, the 
historical year (i*e. the actual date) was 1584, which was a Leap-year. 
^ Bricklesea is probably Brightlingsea. 



1570 


27 July 




19 Aug. 




13 Oct.. 


1572 


24 Jan. 


IS73 


3 Feb. 




15 Mar. 


IS74 


27 Oct. 


1576 


31 May 


1577 


21 Mar. 


1578 


IS Oct. 




21 Oct 


1579 


28 Feb. 


1580 


IS Aug. 




22 Aug. 




7 Nov. 


1581 


26 Oct 


1582 


S Aug. 


1583 


22 Sep. 




29 Feb.* 


1584 


2S Nov. 




9 Dec 


1585 


12 June 




11 Nov. 



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IX] THE PARISH REGISTERS 1 33 

[Some unusual surnames, with dates at which first noted.] 

Aguillam, 1592: Alfo (Alpho), 1615: Calicow (burial), 
1585: Canada (Kennyda), 1621 : Covet (Covert), 1594: Dela- 
bolia, 1589: Gallapyne (Gallopin), 1573: Goverthwortes, 1574: 
Haiyyounge, 1587: Jarmanbrian (burial), 1573: Levite, 1619: 
Merimontb, 1630: Muxfoote, 1597: Netherstreete, 1559: 
Oderian, 1614: Ott, frequent: Piggret, 1568: Porige, 1576: 
Qunidey, 1627 : Sallowe, frequent: Swinckfeilde, 161 7: Swyer, 
161 1 (and earlier): Yaxno (burials), 1558. 

[Some unusual male Christian names.] 

Adrian, 1603 : Aristode, 1556 : Augusdne, 1607 : Bryan, 
frequent: Coroellis, 1593: Dominick, 1593: Eleazar, 1609: 
Erastus, 1590: Ignacious, 1595: Jerom, 1587: Lancelot, 1630: 
Marmaduke, 1557: Theodonis, 1590: Tramer, 1591 : Valen- 
tine, 1607. 

[Some unusual female Christian names.] 

Avice, 160X : Douglas, 1609: Em, 1595: Gartnide\ 1612: 
Jacoroin, 1610: Josen, 1618: Lucretia, 1607: Mowdlin, 1605: 
Patient, 1590: Phedra, 1615: Prudence, frequent: Rosana, 
1587 : Sibill, 1613 : Thomasine, frequent : Ursula, 1607. 

^ I have frequently xen this name so spelt in old Registers. It shows that 
when the name Gertrude was first introduced into England it was pronounced 
Gaitrude (like Hertfoid, Bertie. Derby, &c., &c.). W. D. .S. 



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CHAPTER X. 

THE PARISH CHURCH, ITS MONUMENTS AND 
INSCRIPTIONS. 

This appears to be the most suitable place in which to 
record the history of the parish, as set forth in the monu- 
ments which adorn the church walls. Some few of these were 
originally in the mediaeval church. A singularly fine sculpture 
of a man-of-war of the olden time is now built into the western 
wall of the north aisle, outside the church, near the tower. It 
had been carelessly mutilated by the iron railing round a 
modern tomb, which had been driven through the inscription, 
but this wanton act of vandalism has been remedied and the 
defaced letters have been restored. The inscription reads 
thus : — 

1627. 

Here beneath lyeth interred the body of Captaine Anthony 
Wood, who departed this life the 24 of August, 1625, being 
the 40 yeere of his age, and had issue by his wife Martha 
Wood six sonnes and foure daughters. 

The description of this monument given in Stowe's London^ 
p. 806, states that ''on the outside of the north wall is a 
monument, bearing the figure of a ship at sea ; under it the 
portraiture of him for whom it was erected, with his wife, six 
sons, and foure daughters ; the living and the dead distin- 
guished by death's-heads, which the buried seeme to bear in 
their hands...." 

No trace of this " portraiture" is to be found at the present 
day. 

Another stone on the external wall of the north aisle is 
inscribed as follows: — 



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ch. x] monuments and inscriptions 1^$ 

Here lieth Interred in this Valt the Body of 
Cap^ Thomas Stone Ivnior of this Parrish. Hee de- 
parted THIS LIFE THE NINTH OF AVGVST l666 & HAD TO 

WIFE Agnes w<^ serviveth 

To you y* Liue Possest Great Troubles do befall 
Where we y* Sleepe by Death doe fecle no harme at all 
An honnest Life doth bring a Joyfull Death at Last 
And Life a gaine begins when Death is over past 
Death is the path to Life & way to Endlesse wealth 
The dore where by we pass to Everlastin Health 
These Fortie yeares & two have passed here my life 
And Eighteene yeares thereof thou Agnes wert my wife 
My loving Wife Farewell God guide the with his grace 
Prepare thy selfe to come & i will give the place 
Aequintance all Farewell & be assured of this 
You shall be brought to dust as Thomas Stone here is 

Stowe says (p. 806) : — 

" In the church at Roderith are these ensuing monuments. 
"In the south ile, on the wall, is this written on a slab 
which is surrounded by an alabaster frame: — 

Post tenebras, spero Luccm. 

Next without this wall are buried Brian, Richard and Marke, 
Alize and Elizabeth, the three sons and two daughters of 
Nicholas Reynolds, citizen and goldsmith of London, and of 
Elizabeth his wife. The forenamed Elizabeth, their younger 
daughter, was married to Robert Wheatley, salter, the 20 day 
of August, 1 593, and died the 18 September, in the sameyeere. 

These Blossomes yong and tender, loe, 

Blowne downe by deadly wind, 
May ai|;e the riper tort to know, 

like blast shall them out find. 
For Flesh, as grasse, away doth wither, 

No age can it eschew, 
The young and old decay together, 

When death shall them pursue. 

On a small black marble slab on the wall of the north 
aisle is the foUoi^'ing inscription to a worthy Royalist, Captain 
Roger Tweedy : — 



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136 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

Roger Tweedy Esq*. 

Was Intered in y« Middle He of this Church in y« 

Year 1655. He Gave by will Two Shillings Every Lords Day 

for ever to bee Distribvted among Twelve Poore 

Seamen or Seamens Widdows in Bread the Officers 

of this Chvrch to take care to Distribvte it and 

those nearest of Kinn to him Enqvire of its 

Disposal and if not performed as by His Will to 

Take it into their hands 

In Comemoration of Cap' Roger Tweedy 

who Liveing 

was landmens Counceller Seamens glory 

Schismes Scourge & truths liveing Story 
His soule A ship with Graces fully laded 

through Surges deepe did plow & Safely waded 
which principles of faith his Ballanc'd mind 

did Steady Sayle gainst Blasts of Boystrous wind 
of doctrine falce w^ furiously did Blow 

like Rowling waues to toss him to & fro 
This Sayling Ship did precious wares Distribute 

in euery port as the acknowledg'd trybute 
of Christ his King Loues Crane did weigh 

the Councell Contribution he did pay. 
Att Rotherheath hee did att length Arriue 
and to their poore his tribute fully giue 
And in this port he doth at anchor stay 
hopefully expecting Resurrections day. 



One other relic of the ancient Church hangs upon the 
East Wall of the North Aisle, near the door of the Clergy 
Vestiy. It is a fine copy — perhaps a unique copy— of ** the 
Portraicture of His Most Sacred Majesty King Charles the 
First commonly known as the Eikon Basilike.** This precious 
possession of our Parish was, in all probability, given to the 
Church in or soon after the year of the Restoration, i66a 
Other Churches in England had similar portraits of the 
Martyred King Charles placed upon their walls at this period. 
But not many remain to the present day. There is one still 
existing in Charles' Church, Plymouth, and another in 
St Michael's Church, Cambridge. Probably there are others 



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X] MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS 1 37 

in existence. But the Cambridge picture is a portrait without 
any accompanying emblems. The Rothefhithe picture is 
an exact reproduction in oil-colours of the frontispiece of the 
well-known book entitled Eikon Basilike, and some account 
of the symbolism with which it is adorned may well be given 
in the Appendix. 

There is another picture of modem date which hangs on 
the East Wall of the South Aisle and which is the gift of 
Mrs Richmond Johnson in memory of her parents, the 
Reverend Thomas York, B.D., and Mrs York, late of Rother- 
hithe. 

The subject of the picture is "the Entombment of our 
Saviour/' and it is a most appropriate adornment for a Parish 
Church where so many mourners bring their dead for the last 
Offices of the Church. 

The original of this great picture hangs in the '* Salon 
Carri" of the Mus^ of the Louvre in Paris. It is the 
masterpiece of Titian, and is indeed one of the most beautiful 
of the great religious pictures which have come down to us 
from the old masters of painting. 

This copy of the famous picture was made by an English 
artist of great eminence, Mr J. Hardwicke Lewis. The 
grouping of the figures is most beautifully arranged; the 
three men who are carrying the lifeless body of the Ix>rd are 
Nicodemus, Joseph of Arimathaea, and St John. The Blessed 
Virgin Mary stands at the left hand of the group, supported 
by St Mary Magdalene. The last streaks of daylight are 
seen through the gathering shades of night. 

The inscription on the frame below the picture is as 
follows : — 

*'Id the place where He was crucified there was a Garden, and 
in the Garden a new Sepulchre : there laid they Jesus.** 

St John xix. 41, 42. 

To the Glory of God and in memory of her parents the Reverend 
Thomas York, B.D. who departed this life October 3rd 1894 and 
Emma his wife who departed this life November 1st 1890 this 
painting is placed in the Church of St Mary Rotherhithe by their 
daughter. 1897. 



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138 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

The history of this great work of Titian is not a little 
curious. It once, hung in the Palace of Whitehall, being the 
property of King Charles the First, who was a great collector 
of works of art. After his execution, the Parliament appears 
to have been unable to find any further use for his pictures 
and they were to be sold. The French king Louis the 
Fourteenth knew the value of the work and sent a Jew dealer 
to England to buy it for him ; and so it passed from White- 
hall to the Palace of the Louvre, where it has a place of 
honour in the Central Room among the masterpieces of the 
world — and now in Rotherhithe Church King Charles* portrait 
hangs on one side of the Chancel, and is much prized ; and the 
'^Depostjsione!' which once was the king's, hangs on the other side. 

Above the door of the Clergy Vestry is an ornamental 
slab of oak of oval form, encircling the sacred Monogram in 
the form in which it is used by the Jesuits. 

It should be recorded for the information of those who 
are interested in the history of our Parish Church that this 
oval slab was originally part of the oaken Reredos which was 
finished above the architrave with an entablature. When 
the Choir was formed in 1876 and the level of the Sanctuary 
raised by several steps, it was necessary to remove the 
entablature to prevent the Painted Glass Window above it 
from being hidden, but the Monogram was carefully preserved 
and placed on the wall of the Church above the entrance to 
the Vestry. 

INSCRIPTIONS ON MONUMENTAL SLABS. 

Sacred to the memory of 

Ann Davies 

The beloved Wife of James Davies 

Daughter of James Ford Com Merchant 

of this Parish. 

WTio died a** December 1852 of Yellow Fever 

At Bahia, in South America 

aged 32 years. 
Much beloved and respected 

This Tablet was erected 
By her affectionate Husband. 



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X] MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS 1 39 

In the Vault under this Church are deposited 

the remains of M" Martha Davis 

The beloved Wife of M' John Davis 

of the Black Bull in the Borough of Southwark 

Who with eight children are left to lament 

the severe loss of an affectionate Wife. 

A tender and indulgent Mother, she died 

the 31" day of July, 1797, in the 37*** year of her age. 

"Be ye also ready, for in such an hour 
as ye think not, Christ cometh." 



In the adjacent churchyard Ues the body of 

Prince Lee Boo 

Son of Abba Thulle, Rupack or King of the Island 

of Coo-roo-raa, one of the Pelew or Palos Islands. 

Who departed this life at the house of 

Captain Henry Wilson in Paradise Row in this Parish 

on the 2j^ day of December 1784 aged 20 years. 

This Tablet is erected 

by the Secretary of State for India in Council 

to keep alive the memory of the humane treatment 

shown by the natives to the crew of the Honourable 

East India Company's Ship "Antelope" which was wrecked 

oflf the Island of Coo-roo-raa on the 9^ of August 1783. 

*'The barbarous people showed us no little kindness." Actsxxvui. 2. 

1892. 



Sacred 

10 the neoiory of the late 

WtlUaro Coleman 

Citixen and Glover 

who departed this life 

May the 26*^ 1820 

in the 63^ year of 

his age. 



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I40 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

In memory of 

Mr' Martha Elizabeth Barmby 

wife of M' John Barmby 

who died 5*** September 1837 aged 32 years. 

Also John Wing Barmby 

only child of the above 

who died 27^ February 1843 

aged 5 years and 8 months. 

Also the above named 

M' John Barmby 

who died 3"* January 1887 

aged 91 years. 



To the memory of 

M' Thomas Stokes 

of this Parish 

who departed this life 3*^ April, 1856 

aged 54 years. 

This tablet is erected by 

several of his 

fellow parishioners and friends 

in remembrance of his many 

estimable qualities and acts of kindness 

and utility 

in public as in private life. 



In memory of the late united family 

of William and Elizabeth Soper of this Parish 

Whose remains are deposited in a vault beneath. 

Jane Died August 1828 aged 28 years 

Harriet Hamlyn • Died October 1828 aged 24 years 
Elizabeth relict of John Horsfoid Head 

""Died June 1833 aged 44 years 

Maria Died Mardi 1834 aged 39 years 

Henrietta daughter of John Horsford and Elizabeth 

Head • • • • Died June 1820 aged 11 months 
Beojanun Watu son of Benjamin and Hester Soper 
Died August 1828 aged i month 



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Presentation Portrait of William Soper. Esq.. Treasurer of 
the Parish of Rotherhithe, A.D. 1835. 



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Xj MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS I4I 

Benjamin. • . . Died September 1831 aged 3 months 
Hester Eliza . . Died September 1832 aged 7 years 

Eliza Died May 1834 aged 11 months 

Also William son of William and Elizabeth Soper 

Died in Grenada 28th July 1805 aged 13 years. 

Also John Horsford Head died in S' Lucia 

i2**» June 1829 aged 44 years. 

Also the above named William Soper 

Many years Treasurer of this Parish. 

Which office he fill'd to the entire 

satisfaction of the Parishioners. 

Who to evince their high respects 

and esteem for his services presented 

him with his portrait and a silver vase. 

He died November the 7^ 1839 aged 84 years. 

Also Elizabeth his wife 

Died November the 10*** 1839 aged 79 years. 

The memory of the just is blessed. 

Also George Francis Soper 

Died September the 21*^ 1840 aged 39 years. 

Also Hester died January 13th 1841 aged 19 months. 

Also Benjamin Soper 

Died April 21*^ 1841 aged 44 years. 



Sacred 

To the memory of M' Joseph Wade 

For many years King's-Carver 

in His Majesty's yards 

At Deptford and Wodwich. 

In which Profession he was equalled by few 

and exceeded by none. 

He married Christian daughter 

of M' Tho* Stephenson 

of East Greenwich, Surgeon 

by whom he had issue 

lane, who married Nic* Jackson 

of Shropshire, Gent: 

She died Ian: 29*'' 1737, aged 44. 



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142 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

loseph, who died luly '2^ 1740 

Aged 43 

and Samuel who erected 

This Monument 

In testimony of his virtues 

Which made him belov'd in life 

and lamented at his death 

by all that knew him. 

He died Nov' 22** 1743 

Aged 79. 

He had three children more 

Who all died in their infancy. 



In memory of 

M' WiUiam Roberts 

Merchant 

Many years a respected 

Inhabitant of this Parish 

Who departed this life 

December the 12^ 1815 

Aged 59 years. 

Also of 

M** Ann Roberts 

Widow of the above 

Who died March the 2S^ 1848 

in the 76th year 

of her age. 



This Tablet 

Was erected by the workmen 

And late apprentices of 

M' Edward Hawks 

For many years an extensive 

Ship builder in this Parish 

As a Testimonial 

Of grateful remembrance 

For his kindness and urbanity 

of manners 

Who died July 2$^ 1844 

Aged 66 years. 



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X] MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS I43 

Sacred 

to the memory of 

Geoiige Bainbridge 

who was a native of the County of 

Cumberland 

and for many years a respected inhabitant 

of this Parish 

where he died lamented 

the 3rd of January 1848 aged 62 years. 

Also to the Memory of his Two Daughters 

Margaret 

Bom November 30th 1822 Died December 4th 1822. 

Susannah 

Bom May i6th 1826 Died May 22nd 1826. 

Also to the Memory of 

William Bainbridge 

nephew to the above. He Died Febmary 17^ 1844 

aged 24 years. 

Their remains are deposited in 
the vault beneath this church. 



Everilda Bracken 

of Sutton Coldfield 

second daughter of Richard and Anne Bracken 

of a family of that name formerly settled 

at Goodham Scales Westmoreland 

Died in Christian faith and hope 

while on a visit 

at the Rectory of this Parish, assisting to 

relieve the sufferers from the cholera 

Sept la*^, 1849, aged 47. 

Her body is buried in a vault under the Chancel. 



Thb tablet is erected in memory of 

Mr Robert Speck 

whose remains are interred in the vault 

beneath this Church and who departed this life 

on the $0^ of May 1839 aged 44 years. 



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144 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

Also to M"* Ann Leggett 

who died on the 22"** of January 1840 

in the S$^ year of her age 

and of M" Sarah Speck, relict of the above 

who died on the 21** of January 1859 

in the 76*^ year of her age 
and is interred at Nunhead cemetery. 



Sacred 

to the memory of 

Harriet Stephenson Simson 

late wife of 

Thomas Simson 

of this Parish 

who departed this life the 5* of April 1827 

in the 21** year of her age. 

The remains of the above are deposited in the 

vault beneath, together with her infant son 

Charles Carter Simson 

who died 12''' January 1827, aged 10 months. 



In memory of 

Thomas Rigg 

late of Paradise Street in this Parish 

who departed this life 2o«"* February 1858 

in his 71*^ year. 

Also of 

Catharine 

forty-nine years the beloved wife of 

the above 

who departed this life at Paradise Street 

29**» October, 1859, in the 76''* year 

of her age. 

Their remains are interred at Nonhead cemetery. 



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X] MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS I45 

Sacred to the memory of 

M"* Elizabeth Barrow, wife of Captain 

Thomas Barrow of thi^ Parish, who 

departed this life the 21" of November 

1775- Aged 62 years. 

If Prudence, Humanity, Benevolence, and 

Charity constitute an amiable character 

these were the virtues she possessed. 

A loving and indulgent wife 

a generous friend 

Living was esteem'd, and now dead much 

laiqented, by her disconsolate husband 

who in gratitude to the many virtues 

she posses'd when living, has erected 

this monument. 

Cap^ Thomas Barrow husband 

of Ihe above, who departed 

this life the s^ of July 

1787 aged 72 years. 

For some additional Inscriptions see pp. 150, 179 and 183. 



There are recorded in various Histories of London and 
Surrey some monumental inscriptions which no longer exist, 
but which were once to be found in the Parish Church ; e.g. 

George Pastfield died 9 Nov. 1660 

or Pashfield (Stowe's London) 

Mary Tiddimao, the wife of Christopher Tiddiman^ eldest daughter 
of Sir Thomas Tiddiman, Knight, aged 30 years, who departed 
this life the 9th day of September, 1666'. 

Josephus Lyne obiit la Octob. A* Doro. 1685 statis suae 35. 

Matthew Hungerford, Esq., late of Chisbury in the Co. of Wiltshire 
who departed this life aoth April 1677, aged 65 years. 

* From the Burial Register—*' 1666. Mary Tiddiman Buryed September 9." 
** 1668. Thomas Tittcman baryed May 15.*' (This was Admiral Sir Thomas 
Tlddcmao, Kat.] 



10 

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146 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

And in the Churchyard — 

Ann Blake widow of Captain John Blake of Rederiffe, died 21 Oct 
1681, in her 65th year. 

The monuments on the walls of the Parish Church by no 
means exhaust the records of the dead, for the Churchyard 
and Burial Ground are full of tombstones and other 
memorials which have been set up by survivors to keep alive 
the names of their departed relatives. Unhappily through 
lapse of years and much more from the deleterious action of 
the rain and frosts, complicated by the smoke from a 
thousand chimneys both on shore and afloat, the inscriptions 
on these stones have in very many cases become quite il- 
l^ble. The families who own the graves have long since 
died out or removed away from Rotherhithe, and, as they 
have made no provision for the periodical renovation of the 
tombs, the names of the occupants have been in great 
measure lost to us. 

Notwithstanding this n^lect we are still able to decipher 
many of the inscriptions or to complete them by reference to 
the Rasters of Burials. 

The following are some of the names which are of in- 
terest : — 

The Hay family. Tomb near the Church Tower*. Records 
the name of 

Francis Theodore Hay 

who died 11 May 1838 aged 70 

and of Eleanor Gordon Hay his wife 

who died 30 September 1799 V^ 33 

also of Ann wife of Charles Hay who died 

a6 February i86a aged 69 

and Charles Hay son of the above who 

died 14 March 1866 aged 38 years 

also Charles Hay who died a November 1868 aged 78 years. 

The Woodrufle family. Tomb adjoining the west wall of 
the north aisle. Inscribed on tomb in Rotherhithe Church- 
yard — 

> See Burial Register. 



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X] MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS I47 

Mrs Ann Esther Woodruffe 

relict of W"» Woodruffe Surgeon in the Royal Navy 

died 18 May 1843 aged 80 years 

Richard George Woodruffe 

died 7 October 1850. 

The Wilson family, with record of Prince Lee Boo's death 
on the flat slab of the tomb, which is in the western part of 
the Churchyard near the passage between St Marychurch 
Street and Rothcrhithe Wall. The Inscriptions after re- 
cording the death of 
Master John Kenderdine Wilson 22 Aug. 1779 aged 4years & 3 months 

also of M" Elizabeth Orchard April 16 1787 aged 50 years 

also of M'* Christiana Wilson late 

wife of Captain Henry Wilson 1 1 Jaa 1802 aged 67 years & 8 months 

proceeds thus: 

In full assurance of the Resurrection of the Dead the body of 
the above named Cap^ Henry Wilson who died 10 May 18 10 aged 
70 years was interred at Colyton near Axminster in Devonshire. 
He commanded the Honourable East India Company's packet 
Antelope which was wrecked on the Pelew Islands in the month of 
August 1783. 

Many pious reflections follow, but they have in lapse of 
years become quite illegible. 

Prince Lee Boo's body lies in the same tomb, and the 
following words are inscribed on the ledger of the tomb : 

To the memory of 
Prince Lee Boo 
a native of the Pelew or Palos Islands and son of Abba Thulle 
Rupack or King of the Island Goo' Roo' Raa 
who dqMtfted this life on the 97th December 1784 
aged 20 yeark 
This stone is inscribed by the Honourable United East India 
Company as a testimony of esteem for the humane and kind treat- 
ment afforded by his father to the crew of their ship Antelope, 
Capt Wilson, which was wrecked off that Island on the night of the 
9th of August, 1783. 

Stop reader, stop, let nature claim a tear, 
A prince of mine, Lee Boo, lies buried here. 

10 — a 



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148 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

The Nelson Tomb. Adjoining this grave is a stone which 
records the death of 

Mary Mansfield widow of John Mansfield formerly of Plymouth 
Dock and of Sheemess Dockyard who died 5 Oct. 181 7 aged 
62 years. 

Mr John William Nelson son-in-law of the above and formerly 
Storekeeper of His Majest/s Dockyard at Deptford, died 10 Feb- 
ruary 1828 aged 63. 

Mary his widow died 13 May 1839 aged 63, 

The Rosher family'. Tomb alongside the Church Passage. 

The Garth family^ Tomb in the angle of Church Passage 
and Rotherhithe Wall. 

The Grice family'. Vault enclosed with an iron rail on 
dwarf stone curbing, but without any stone or other inscrip- 
tion. 

Mr Grice was the owner of Grice's Granaries which adjoin 
the Churchyard at the north-eastern comer. 

N.B. Close to Grice's Granaries was an old building 
called ^'the Blue Mountains." It has long since been de- 
stroyed, but there are still living persons who remember it 

In the N.E. comer, near "the Blue Mountains/* once 
stood the parish '* Bone-House/' but this part of the Church 
ground had never been consecrated or used for interments, 
and it was sold to the Thames Steam Ferry Company, and 
by them thrown into the street and dedicated to the use of 
the public ; the access to their wharf was by this improve- 
ment made widen The Ferry Company was, however, a 
failure. The expectations upon which it was founded proved 
delusive ; the two fine ferry-boats with elaborate hydraulic 
machinery for the passage of vans and carts at all times of 
the tide failed to tempt the timber-merchants and contractors 
to shorten by nearly two miles the journey to London Bridge, 
and, like many other improvements bom before their time, the 
Ferry did but herald the magnificent enterprise of the Tower 
Bridge, with its bascules ; and the costly undertaking of the 

1 Seep. 17a. * See p. 171. 'See p. 188. 

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X] MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS 149 

Rotherhithe and Shadwell Tunnel which is being carried out 
at the present moment (1905). 

(Thomas & Ann Stevens 1787 Stone 

Daniel Nicholson Stevens 1788 

M' William Stevens 1833 

M' James Fair 1824 „ 

James Kid 1851 „ 

Elizabeth Dudley 1846 „ 

fW Daniel Waller 1837 „ 

M« Fanny Waller 1840 

M'* Sarah Patmore 1840 

M' John Waller 1812 

Mary Ann Elizabeth James 1842 „ 

J Mary Oxley i8oo 

(John Oxley 1822 „ 

Mary Chapman '779 »f 

M" Mary Brownley 1848 „ 

Richard Atkinson Es'i'' 1840 ,, 

M« Mary Ann Alder 1849 „ 

Martha Esther Walker 1832 ^ 

William Waring Walker 1833 

Ralph Walker 1878 

Ralph Taylor Walker 1879 

M" Elizabeth Whitby 1834 », 

The present Church contains several of the old monuments 
which had been in the Mediaeval Church and were removed 
from its walls when it was pulled down in 1714. 

The oldest of these is a monumental Brass in three 
separate pieces. It was up to the year 1876 fastened to the 
pavement ""in the middle lie** of the Church. But by reason 
of the continual treading of persons walking over it, the metal 
had become so much worn away that it was in danger of 
becoming illegible and in part destroyed. 

The present Rector therefore caused the three portions of 
it to be carefully taken up, and fastened to an oaken slab 
affixed to the North Wall of the North Aisle. 



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150 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

The Inscription is as follows : — 

Trinitas in Unitate. 

Here lies buried the body of Peter Hills, Mariner, one of the 
eldest Brothers and Assistants of the Company of the Trinity, and 
his two wives ; who while hee lived in this place, gave liberrally to 
the poore, and spent bountifully in his house : and after many great 
troubles, being of the age of 80 yeeres and upward departed this 
life without issue, upon the 26 of February, 16 14. 

This was made at the chaise of Robert Bell. 

Though Hills be dead, 

Hills' Will and Act survives 
His Free-Schoole, and 

his Pension for the Poore; 
Thought on by him, 

performed by his Heire, 
For eight poore Sea-mens 

Children, and no more. 

This monument records the pious memory of the Founder 
of our Ancient Free School, which from that time to the 
present day has continued as a most valuable Educational 
Charity in Rotherhithe. 

The Schoolmaster had a house of residence and a small 
yearly endowment that he might in it teach eight boys, sons 
of Mariners of RedriflT. The sum left by Peter Hills was 
small. Six pounds per annum, secured as a Rent-charge upon 
Messuages belonging to him. One moiety of this sum was 
to be paid to the Schoolmaster, the other moiety to the 
Churchwardens for the Poor. For two hundred and eighty 
years this sum was duly paid, till 1900, when this Parish was 
incorporated in the Metropolitan Borough of Berroondsey 
and the Borough Council declined to pay the Rent-charge 
any longer. It is however hoped they will shortly pay the 
amount due. 

There is also a finely carved shield of the Ro>'al Arms of 
the time of King Charles the Second, which was until 1876 
over the Chancel Arch, but has now been affixed to the North 
Wall of the North Aisle, near Peter Hills* Brass. 



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X] 



MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS 



151 



INSCRIPTIONS ON THE BENEFACTION BOARDS. 



Donations to tJie Poor of this Parish. 



Peter Hills 
and Rob' Bell 
Esq" 



Henr Smith Esq' 



/ Gave the Free School and ^^3 Pr 
Ann™ to the master to teach Eight 
Children, Sons of Seafaring Men 
also ;^3 for Provisions for the 

Poor 

for Provisions or Cloathing to be 
distributed Yearly on St Thomas's 

Day 

Amb^ Bennett Esq'. Yearly in Bread 

i£^\ 10 to purchase Land, for 



£ X. d. 



10 



o 
o 



Cap* W. Stevens & 
The Rev<* T. Gattaker 
(formerly Rector of 
this Parish) 



Six Poor Inhabitants to 
receive Weekly 2'^ in Bread 
and 2<^ in Money each, also 
£^\o to be added to Cap* 
Stevens's Gift • 
As much Money as should Pur- 
chase Land ^^5. 4* Pr Ann" 
clear, for 2* to be given in 
Bread every Sunday to Poor 
Seamen or Seamcns Widows 

Yearly distributed with the advanced Rent 



5 4 o 



Cap* Rog' Tweedy 



S 



Note. With the three last Donations were Purchased 
in the Year 1659, ^^ Parcek of Abby Land, 
viz. one of about 4 Acres lying between Bow and 
Stratford, Let on Lease at 

And the other Parcel in Plaistow Lane of 3 Acres 
3 Roods, Let also on I..ease at . 

Produced in 1749 (Per Ann*) £,^1 ^^ o 



9 o 



6 ID o 



1851. August 9. 
M' James Kid 

1854. 



The Interest (on reversion) of ^^600, 
less Legacy Duty for the Pro- 
motion of Education in this Parish 
W. Howard Esq' to the Charity School . £%oq 



o o 



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152 



ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE 



[CH. 



INSCRIPTION ON THE SECOND BENEFACTION BOARD. 

Donations to this Parish. 

1877. M' John Sprunt Bequeathed ;^2oo, £,1 p' cent. Consols 
(less Legacy Duty) to the Churchwardens of this Parish for 
ever, the Interest to be paid Annually on the 23"* of December 
to Six Poor Widows of good character of this Parish who 
should have attained the Age of 50 yrs. share and share alike. 

1877. Dame Elizabeth Ann Gomm Bequeathed ;^5ooo (free of 
duty), the income to be applied for the benefit of old men and 
women residing in districts of St Mary, St Barnabas, and Christ 
Church, Rotherhithe. 

1881. Mr Robert Shafto Hawks Bequeathed ^^looo (subject to a 
life interest to his wife and to legacy duty and expenses) in 
augmentation of Mrs Bayly's Charity. 

1904. Mr Samuel Ward Copping Bequeathed ;f 1000 (less legacy 
duty and expenses) in augmenution of Mrs Bayly's Charity. 



BENEFACTIONS TO THE CHARITY SCHOOL. 



Sundry Subscriptions in tlu 


Year 






I /. d. 


1745- 


For Rebuilding the School . . . 374 13 


»745- 


Barth" Wood Esq' & Capt. Hy Sax. Execu- 




tors to Cap« J" Brook 


50 


1754- 


M' George Cornwall . 








100 


1758- 


M' Alexander Roberts. 








ID 


1760. 


Bartholemew Wood Esq' 








100 


1765- 


The Rev<« Tho» Negus D.D, 








20 


1765. 


M" Elizabeth J. Ans . 








IOC 


1771. 


James Taylor Esq' 










too 


>774. 


M' Fortunatus Planu . 










tl 


i7«3. 


William Coote Esq' 










SO 


1786. 


John Gray Esq' . 










105 


1788. 


Henry Mills Esq' 










too 


1798. 


John Romaine Esq' 










50 


1799. 


M' Robert Willson 










50 


1801. 


Cap* G« Russell, 3 pr c« A"* 






1000 


1801. 


M' W" Curling, I^te Treasurer . 






so 


1808. 


M' John Fell .... 






aa 9 6 












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X] 



MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS 



IS3 



d. 



1809. 

iSi'S. 
1820. 
1820. 
1822. 

1823. 
1826. 
1828. 
1839. 



1849. 
185a 



M' Conrade Barrett to the Amicable Society 
School 

W. J. Denison Esq' M.P. . 

Francis Woodruff Esq' 

M' W"» Coleman, 3 pe' cent. Consols 

Cap* J» Calf, By will Dated 1808 

M" Sarah Lidard .... 

C. N. Pallmer Esq' M.P. . 

A Lady to the Free School. 

The Daughters of the Late Fra« The" Hay 
Esq'* 3 p«' cent. Consols to Purchase Cloaks 
and Coats 

G. R. Pearson Esq' per Miss Pearson 

Ex«» of the late Jane Hurt .... 



25 








21 








SO 








200 








100 








50 








21 








10 


10 





200 








SO 








5 









TABLET AFFIXED TO THE SOUTH WALL OF THE 
CHURCH, NEAR THE GALLERY STAIRCASE. 

Benefactors to the Charity ScIiooL 

1709. Cap* John Jacobs 10 o 

1 7 10. Cap* John Steele 10 o 

17 1 2. The contributors' gift to purchase Ground 

Rent of ;£io per Ann™ at Church Stairs as 

p' deeds in Vestry 220 o 

171 7. Cap* Plaford Clarke 10 o 

1862. Cap* Henry Neatby — 

Charity School 200 o 

Green School 200 o 

United Socx School 100 o 

1836. Joseph Rawlins P' Year, Long Annuities 5 o 

1839. M' J" Cross by Will dated 1797, Consols 1550 o 

1841. Charles Carter Esq' 50 o 

1843. M'* Ann Esther Woodruff .... 50 o 
1843. Gerf Sir William M. Gomm, K.CB., £\o fF 

ann"* from the year 1833 included • • no o 
1 86 1. M' William John Green of Portsea, late of 

this Parish 20 o 

The Gift of Cap* Leonard Bower, 17 13*. 

* i.e. the expense of erecting the board and inscriptioas thereon. 



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!S4 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 



INSCRIPTIONS ON THE FOUR PANELS ON THE FRONT 
OF THE WEST ORGAN GALLERY. 

1st Panel 

The Ancient Parish Church of 

S* Mary Rotherhithe 

was Rebuilt 17 14-15 

Rev D' Lovel Rector 

John Adams 

Richard Stiles 



Churchwardens 



2nd Panel. 

This Organ was 

Erected by Subscription 

of some of the Inhabitants 

of this Parish a.d. 1764 

ird Panel. 

1798. M« S. M. Negus (Widow 
of a late Rector of this Parish) 

bequeathed ;^8i J^ to purchase Bibles &« 
and for the Education of Children 

4/A Panel 

This Church was Re-seated 
and Restored 1876 

Rev. Edward Josselyn Beck, M.A. Rector 

Robert Foolit \ 

Edward James Talbot / Churchwardens 

Frands J. Bisley ) ^. , 
Henry Hayward | Sidesmen 

Date beneath the Clock face— CDCCLXV. 



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X] 



MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS 



ISS 



BENEFACTORS WHO GAVE PIOUSLY TOWARDS BUILDING 
THE PARISH CHURCH. Aubfey's Surrey, vol. v. 



Her most Gracious Majesty 

Queen ANNE by Brief 

granted and collected . 930 o o 
The Right Reverend Father 

in God, Jonathan, Lord 

Bishop of Winchester . 930 o o 
The Right Honourable 

John Lake, Commis- 
sioner of the Admiralty 100 o o 
Richard Cambridge of 

London, Esq. • • 50 o o 



i. s- d. 



15 o o 



The Honourable Sir John 
Smith, Baronet . 

The Honourable the Com- 
missioners of the Victual- 
ling Yard 

Several Gentlemen of the 
Honourable Fraternity 
of Trinity- House . 

Captain Robert Sandes of 
Bermondsey . 

;f «377 V' («<•) 1378 6 8 



50 o o 



10 15 o 



INHABITANTS OF THE SAID PARISH, VIZ. 



Capt. Samuel Biggs . . 500 
Capt. Bartholomew 

Browne • 300 

Mr John Brook • • 300 

Mr John Broadgate . 300 

Mr Thomas Ball . . 9 o o 

Burford . . . 130 

Mr James Boutflower . 130 

Mr Edward Bishop . . 1 10 o 

Mrs Brewelt . • 1 ;) 6 

Mr John Bloice ' . . i 10 o 

Mr Richard Batchelor . 1 10 o 

Mr Samuel Boyles . • 1 10 o 

Mr Thomas Benbridge . 116 

Mrs Jane Burt. . • 1 m o 
Mr Israel Buckland 
Mr Henry Bull 
MrBorchett 



Cape. Playford Clark • 30 o o 

Cape. Samuel Cook . • 40 o o 

Cape. Henry Collins. • 10 o o 

Capt John Christmas 10 o o 

Capt. Edward Cooke 10 o o 

Capt. John Cammelle • 10 o o 

Mr Andrew Cooper . . 10 o o 



Samuel Atkinson, Esq. 


. too 








Mr John Adams . 


• 50 








Mr Henry AMridge . 


9 


3 





Mr Ridiaid Amokl . 


I 


10 





Mr WiUiam Atkins . 


I 








Mr Edward AtwkJc 








B. 
Mrs Martha Beale . 


lO 








Capt. John Buckeer . 


• 15 








Capt. Leonard Bower 


10 








Capt. Thomas Bradley 


10 








Capt. Joseph Bewes . 


10 


15 





Mr PhU. Browne . . 


10 








B l^—. 


10 








Mr Elaai Browne . 


10 








MrJohiiBlack«m. . < 


10 








Capt. Charles Bvrroiigbes . 


8 


4 


6 


MnSairnhBoggin . . 


6 








Capt. WiUian Brock 


5. 








Mn Elii. Bower 


5 








Mn Mary Bowers . 


5 








John Blake 


5 








Mr Amhooy Bayles . 


5 








MrNkbolasBaggs . 


5 








Mr John Burr. . . 


6 


>3 


4 



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IS6 



ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE 



[CH. 





£ 


s. 


if. 




£ s. d. 


Capt Walter Cronker 


5 


o 


o 


Capt. John Farrant . 


I o o 


Mrs Mary Cumberland 


5 


o 


o 


Mr James Figgins . 


I o o 


Mrs Margaret Champneys 


5 


o 


o 


Mr Charles Franks . 


I o o 


Mrs Margaret Clarke 


5 


o 


o 


Mrs Alice Flint 


1 o o 


Capt. Thomas Clarke 


5 


o 


o 


Mr Giles Firman 




Capt. John Clifton . 


5 


o 


o 


Mr Thomas Franks 




Mr Geoige Cassel . 


1 


o 





Mr Cuthbert Finklc 




Mr Robert Carter . 


1 


o 


o 


Mr John Foid 




Mr Thomas Colton . 


I 


o 





Mr Heniy Farrant, Jan. 




Mrs Ann Cox . 


1 


I 


6 






Mr Thomas Church . 


I 


lO 


o 


G. 




Mr Ralph Creswell . 


I 


lO 


o 


Capt. Samuel Gillam 


fO o o 


Mr David Cement . 


1 


fO 


o 


Mr James Glenn 


6 o o 


Mrs Maiy Chambers 


I 


1 


6 


Mr Joseph Gollop . 


500 


Mr Edward Cox 








MrWiUiamGunton. 


500 


Capt. Cox 








Mrs Elizabeth Godsalve 


500 


Mr John Cannon 










300 


Mr Cnimly 








Mr WiUiam Garland 


1 15 


D. 








Mr Edward Glover . 
Mrs Elisabeth Gale . 


1 

9 10 


Capt. John Denn . 


to 


o 


o 


Mr Ral[^ Godfrey . 


1 


Mr Adam Delfey . 


40 


o 


o 


Capt. Gale 




Capt. Joseph Davis . 


5 


7 


6 




Mr John Dear. 


I 


I 


6 


H. 




Mrs Sarah Daniel . 


o 


ID 


o 


Mr Joshua Heath . 


30 


Mrs Easter Dudley 








Capt. Wilfnd Hart . 


10 


Mr Thomas Dale 








Capt. Charles Hallifax 


15 


MrJohnDinnington 








Capt. Thomas Hill . 


10 


E. 








Mr John Hone. 


10 


Mrs Mary Elton 


lO 


o 


o 


Mr Tim. Hawkins . 


700 


Capt. Andrew Elton. 


15 


o 


o 


Mr William Hinton . 


500 


Mrs Mary Evans . 


10 


"5 


o 


Mr Nicholas Heather 


300 


Mr Abraham Eadrop 


5 


o 


o 


MrJohnHoUis 


300 


Mr Thomas Eadrop . 


3 


o 


o 


Mr Nathaniel Hanbury 


300 


Mr John Ellis. 


t 


o 


o 


MrJohnHaddon . 


. 3 » 6 


Mr Thomas EUis . 


1 


I 


6 


Mr John Hall. 


I 10 


MrJohnEwlieraoii 








Mr Joseph Hoar . 
(sic) Mr Tmhart • 


100 
. I 1 6 


F. 








Mr John Harris 




Capt. Roger Franklin 


90 


o 


o 


Mn Hudson 




Mr Robert Fletcher . 


15 


o 


o 


MrJobnHendenon 




Capt. John Fiekl . , 


15 


o 


o 


Mr Hook 




MrJohnFindat 


to 


o 


o 






Mr Henry Fanrant, Sen. . 


lO 


o 


o 


I. 




MrJobnFarrant.Sen. . 


to 


o 


o 


Capt Stephen Jerom 


«o 


Mr Jacob Finch . . 


lO 


o 


o 


MnElitabeth Jacob. 


500 


Mrs Mary Farrant • 


7 


o 


o 


Mr WUliam Johnson 

Digitized by 


500 

C^ooqIc 



X] 



MONUMENTS AND INSCRIPTIONS 



Mr Thomas Jarrel 
Mr Thomas Joyncr 
Mr Ireland 



Mrs Robarta Knight 
Mr William Knott . 
Mr John Kitely 
Capt. William Kingsland 

L. 
The Revd. Dr Edward 

Level • 
Mr John Low . 
Mr John Lithered • 
Mrs Elizabeth Love . 
Mr John Lain • 
Mrs Layton 
Mr Jeremiah Long • 
Mr Nathaniel Lowther 
Mr John Lambart . 
Mr Shadrick Lister • 
Mr Lane 
Cape. Lorton 

M. 
Capt. Stephen Maxted 
Capt. John Mackmoth 
Mr John Mazie 
Capt. Thomas Matthews 
MrJohnMeU . 
Mrs Mary Mortimer . 
Mr Charlet Mason . 
MrEdwanlMvckle. 
Mr Richard Merkk . 
Mr Samuel Moore . 
Mr Edward Mcdhmt 
Mr Robert Martin . 
Mn Mary Mo«too . 
Mr Walter MeU 
Capt. John Martin 
Capt. Martin 

N. 

C«pt. John Norris . 
Mr WUIiaa Nofffb . 
Mr Thomas Kott 



500 
I 10 o 



500 
300 



90 o 

15 o 

4 6 

4 o 

3 o 

3 4 

9 10 

« 3 

9 o 

I o 



10 o o 
10 o o 
10 o o 
10 o o 
500 
900 

930 

9 O O 
9 O O 
100 
I O O 

I I 6 
I I 6 



10 o o 
500 
300 



Mr John Newman 
Mr James Norcomc 
Mrs Mary Newton 



Mr William Ongley . 

Mr John Owen 

Mr William Ogle . 

P. 
Capt. Thomas Pooke 
Mr Thomas Philips . 
Capt. James Pamfleet 
Mr WUliam Parker . 
Mr Samuel Pew 
Mr William Piatt . 
Mr Thomas Pltfr 
Mr William PhUips . 
Mr WUliam Pable . 
Mrs Deborah Parsons 
Mrs Elizabeth Penn . 
Mr Joseph Parker . 
Mr Lawrence Popleton 
Mrs Perch 



Nicholas Roope, Esq. 
Mr Alexander Roberts 
Capt. John Rose 
Capt. John Rease 

Reed 

Mrs Rose Renovf 
Mr Thomas Reyley 
Mrs Ann Richardson 
Mr Jeremiah Rosher, Sen< 
Mr Ralph Richardson 
Mr Edmond Raynor 
Capt. Joseph Redding 
Mr Reed 

S. 
Mr Jonas Shish 
Mr Edwaid Swallow 
Mr Charles Shish . 
Mrs Hannah Sax 
Mr Richard Stiles . 
Mr Jeffrey Saflfiery . 



300 
I o o 
I o o 



500 
I 10 o 
500 



90 
10 
10 

5 
5 
3 
5 

9 
I 
I 
I 

9 
9 



so 

'5 
10 

5 
5 

5 
3 



I 10 
I o 



16 

5 

10 

10 

5 



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158 



ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE 



[CH. X 





£ 


s. 


d. 




£ 


s. 


i/. 


Mr Francis Sheldon . 


5 


o 


o 


w. 








Mrs Sarah Seaman . 


5 


o 


o 


Capt. Warren . 


lO 


o 


o 


Mr Charles Stow . 


5 


o 


o 


Mr George Wood . 


lO 


o 


o 


Capl. Peter Saunders 


5 


7 


6 


Mr Abraham Wells . 


lO 


o 


o 


Mr Nathaniel Stisson 


5 


o 


o 


Mr George Whinnel . 


lO 


o 


o 


Mr Nicolas Stiles . 


5 


o 


o 


MrJohnWeales . 


5 


o 


o 


Mr Samuel Sanders . 


3 


o 


o 


Capt. Jonathan Wicken , 


5 


o 


o 


Mr Abraham Shooter 


3 


o 


o 


Mr John Whittingham 


5 


o 


o 


MrJohnShowell . 


2 


o 


o 


Mr Joseph Wade . 


5 


o 


o 


Mrs Martha Sumars . 


a 


I 


6 


Mrs Anne Wood 


1 


I 


6 


Mrs Rebecca Saunders 


I 


3 


6 


Mr George West 


1 


lO 


o 


Mrs Elizabeth Standford 


I 


o 


o 


Mr lliomas Wales . 


a 


3 


o 


Mr Richard Spearman 








Mr John Whetstone 








MrJohnStreeton 








Mr Joseph Williams 








Mr Thomas Stears 








Mr Robert Woodford 








Mrs Smart 








Mrs Elizabeth Wall . 


I 


o 


o 


Mr Henry Sumars 








Capt. Ward 
















Capt. Wood 








MrSpooner 








Mr Matthias Wallraven 








T. 
Mr James Taylor . 


15 


o 


o 


Y, 
Capt. Thomas Young 


ID 


o 


o 


Tibington 


ID 


o 


o 










Mrs Philis Tanner . 


5 


o 


o 


Totab brought from above. 








Mr Volentine Teed . 


3 


o 


o 


viz.- 








Mr Timothy Trcdway . 


3 


o 


o 


CoUected by Briefih and 








lU Thomas Thwaits 


3 


o 


o 


other pious Donors, not 








Mr John Towers 








of our Parish 


"378 


6 


8 


Mr Thomas Tyer 








Collected from the Inhabi- 








Mrs Mary Turley . 


1 


o 


o 


tants, who piously gave. 








Mr Thomas Tyers 








granted, and raised by 








Capt. Tuder 








Act of Parliament on 








Capt. Tibington 








Burials, &c. • 


1300 


o 


o 



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X 
U 

oc 

D 
X 

u 

X 
<n 

< 

u 

X 
H 

5E 

&d 

X 

O 



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CHAPTER XI. 

THE REBUILDING OF THE PARISH CHURCH, 1714-15. 

The dilapidated state of the old Mediaeval Church of 
St Mary, Rotherhithe, had for many years been a cause of 
grave anxiety and continual expense to the Churchwardens 
and parishioners ; and at length it became clear that it must 
be pulled down and rebuilt on the same site. 

The question of ways and means then arose and it was 
determined to present a petition to Parliament for a grant in 
aid. 

The time seemed favourable for this appeal. The country 
was at peace after the long Continental wars; and it was 
thought right that a natural thankoflfering should be made 
for the victories of the Duke of Marlborough. The new 
Cathedral of St Paul's had now been completed after the 
Great Fire, and it stood in all the freshness of its white 
Portland stone, a thing of beauty for the citizens of London 
to rejoice at 

A large Parliamentary Grant was voted for the erection of 
Fifty New Churches for the Metropolis to supply the great 
need for additional Church accommodation for the g^wing 
population in the suburbs of London. 

The Rotherhithe people thought they had a good case to 
show for a share in this grant, and they presented their 
petition in the following terms: 

Extract from a Book in British Museum Library^ entitled 
* Law cases*" 1696-1767. Index mark $ i6-on-i7. No. 48 
(made by Mr H. F. Waddington, Mch. 5, 1892). 
Reasons. The casc of the inhabitants of Rotherhithe : 

showing the Necessity of Pulling down. Re- 
building, and enlarging their Parish-Church. 



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l6o ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

For Pulling I. The Said Church standing very low and 
building. "ear the Banks of the Thames, is often over- 

flowed, whereby the Foundation of theChurch and 
Tower is rotted and in great danger of Falling ; 
and if not speedily Rebuilt, will become useless. 
For Enlarg- 1 1. Tho' the said Church was Large enough 
'"^* Four Hundred Years ago, when the same was 

first Built, yet since the Parishioners are so 
Encreased, that now it is not capable of holding 
One Third Fart of them. 

Parish not HI. The inhabitants Consisting of Sea-men 
able to raise j^^ J Sea-faring men in general, have Sustained 

money. •* 

great Losses by Sea during a long War ; several 
having been taken Prisoners into France, others 
Killed and Drowned in the Service of the 
Government, and the families of such who have 
been kill'd are now become so Chargeable to 
the Parish, that they are not able to Contribute 
towards the Rebuilding and Enlarging the said 
Church, which upon the best Survey will 
amount to above 4000/. 

Note. About 30 years ago the said Parisli (being 

within the Bills of Mortality) Paid about Four- 
score Pounds a Year, towards the Support of 
their Poor; and they now Pay above Seven 
Hundred Pounds per Annum. 

Parishioners Lastly. The Parishioners being chiefly Sca- 

NefK^istle. "^ n^en and Water-men, who venture their lives in 

fetching those Coals from Newcastle, which pay 

for the Rebuilding the Churches in London, 

and Parts adjacent 

It is therefore humbly Prayed, That by Con- 
tinuing the Duty which is Laid on Coals, For 
the Adorning and Beautifying the Cathedral of 
St Paul's, which ends in May I7i(^ or by such 
other Ways and Means as shall seem most fit, 
The Said Parishioners may be enabled to Re- 
build and Enlarge their said Church and Tower. 



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XI] REBUILDING THE PARISH CHURCH, 1714-15 161 

The Petition was not successful; but the Parishioners 
were not to be discouraged, and they courageously set to 
work to help themselves; and by lai^e subscriptions, and 
from the proceeds of a Brief, and likewise by a somewhat 
singular method whereby the amount paid towards the New 
Building entitled the subscriber to a sitting in Church as well 
as to a vault when required for his own use or for those who 
might die of his family, the new Church was finally completed 
and duly consecrated by the Bishop of the Diocese. The 
Old Tower stood for some years longer, but eventually it was 
replaced by the present tower and spire. And although there 
remains no record of the event we can have little doubt that 
the opening of the new Parish Church was a source of great 
satisfaction to all the inhabitants of Rotherhithe at that 
period. 

The internal arrangements of the fabric were mainly the 
same as those of us who were living before 1876 can remember, 
namely, galleries all round the Church, a pulpit, Rector's 
desk, and clerk's desk with large service books, family pews of 
all shapes and sizes, and a row of benches for the poorer 
sort in the Middle Aisle. 

The Organ was not purchased until some years later; and 
it is probable that a small orchestra of musical instruments 
led the Hymns and Psalms which at that time were sung in 
Church from the Metrical Version of Sternhold and Hopkins 
or of Tate and Brady. The practice of chanting the Psalms 
and Canticles was left to the Cathedral choirs and was not 
used in Parish Churches till some sixty years ago. 

The Annual Collections for the Charity School were 
always made the occasion for special Hymns and Sermons. 
Some copies of these Hymn papers are still in existence. 
The Hymn was usually written for the day by a local poet 
One of these old Service papers came to light in a strange 
way when the side galleries were being pulled down. It had 
slipped down between the floor-board and the gallery-front, 
and so was lost, till the floor was taken up. 

We reprint it in the Appendix as a curious relic of a 
bygone time. 

B. II 



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l62 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

The Churchwardens stood at the Church door at the close 
of the service with a Charity boy and girl at their side clothed 
in the quaint dress of the time, and a goodly collection was 
gathered in the old painted plates bearing the inscription 
*• Remember the Poor Charity Children for God's sake and 
your own." 

As time went on, the Sunday Schools were established in 
1798 and they too had their Sermons. And then in 1835 
the new National Schools were set on foot and the yearly 
collections became yet more numerous; and the yearly School 
Treat of all the Day and Sunday Schools of the Parish was 
the occasion of a Service in Church which taxed the enei^es 
of the Wardens to provide seats for them all. 

Here is a specimen of the arrangements made : 

ANNUAL SCHOOL TREAT, ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE. 
Order of sitting at Church. 

To enter the Church under the Tower by the Middle 
Doors. 

The Workhouse Girls, the Blue Girls, to occupy the Free 
Seats and the North side of the Pulpit 

The Deptford Road Girls* School to occupy the Pews as 
far as needed, on the North side of the Middle Aisle. 

The Trinity School Girls to occupy Pews on the South 
side of the Middle Aisle, as far as needed. 

The Clarence Street School Girls to occupy Mr Cristall's 
and Mr Dummelow's Pews, and the Seats behind the Pulpit 

To enter by the South Door. 

The Christ Church Girls, the Girls belonging to Mr Crouch's 
School, and the girls belonging to St Paul's School, and to 
occupy the Pews in the South Aisle, as far as needed 

To enter by the North Door. 

The Workhouse Boys file off at the West Gate of the 
Churchyard by the Granary, and entering by the North Gate 
and the North Door, occupy the Two Pews nearest the 
Vestry, on the South side of the North Aisle. 

To enter by the South Door. 



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XI] REBUILDING THE PARISH CHURCH, 1714-IS 163 

The Charity School Boys enter the Church by the South 
Door, and occupy the whole of the Free Seats along the 
South Gallery, and part of the Top Gallery. 

To enter by the North Door. 

The United Society School file off at the West Gate of 
the Churchyard by the Granary, and entering by the North 
Door, occupy the Top Gallery in the North Gallery. 

The Trinity School Boys follow the United Society School, 
and sit in the North Gallery. 

The Rotherhithe Ancient Sunday School Boys follow the 
Trinity School Boys, and entering by the North Door, occupy 
the Pews in the North Aisle. 

The Deptford Road School Boys follow, and enter by the 
North Door, and occupy the remaining Pews in the North 
Aisle. 

The Christ Church Boys, Mr Crouch's School Boys, and 
St Paul's School Boys, all enter by the North Door, and 
occupy the remaining Free Seats in the North Gallery. 

And if there should be any deficiency of room in the 
Gallery, the Churchwardens will seat them where it shall be 
found most convenient 

Every Master and Mistress will give very particular 
directions to the Two Children who walk first in their Schools, 
as to the Door at which they enter the Church, and the exact 
place where they are to sit in the Church ; and the point in 
the field to which they must go. 

Every Flag Bearer, from No. I to No. XV, must attend 
very accurately to his orders about giving up the Flags to 
Mr Sanders, and receiving them again from him, and placing 
the poles in their proper sockets in the field. 

None of the Children must make a noise in going to 
Church. 

The Teachers will walk as near as may be, at equal 
distances from each other, and will sit with their Children at 
Church. 



II — 2 



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CHAPTER XII. 

OLD ROTHERHITHE FAMILIES. 

Captain Roger Tweedy. 

The Puritan families had a long spell of supremacy during 
the incumbency of Mr Gataker, and great pains were taken 
to ensure the permanence of this form of religion in Rother- 
hithe. Still we find some few Royalist families which con- 
tinued here through the troublous times of the Commonwealth, 
patiently waiting for better days to come when the ** tyranny 
should be overpast" 

Among these* Captain Tweedy was a constant friend to 
the old order of Church and State. 

His epitaph, p. 136, inscribed on a slab of black marble 
affixed to the north wall of the church, is a quaint statement 
of his case, and doubtless it would be true of many another 
son of the Church of England hoping against hope to live to 
see the Liturgy restored, and Church and King come by their 
own again. 

By his will, dated June i, 1653, Roger Tweedy, of Mile 
End, Stepney, Esq., gave and bequeathed unto and to the 
use of the parish of Rotherheath or RedriflTe, in honour of 
God and for His sake, so much money as should purchase 
lands or tenements of the clear yearly value of £$. 4s. per 
annum, to be invested in bread every Sunday throughout the 
whole year, 2s. worth (after the sermon or prayers) amongst 
the poorest seamen and seamen's widows of that town. And 
that the minister, churchwardens, and the whole vestry, with 
the collectors for the poor, should be feoffees in trust, to take 
care that the said bread be given every Sabbath day to twelve 



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CH. XII] 



OLD ROTHERHITHE FAMILIES 



I6S 



poor people as aforesaid, that shall deserve most compassion ; 
and the testator directed his executors to take security that 
the said £$• 4^- was employed as aforesaid and not otherwise ; 
and that his children's children, from age to age, make enquiry 
once every year whether the said money were distributed 
according to his will. 

Warrant for issuing letters of marque granted by the 
Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty during the year 
1629* : 



Date 


Owner of 
Ship 


Name of 
Ship 


Tonnage 


Captain or 
Master 


Reference 


1699 
April 16 


John Stroud 
and others 


Geofge 

Bonaventure 

of London 


940 


Roger 
Tweedy 


Vol. rxTx 
p. 19 



James Janeway, M.A*, of Christ Church, Oxford. 

The father of this good man was a minister at Kershall in 
Hertfordshire. He lived privately after leaving the University ; 
and when the times allowed, he set up a Meeting at Rother- 
hithe, where he had a very numerous auditory, and a great 
reformation was wrought amongst many. But this (says his 
biographer) so enraged the high party, that several of them 
threatened to shoot Mr Janeway, which accordingly was at- 
tempted ; for as he was once walking upon Rotherhithe Wall, 
a fellow shot at him, and the bullet went through his hat, 
but, as Providence ordered, it did him no hurt The soldiers 
pulled down the place in which he preached, which obliged 
his people to build another, which was required to be larger 
to receive the hearers. Soon after it was built a number 
of troopers came in when Mr JaneMray was preaching, and 
Mr Kentish* sat behind him in the pulpit ; they got upon a 
bench, and cried aloud, '^ Down with him ! down with him ! " 
and at that instant the bench broke, and they all fell down. 

* See Csifmdtr 0/SUUt P^ers^ Domestic Series. Charics I. 1619-1631. 

* This it it believed was Mr Richard KcnUsh, who had been ejected from 
St Katharine's by the Tower. 



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l66 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

In the confusion which this occasioned Mr Janeway came 
out of the pulpit, and some of the people having thrown a 
coloured coat over him and put a white hat on his head, 
he got out unobserved. But they seized Mr Kentish and 
took him to the Marshalsea, where he was some time kept a 
prisoner. 

At another time, when Mr Janeway was preaching at a 
gardener's house, several troopers came to seize him there ; 
but he threw himself on the ground, and his friends covered 
him with cabbage leaves, by which he escaped again. 

He died March i6, 1674, and was succeeded by Mr Rose- 
well. 

Mr Janeway was a man of eminent piety, an affectionate 
preacher, and very useful in his station. In his last illness his 
mind was under a sort of cloud by reflecting on his aptness 
to slubber (i.e. hurry) over private duties when he was much 
engaged in public work. 

However, Mr Nathaniel Vincent, in his funeral sermon, 
says that ''It pleased God to dissipate the cloud, and help 
him to discern the uprightness of his heart with satisfaction " ; 
and that not long before he died, he said : " He could now 
as easily die as shut his eyes," adding, '' Here am I, longing 
to be silent in the dust, and to enjoy Christ in glory." 

Another funeral sermon was preached for him by 
Mr Ryther, of Wapping. 

A beautiful portrait of Mr James Janeway is engraved in 
an edition of the Reverend Dr Calamy*s great work on the 
Lives of the Ejected Nonconformists, as abridged by Samuel 
Palmer, vol. ill. p. 512. His countenance must have been 
singularly sweet and benevolent He wore long flowing hair, 
falling upon his shoulders, and dressed in the black vesture 
and white bands of the period. 

The following is a list of his works :— Heaven upon Earth ; 
or the Best Friend in the Worst Times, 167a The Life of 
his brother, Mr John Janeway, 1673. The Saint's Encourage- 
ment to Diligence, 1677. A Token for Children, 1671. The 
Murderer punished and pardoned ; with the Life and Death 
of T. Savage ; and a Funeral Sermon for Mr T. Mousley 



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XII] OLD ROTHERHITHE FAMILIES 167 

with a Narrative of his Life, etc Sermon in the Supplement 
to Morning Exercise at Cripplegate on the Duties of Masters 
and Servants. His Legacy to his Friends, 1674. § Also a 
recommendatory Epistle to Mr Ryder's " Seaman's Preacher." 
The Congregation of Nonconformists originally founded 
by Mr James Janeway still exists in this neighbourhood. It 
flourished for many years under the pastorate of the late 
Reverend Mr Rose, and subsequently under the ministry of 
the Reverend J. Farren. Many old inhabitants still remember 
the building as "Rose's. Chapel" in Jamaica Road, Bermondsey, 

William Stevens. 

William Stevens, late of Rederifle, mariner, by his will 
dated Aug. 4, 1645, gave and bequeathed the sum of £1 10 
to such as should be the ministers and churchwardens of the 
said parish, to be paid to them within two years next after 
his decease, to purchase lands to the value of £s per annum 
in the names of twelve of the best and ablest men of the said 

parish for the time being, and their heirs for ever to allow 

and give to six of the poorest and most ancient inhabitants 
of the said town of Rederifle upon every Sabbath day in the 
year for ever, two pence apiece in bread and two pence apiece 
in money.... 

The Dukes of Bedford. 

The only nobleman who was ever a resident in Rother- 
hithe was the Duke of Bedford, who by marriage with the 
heiress of the Howlands of Streatham, inherited an old 
mansion* near Greenland Dock together with all the Howland 
property here. 

This house could only have been used as a riverside 
residence from time to time, and was sold to Mr Wells, and 

* The old residence was in Rotherhithe Street. See Lysons* Emrirms §f 
Ltmiom<t yoI. i. pt 3, p. 47a Mr Wells' house was formerly the residence of 
•• thi Old Duki rfBidfird."* A gift of land for the United Society's School-house 
and School-room is recorded to have been made by Francis Duke of Bedford, by 
Indentare dated July i, 1791. 



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l68 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

eventually pulled down ; but the Duke of Bedford, recogniz- 
ing the responsibilities of property, gave a site of land in 
Rotherhithe Street for the purpose of a School for Boys, and 
it was named The United Society School. 

The inscription over the door of the schoolmaster's house 
still records the gift, and the school remains to this day as a 
boys' school in connection with Holy Trinity Church. 

On a petition of William, Duke of Bedford, Lady Rachel 
Russell, relict of Lord William Russell, his son, and Elizabeth 
Howland (on behalf of Wriothesley, Marquis of Tavistock, son 
of the said Lord William and Lady Rachel Russell, and the 
Marchioness his wife, daughter of the said Elizabeth), dated 
I ith February, 1695-6, and setting forth that a dry dock had 
been made at the expense of £2SOO and praying powers to 
raise the further sum of ;f 12,000 for making also a wet dock ; 
an Act was passed for that purpose which had the royal 
assent loth April, 1696. 

The Benbow Family. 

It is stated in Manning and Bray*s History of Surrey^ 
vol. I. p. 228, that " Hanover Street in Rotherhithe, formerly 
called Wintershull Street, is still remembered as the birth- 
place of Admiral Benbow — another of our naval heroes, of 
whom an interesting memoir is given in the Biographia 
Britannica from the communications of Paul Cater, Esq., a 
son-in-law of the Admiral." 

But this statement is erroneous. The birthplace of Admiral 
Benbow was Shrewsbury, and not Rotherhithe ; and a view 
of the house on Coton Hill, in which he was bom about 1650, 
may be seen in the GeniUmatfs Magazifu for December, 1809. 
See also Dictionary of National Biography, s.v. But although 
Admiral Benbow himself was not a native of Rotherhithe, 
there are several of his name in the Church Registers : 

1666 William Benbow Buryed September 20 
1668 Elizabeth Benbow buryed Aprill i 

Hanover Street or Hanover Bay, as it was known to our 
older inhabitants, is now re-named Neston Street. 



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xii] old rotherhithe families 1 69 

Admiral Sir John Leake. 

This brave officer was bom at Rotherhithe in June, 1656. 
He was the son of Captain Richard Leake, Master Gunner of 
England, and having early in life joined the Navy he served 
as a midshipman in the war with the Dutch in 1673. He was 
subsequently for some time in the merchant service, and made 
two or three voyages to the Mediterranean, but ultimately 
returned to the Royal Navy. He was made Master Gunner 
of the Neptune in 1675, and held that situation until 1688, 
when he was appointed to the Drake iireship. 

In the War of the Succession against the French and 
Spaniards, his services were numerous and important, espe- 
cially in the reduction of Barcelona in 1706 and the capture 
of Minorca in 1708. 

On the death of Sir Cloudesley Shovel, Sir John Leake 
was made Admiral of the White and Commander of the fleet. 
In 1708 he was elected Member for Rochester, and in 1709 
was appointed one of the Lords of the Admiralty, but de- 
clined the place of First Lord. In 17 12 he was appointed 
Commander of the expedition to take possession of Dunkirk, 
but after the accession of George the First in 17 14, to the 
disgrace of the ministry of that day, he was deprived of his 
offices, and thenceforth passed his time in seclusion until his 
decease at Greenwich on the 21st August, 1720. He was 
buried on the 30th of the same month at Stepney, where he 
had erected a monument for his deceased wife. 

In the Church Register Book of the parish of St Mary, 
Rotherhithe, we find the following entry : 

Anno 1656 Birthes 
John fil: Richardi et Elizabethae Lake. Borne July 3. 

The Punnett Family. 

The Reverend John Punnett, whose father was a Rother- 
hithe ship-builder, was for many years Vicar of St Erth, near 
Hayle, in the county of Cornwall. His son, John Trefusis 
Punnett, was a member of Clare Hall, Cambridge, and 



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170 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

graduated B.A. as a Senior Optime and Second Class in the 
Classical Tripos of 1857. Mr Punnett was related to the 
Beatson family, long resident in Rotherhithe, his sister having 
married Mr John Beatson. 

Mr John Beatson. 

This famous shipbreaker was of Scottish descent, the 
family having received grants of land in Fifeshire in 1645. 
Lieut John Beatson, R.N., was nephew and heir of Robert 
Beatson,' LL.D., author of Military and Naval Memories, etc. 
David Beatson, son of Lieut. John Beatson, came to London 
about 1790 when only 19 or 20 years of age, and joined some 
cousins who were shipbreakers at the Surrey Canal Wharf, 
and eventually succeeded to the business. 

He was succeeded by his son John Beatson, who continued 
it till his death in 1858. 

He broke up most of the old East India Company's ships, 
among others the Sesostris and the Thames. 

Of Government vessels the best known were the TAn/raire, 
the Bellerophon, and the Justitia, which was the last Govern- 
ment convict ship. 

A Dutch man-of-war, the Ire Crone, presumably taken as 
a prize, was also broken up at Rotherhithe. Mr Beatson was 
then Churchwarden of the parish. 

The Hav Family. 

Mr Charles Hay, son of Mr Francis Theodore Hay, was 
for many years resident in Rotherhithe ; he was a lighterman 
and barge-builder in a large way of business. He built a 
residence for himself in the Lower Road, which was after his 
death occupied by Mrs Murdoch, sister of Mr John Beatson, 
shipbreaker, and was eventually sold to the trustees of 
Miss Hyndman's Charity for a Vicarage House for the parish 
of Christ Church. He died in 1868. In the year 1839 his 
sisters, Mrs Eleanor Russell and Miss Elizabeth Hay, in 
order to perpetuate the memory of their father, Mr Francis 
Theodore Hay, who had died in 1838, gave a donation of 
£2QO (3 per cent. Consols), the interest of which they directed 



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XII] OLD ROTHERHITHE FAMILIES I7I 

to be applied by the rector and churchwardens in the purchase 
of good dark blue great-coats and cloaks for the benefit of 
six or eight poor men and women belonging to the parish of 
Rotherhithe, watermen and their wives or widows always 
having the preference. The recipients of these coats and cloaks 
are annually chosen at Christmas. 

Mr Francis Theodore Hay was buried in the churchyard, 
in a tomb at the west end of the church. 

Mr Francis Theodore Hay, grandson of the above, still 
carries on the lighter-barge business in the same spot in 
Rotherhithe, although he has for many years lived in France\ 
Mr John M. Paice being his representative here, in conjunction 
with Mr Grey. 

A daughter of Mr Charles Hay was Mrs L^g, wife of 
Mr Geoi^e Legg, architect, who was for many years surveyor 
to the Vestry of Rotherhithe. 

Mr Jonathan Garth. 

In the north-west comer of the churchyard is a substantial 
monument marking the resting-place of Jonathan Garth and 
Jane his wife. Jonathan was born about 1731, but apparently 
not at Rotherhithe ; and there is no trace of him in the parish 
register prior to the birth of the first of his many children, 
except that in 1759 he was apparently a witness to the mar- 
riage of George and Deborah Garth. His eldest son was 
called Benjamin, and another son was called Brewster Garth. 

Now in Bolam and Headlam, in the county of Durham, a 
family of Garth had been settled for many generations, from 
1 593 at least Francis Garth of Bolam married Mary, daughter 
of Sir Francis Brewster, who was knighted by Charles II 
at Whitehall in 1670, and became Lord Mayor of Dublin 
in 1674. One of the children of this marriage was Benjamin 
Garth, who was baptized at Gainford Church in 1703, and 
would be about 28 years old when Jonathan was bom. 
Benjamin went to Hartlepool, and probably from that town 
Jonathan migrated to Rotherhithe. The facts that Jonathan 
called his first son Benjamin, and another son Brewster, point 

> Mr F. T. Hay died on August 15, 1906, aged 84 years. 



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1/2 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

to the conclusion that he came from the Durham family, 
which had produced not only the eminent physician and 
poet. Sir Samuel Garth (knighted in 1715), but also Generals 
George Garth and Thomas Garth (Elquerry to Geoi^e III). 
The pedigree of this branch of the Garths will be found in 
Surtees' History of tlie County of Durham. What was pro- 
bably another branch of the same family had been for several 
centuries settled at Morden, in Surrey, and this branch was 
descended from Edward Garth, one of the six Clerks in 
Chancery, who purchased the manor of Morden in 1553. 
The arms of both branches of the family are identical. 

Jonathan was a man of substance, and carried on business 
as a ship's chandler in a house on the Platform, which has 
only recently been demolished. One of his sons, Henry, died 
in 1857 ^^ Bromley, Kent, leaving two sons, Thomas Pocknell 
Garth and Samuel Garth. A daughter of the former, Eliza 
Frances, is the wife of Mr Frank Evans, of Lincoln's Inn, 
barrister, who has supplied such of this information about 
Jonathan and his family as could not be obtained from the 
register of St Mary's Church. Jonathan died in 1794, as stated 
on his monument, which also recorded (for the characters are 
now almost illegible) the deaths of some of his children and 
grandchildren. 

The Rosher Family. 

About 1820 the Rosher family, who had dwelt in Rother- 
hithe for some 200 years, mig^ted lower down the river to 
Northfleet, where they built a church, to which a district 
parish called Rosherville was assigned. 

This church was endowed by George Rosher, who was 
bom in Rotherhithe in 1803. 

The well-known Rosherville Gardens obtained that name 
from the new parish of Rosherville in which they were situated. 
They were, however, started as *'The Kent Zoological and 
Botanical Gardens " by a company which obtained a lease of 
the site from the Rosher family; and they originally aimed 
at scientific objects. But as a scientific resort they failed to 



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XII] OLD ROTHERHITHE FAMILIES 1 73 

pay, and a subsequent tenant developed them into a place of 
popular amusement 

The Roshers were connected with the family of Burch of 
Limehouse. 

There is a Rosher vault in Rotherhithe Churchyard. 



The Stranack Family. 

Captain Robert Stranack and his wife were natives of 
Margate. In the year 1826 they removed to London with 
their family, settling in Princes Street, Rotherhithe. 

Their eldest son John was a captain in the London Steam 
Navigation Company's service and lived in the Lower Road 
with his family. 

His three daughters were married, one to Mr Weeks, a 
linen-draper in good business on the Platform, another to 
Captain Minchell, and the third to Captain Tyack, whom she 
survived for many years, dying recently in her 86th year. 

The youngest son. Captain Henry Stranack, is still living. 
He was educated in Holland in order to acquire foreign 
languages. Returning to England in 1840, he began his sea- 
faring life, being apprenticed to the General Steam Navi- 
gation Company, and remained in the service until 1877, when 
deafness obliged him to retire. 

The Phillips Family. 

Captain William Phillips came to live in Rotherhithe 
about the year 1833, in consequence of his having entered the 
service of the General Steam Nav^tion Company. Captain 
and Mrs Phillips were both natives of Harwich, and his family 
had been settled there for generations past Thomas Phillips 
was Mayor of Harwich in 1727, and died during the year of 
his Mayoralty. His son was an Alderman of Harwich. 
Captain Wm. Phillips continued to reside in Princes Street, 
Rotherhithe, till his death. He was an upright man, greatly 
respected in the parish, and enjoying the confidence of the 
directors of his Company. As a devout Churchman he was a 



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174 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

kind supporter of the Rector and of all the institutions of the 
parish. He had a large family, of whom his eldest daughter 
and one of his sons, Mr Alfred Fynn Phillips, still reside here. 
The family are warm supporters of the parish church. 



Many sea-captains were living in Rotherhithe in the 
nineteenth century, Captains Lulham, Cox, Dixon, and others, 
in addition to the Stranacks and Captain Phillips. In those 
days it was of importance to them to have their homes on 
the riverside near their vessels which, when in port, lay in 
the Pool. 

But the railway now running through the Thames Tunnel 
enables master-mariners to live in New Cross, Brockley, and 
other southern suburbs, and yet to be able to reach their 
ships quickly by train. 

Mrs Bayly. 

Mrs Hannah Bayly, widow, by her will dated Feb. 22, 
1756, after certain bequests and devises, bequeathed the 
residue of her personal estate and effects in trust, to dispose 
of the same amongst " such poor unhappy objects who should 
be widows, resident and parishioners of St Mary, Rotherhithe." 
The capital sum of this charity consists of £6i4g (3 per cent. 
Consob), and the trustees are enabled under a scheme sanc- 
tioned by the Court of Chancery to pay 35 widows a small 
yearly pension. 

The Hawks Family. 

Mr Robert Shafto Hawks, who was for many years Vestry 
Clerk of the parish of Rotherhithe, was the son of Mr Edward 
Hawks, a shipbuilder on the Tyne, who afterwards settled in 
Rotheriiithe. 

Edward Hawks was a younger brother of Sir Robert 
Shafto Hawks, Knight, of Clavering Place, Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, a partner in the Gateshead Ironworks, who was 
knighted by the Prince R^[ent 21 April, 1817. He took 
an active part in raising the Corps of the Northumberland 



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XII] OLD ROTHERHITHE FAMILIES 1 75 

Volunteers at the beginning of the 19th century, and showed 
so much courage and zeal in suppressing the riots in the 
north in the winter of 18 16 that his services were publicly 
recognized by the honour of knighthood thus conferred upon 
him. 

In the Cathedral Church of St Nicholas, Newcastle, a 
monumental tablet records his death on 23 February, 1840, 
at the age of 71 years; also that of Hannah Pembroke, Lady 
Hawks, who died 11 Oct., 1863, aged 97 years. 

Likewise that of David Shafto Hawks, Esq., his son and 
heir, who died 8 Sept, i860, unmarried. 

The family was founded by William Hawks, a foreman 
smith in the employment of Sir Ambrose Crowley's heirs at 
the Swalwell Ironworks, who by his industry and frugality 
was enabled to set up a forge at Gateshcad-on-T)rne in 
November, 1749. 

Mr Robert Shafto Hawks, of Rotherhithe and of Borough 
High Street, Southwark, Solicitor, was, as we have said, the 
son of Mr Edward Hawks, shipbuilder. He was for many 
years the trusted adviser and much respected Vestry Clerk 
of Rotherhithe, and conducted all the business of the parish 
under successive Churchwardens and Overseers. He married 
Miss Jane Martha Stokes, of Roughton in the Parish of VVor- 
field, near Bridgnorth in the County of Salop. Eventually 
he removed from his residence in Paradise Street, Rotherhithe, 
to Hertford, where he died. Mr Hawks left by his will a 
sum of money at his widow's death to pay two additional 
pensioners of Mrs Bayly's Charity. 

His brother-in-law, Mr James J. Stokes, became his part- 
ner, and they were eventually appointed Joint Vestry Clerks. 
Mr Stokes sprung from an old Shropshire family, claiming 
descent from Adrian Stokes. 

Mr James J. Stokes was married to Miss Agnes Beatson, 
daughter of Mr John Beatson, the famous shipbreaker of 
Rotherhithe Street; he has a large family of sons and 
daughters; and although with the creation of the Metro- 
politan Borough of Bormondsey his old duties as Vestry 
Clerk have ceased, he still continues to discharge the duties 



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1/6 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

of Clerk to the Rotherhithe Consolidated Charities and is the 
trusted legal adviser of the Rector and Churchwardens in all 
matters of parochial and other business. 

In addition to the bequest of Mr R. Shafto Hawks, above 
mentioned, a further augmentation of this valuable charity 
has recently been made by the late Mr Samuel Ward Copping, 
of Landale Lodge, Lower Road, an old inhabitant of Rother- 
hithe, who rose from a humble condition of life to a position 
of considerable affluence. By his will, dated 1904, he be- 
queathed ;£'iOOO to augment Mrs Bayly's Charity. 

Mr James Kid. 

Mr James Kid by his will, August, 185 1, bequeathed the 
sum of £600 to the rector and churchwardens of Rotherhithe 
in trust, to be laid out ''to the best of their judgment in 
rendering more acceptable the means of education to the 
poorer classes of this Parish." 

This is the only educational charity which has been placed 
in the hands of the rector and churchwardens, and when it 
became available after the death of Mr Kid's housekeeper, 
who had a life interest in it, after careful consideration it vras 
determined to ofler free scholarships to deserving scholars 
of the Church Day Schools of the parish, to continue their 
education at St Olave's Grammar School in Southwark, which 
had been shortly before that time thrown open to the children 
of non-parishioners. 

These valuable scholarships have been the means of ad- 
vancing the interests of many deserving lads whose feet are 
thus placed upon the lower rungs of the educational ladder, 
by which they may eventually ascend to the highest positions 
at the Universities of the land 

Mr John Sprunt. 

In 1877, another old Rotherhithe man, John Sprunt, by 
his will, dated 14th November, 1868, bequeathed ;^200 Consob 
to the churchwardens of St Mary, Rotheriiithe, for six poor 
widows, share and share alike. 



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Samuel Gillam. Esq.. J. P., Surgeon, 
of Rotherhithe. 



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XII] OLD ROTHERHITHE FAMILIES I77 

In the parish church, on large boards, these various bene- 
factors are duly recorded in thankful remembrance of past 
good deeds and as an incitement to others "to go and do 
likewise." The old alms-box by the church door is inscribed 
with the words of Holy Writ: ''Remember the poor"; and 
the old collecting plates which were held at the door by the 
wardens and other friends of the Charity School are inscribed 
in gold letters, "Remember the poor Charity children, for 
God's sake and your own." 

Samuel Gillam, J.P. 

This gentleman was a surgeon and a magistrate long 
resident in Rotherhithe, and must have been one of the 
best known characters in South London during the middle 
of the eighteenth century. 

The European Magazine of August, 1793, gives the fol- 
lowing account of him : 

''Samuel Gillam was bom at Rotherhithe in 1722. His 
father, Samuel Gillam, was a captain in the Honourable East 
India Company's Service. His mother was Ann Hunt, whose 
family resided in Rotherhithe for upwards of 200 years. 

He was educated at Cheam School under the Reverend 
Mr D. Saxey, who wished him to proceed to one of the 
Universities ; but he himself wished to be a medical man, and 
he was bound to Mr John Stokoe, a surgeon, who died before 
his apprenticeship was expfred. The remainder of his time 
he passed with Mr John Belchier in Guy's Hospital, where he 
attended the lectures of Dr Nichols, and Messrs Girl and 
Sharp. He afterwards practised as a surgeon in Rotherhithe. 

In 1745 h^ was very active in support of the Government, 
and shortly afterwards he was made Justice of the Peace for 
the County of Surrey. 

In 1764 William Corbett was taken before Justice Gillam 
chained with murder, and was by him committed for trial. 
Sec p. 237. 

Being intimate with Daniel Ponton, Esq., Chairman of 
Quarter Sessions at St Margaret's Hill, Mr Gillam became 
involved in a suit, in which much party obloquy was excited. 

a la 



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178 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

On May lO, 1768, a riotous mob assembled before the 
King's Bench Prison, where Wilkes was confined. The Justices 
Ponton, Gillam and Eyre went with some troops to keep the 
peace, and the Riot Act was read. Justice Ponton was struck 
on the breast Mr Gillam persuaded the people to disperse 
to their homes. Eventually a stone struck him on the temple 
and caused him to reel three or four yards backward ; when, 
apprehending his life to be in danger, he called on the soldiers 
to fire. One man was killed. For this act Justice Gillam 
was tried at the Old Bailey in September, 1768, when, with- 
out a single witness being examined, he was honourably 
acquitted, and had a copy of his indictment given him. 

In the year 1780 (that important and disgraceful period) 
Mr Gillam's house was threatened with destruction. Several 
young gentlemen of the neighbourhood came to him, and 
offered their services to defend him. Soon after they formed 
themselves into a Company, wore uniforms, and learned mili- 
tary exercise, making Mr Gillam their commander. 

Mr Gillam married Rebecca, the only daughter of Samuel 
Towers, formerly a Commander in the Jamaica trade. By 
her he had three children, who all died young. This lady 
fell a victim to the rage of the mob of 1768, dying that year 
at Bath in consequence of affright 

For several years before his death Mr Gillam lost the use 
of his limbs, and seldom went abroad. He was however able 
to entertain a few select friends, preserving his powers of 
mind unimpaired till the last 

After a long and tedious illness he died on July 7, 1793, 
and was buried at Rotherhithe." 

His portrait by Holloway is dated 1787. 

His residence was a house in Paradise Street, in the open 
part facing Mill-Pond Bridge, and in the rear is an alley of 
small houses running through to Rotherhithe WalL These 
cottages, which he evidently built himself, still preserve his 
name, being called ** Gillam's Court** 



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XII] OLD ROTHERHITHE FAMILIES I79 



Mr Thomas Smith. 

This gentleman deserves a place in these records. He 
was devoted to yachting on the Thames, and was one of the 
first members of the Royal Thames Yacht Club. 

A monument on the south wall of the Church bears this 
inscription : 

To the memory of the late 

Mr Thomas Smith 

Born in this Parish on the 7th June 1790 

And died 

At his residence in Princes Street 

on the 25th May 1848 

leaving a Widow and family 

to deplore his loss. 

This Tablet 

To hold in memory 

The good qualities and integrity 

By which he endeared himself 

To those who knew him 

has been erected 

By a subscription of members of 

The Royal Thames Yacht Club 

of which Society 

he was from its formation 

a Strenuous Supporter. 

Mr Thornton Scovell (Secretary of the Royal Thames 
Yacht Club), writing under date 26 February, 1890, says: — 
^ Thomas Smith was admitted a member of the (then) Thames 
Yacht Club on the 2nd Dec., 1824, and his address is given 
'Surrey Canal,' and '45, Princes St, Rotherhithe,' and later 
on of '37, Princes St and Parthenon Club.' He paid his 
last subscription on the 4th of May, 1848, and died that day 
three weeks. He had two yachts, the Qu€€h Victoria, 22 ton 
cutter, and Lady Louisa, 12 ton cutter." 

12 — a 



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l8o ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

Mr John Small Sedger. 

For the following account of the Sedger family the writer 
is indebted to the kindness of Mr John S. Chambers, of 
"Yarraville," Melbourne, Australia, and his sister Mrs Patter- 
son, of ** St Mai^aretV' 2 Canham Road, South Norwood. 

John Small Sedger lived and died in ** Globe House*," 
the large house at the end of Globe Street (now called Beatson 
Street), near the Mast Pond. He had been a shipowner, but 
latterly had only two or three dry docks on the Thames: 
his business was principally carried on in Globe Dock. He 
possessed a lai^e property in the part of Lower Rotherhithe ; 
from Sweeting's Dock to Russell Street (now called Derrick 
Street*) he had a number of houses ; he was highly respected 
and esteemed, and he was chosen a Guardian of the Poor, 
which office he held for many years, and was presented by 
the parishioners with a silver salver as a token of their 
appreciation of his services. 

Mr Sedger had three sons, John, William, and Thomas, 
and several daughters. 

John inherited the bulk of the property. 

William was a sailor, and went with Captain Parry in 
search of the North- West Passage ; he had a fall from an 
iceberg and fell into a consumption from the effects of the 
fall and fractured ribs. He just lived till the ships returned, 
when he reached home and died. 

Thomas Small Sedger, the youngest son, was an M.A. 
of Queens' Collie, in the University of Cambridge, and 
entered into Holy Orders. He was Curate of Cooling, of 
New Buckenham, and of Rusland, and was subsequently 
Chaplain of the County Gaol at Stafford. He was the 
translator into English of Hugo Grotius' de VeritaU Reli- 
gionis Christiana. He married late in life. 

* This house was subteqaently acqaired by the Dock Company and pulled down. 

' All historical links with the past are gradually being destroyed by the 
re-naming of old streets. The next generation will never know that the Duke of 
Bedford owned Russell Street, Rotherhithe, or that Neston Street now represents 
the once too notorious ** Hanover Bay" and the Wintershull Street of still 
earlier days. 



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XIl] OLD ROTHERHITHE FAMILIES l8l 

Mary Sedger married a Mr Bushell, the architect of the 
King and Queen Granary in Rotherhithe Street, which is 
said to be the largest granary and in the longest street in 
London. It certainly is a vast structure and is built over 
a small creek of the river, so that* barges can be unloaded 
beneath it. (This huge granary has been twice destroyed 
by fire.) 

Hannah Sedger married Captain Crowe Nicholson, and 
left two daughters. 

Harriet Leveridge Sedger married Mr George Pitt, Col- 
lector of the King's Taxes and Registrar of Births, Deaths, 
and Marriages here. They lived in Paradise Row (now 
Union Road). Mrs Pitt died in 1868. 

Rosina Sedger, the youngest, married Edward Chambers, 
son of Captain John Chambers, and her son is Mr John S. 
Chambers, of Melbourne. 

Jane Sedger, the eldest daughter, married the Reverend 
Thomas Dealtrey, M.A., who claimed kindred with the ancient 
family of Dealtrey, of Loft- House Hall in the County of York. 

Mr Dealtrey was educated at St Catharine's Hall in the 
University of Cambridge, and graduated LL.B. in 1828. 
After taking Holy Orders he held a curacy in the Diocese 
of Winchester, and in 1831 was appointed a Chaplain in the 
Honourable East India Company's service and went out 
with his wife to Calcutta. Dr Daniel Wilson, the Bishop 
of Calcutta, was at that time just consecrated, and he, soon 
after his arrival, appointed Mr Dealtrey Archdeacon of Cal- 
cutta, where for 14 years he faithfully discharged his arduous 
duties in that vast diocese. 

In 1846 Dr Howley, Archbishop of Canterbury, conferred 
on Mr Dealtrey the degree of D.D. Coming home on furlough 
he was appointed to the charge of St John's Church, Bedford 
Row. About this time Dr Spencer, the Bishop of Madras, 
resigned his see. and the Prime Minister, Lord John Russell, 
oflered it to Dr Dealtrey. He accepted the post and was 
consecrated Bishop of Madras, at the same time with 
Dr Hinds, Bishop of Norwich, and Dr Olivant, Bbhop of 
LlandaflT. 



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l82 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

Bishop Dealtrey died in 1861, leaving one son, Thomas, 
and one daughter. The latter married a clergyman. 

Thomas Dealtrey was.M.A. of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
He took Orders, and was Curate of Raydon, in Suflfolk, and 
of Brenchley, in Kent, which latter post he resigned in 1851 ; 
and becoming a chaplain to the H. E. I. Company, proceeded 
to Madras. His father appointed him to be his domestic 
chaplain and Archdeacon. 

In 1 87 1 he returned to England, and was presented to 
the Rectory of Swillington, York, from whence he was pro- 
moted to the Vicarage of Maidstone in the gift of the Primate, 
where he died about 1883. 

John Small Sedger and his wife lie buried beneath the 
Church of St Mary, Rotherhithe, and the family is scattered 
far and wide. 

John Sedger retired, and lived as a country gentleman 
near Croydon. 

James Sedger was in Sir Charles Price's Bank in King 
William Street 

There was also a Christopher Sedger, a nephew of John 
Small Sedger, living in Rotherhithe. 



Captain Thomas Coram. 

It is believed that this excellent sea-captain, the noble- 
hearted founder of the Foundling Hospital, after his retirement 
from a seafaring life, took up his residence in Rotherhithe 
about the year 1722. Confirmation of this belief has not 
been found, although Rotherhithe is a place in which old 
mariners often settled when they ceased to go to sea. It is 
added that it was during his sojourn here that while traversing 
the streets, on his way to and from the city, he witnessed 
between this place and Tooley Street many distressing cases 
of children exposed through the indigence or heartlessness of 
their parents, which induced him to devise means for the 
future care of these unhappy foundlings, and to found the 
institution which will be for ever associated with his name. 



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XII] OLD ROTHERHITHE FAMILIES 1 83 



The Kelsey Family. 

The members of this family have been very long resident 
in Rotherhithe. Mr John Kelsey was for many years a builder, 
residing in Paradise Street, and his brother Richard was the 
Surveyor to the Corporation of the City of London. He was 
the sculptor of the well-known statue of King William the 
Fourth which was erected on the occasion of the building of 
New London Bridge. It stands facing the bridge at the top 
of King William Street, and it was originally surrounded by 
an iron railing with four lamp-posts. These have long since 
been removed to give more room to the increasing traffic 
which at this point passes along King William Street, Grace- 
church Street, and Cannon Street. The statue is a very 
dignified one of the "* Sailor King," and the base of the upper 
pedestal on which it stands is fittingly enriched with a ship's 
cable. 

The son of Mr John Kelsey, Mr William Henry Kelsey, 
still lives in Union Road, Rotherhithe, but no longer practises 
his business of builder and marble mason. His second wife 
was a daughter of the late Mr Hawksley of Rotherhithe. She 
died in March, 1906. 



The Meriton Family. 

These were seafaring people and good fighters. The 
inscription on a marble tablet on the south wall of the 
Church records the services of Henry Meriton. 

In memory of 
Heniy Meriton, Esq** 
whose remains together with those of ^ 

hb Mother and Grandmother 

rest in the vault beneath this Church. 

He served the Honourable East India Company 

In various appomtments 

with distinguished teal« activity and fidelity 

for more than forty years 

And during the last fourteen 



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l84 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

filled the important office of 

Superintendent of their Marine at Bombay 

From whence having returned 

in the month of April, 1826 

He died on the seventh of the succeeding August 

aged Sixty four Years. 

Also of his Brother 

Walter Allen Meriton, Esq'^ 
who died the 31*^ of October 1853, aged 88 years. 

I am indebted for the subjoined information respecting 
them to the kindness of Mr C. H. Sanders, Royal Marines, of 
the Royal Naval College, Greenwich. 

The following is also from Allen's Battles of the British 
Navy. 

On the 3rd July, 1810, three outward bound E. I. Co.'8 ships, 
the Ciyhn^ Windham^ and Astell^ Captains Henry Meriton, 
I. Stewart, and R. Hay, having on board 250 troops, when near the 
Island of Mayotta, were attacked, and after a very gallant defence 
the two first were captured by the French 40-gun frigates BeU&ne9.^A 
Minerve^ and the i8-gun corvette Vietar. The Ceylon lost 6 killed 
and 21 wounded. The Astell escaped. 

The following is from Orme's list of H. E. I. C. ships. 

Henry Meriton, 3rd mate, Pigot^ season 1782-3 
2nd „ Halsewell^ 1785-6 K 
ist n Bridgetvater^ 1785-6/ 
ist »» Albion^ 17 90-1 
ist H Exeter, i79«-3. >794-5f '797-8 
CapUin JEjK/^r, 1799-1800^1802-3,1804-5,1807-8 
„ Ceylom, 1809-10 

Walter Kteriton was 2nd mate Euphrates, 1809-10, but this is 
not the brother of Henry who appears on the same monument, 
though I fancy some relation. He died 11 Dec 1872, and is buried 
at Nunhead Cemetery. His age was 84 years. 

> The Hmlsgwiii was luit in the early part of the tcaioii, which aocoonu for 
the two ttmilar datct. 



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XII] 



OLD ROTHERHITHE FAMILIES 



185 



Walter Allen Meriton, a captain in the Barbadoes trade, married 
Miss Hannah Crout of Bermondsey (9 Sept. 1787). {Gent 
Magazifu.) 

Their daughter, Sarah Meriton, married the Rev. Thomas Henry 
Walpole, Vicar of Winslow, co. Bucks, and left issue. 

The following are from Allen's Battles of the British 

Navy. 

On the 4th August, 1800, the 64-gun ship Belliqueux^ when off 
the coast of Brazil with a fleet of outward bound East India ships, 
met the French 4o-gun frigate Concorde^ the 36-gun frigates Mkdke 
and Franchise^ and a schooner prize. The French scattered on the 
warlike appearance of the convoy ; the Belliqueux chased the Qm- 
€orde\ the Exeter^ Captain Henry Meriton, with the Bombay Castle^ 
Coutts^ and Neptune^ pursued the Midie. The Concorde was captured 
after a short resistance at 5.30 p.m. At 7 p.m. the Exeter ranging 
up alongside the Midie with all her ports up, Captain Meriton 
demanded the surrender of the frigate. To his infinite surprise this 
was complied with, the French capuin thinking that he was under 
the guns of a line-of-battle ship. 

On the 31st January, 1804, an Indian fleet of 16 sail of ist dass 
ships sailed from China. These ships varied from 1200 to 1500 
tons, mounting 30 to 36 guns, with crews averaging 100 men each, 
exclusive of Indians. These ships were not calculated to contend 
with a corvette as their ports were small, so that guns could only fire 
on the beam ; and these were only i8-pounders. In fact they were 
only intended to deter privateers and piratical Malays. 

Their appearance was very warlike ; for being lofty, well rigged 
and painted, and with two tiers of ports, might be taken at a distance 
for line-of-battle ships. 

The fleet consisted of 



Earl Camden 


Nat. Dance 


Abergavenny 


J. Wordsworth 


Warley 


Hen. Wilson 


Addingtan 


J. Kirkpatrick 


Alfred 


Jas. Farquharson 


Bombay Castle 


Arch. Hamilton 


Royal George 


J. F. Timmins 


Cumberland 


W. W. Farrcr 


Coutts 


R. Tourin 


Hope 




Wexford 


W. S. Clarke 


Dorsetshire 


R. H. Brown 


Ganges 


Wm. Moflatt 


W. Hastings 


Thos. Larkins 


Exeter 


Hen. Meriton 


Ocean 

[ 


J. C. Lockner 

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l86 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

There were also ii country ships, 2 other merchant ships, and 
the Company's armed brig Ganges. 

On the 14th February, at 8 a.m., the fleet, being off Pulo Auro, 
discovered 4 strange sail to leeward bearing S.W. ; Captain Dance 
directed the Alfred^ Royal George^ Bombay Castle^ and Hope^ to bear 
up and reconnoitre the strangers. The Ganges also stood towards 
them. They were made out to be one lineof-battle ship, three 
frigates and one brig. These composed Rear-Admiral Linois' 
squadron (74-gun ship Marengo^ 40-gun frigate Belle Poule^ 36-gun 
frigate Shnillante^ 23-gun corvette Beneau^ and i6-gun brig Aven- 
tuner) sent to cut this fleet of merchants off. 

Having recalled his ships Commodore Dance disposed his ships 
in the best possible order for defence, the country ships on the lee 
bow of the armed ships; he hove to for the night, and hoisting 
lights awaited the approach of the enemy. The French Admiral 
appeared little inclined to attack, and at daybreak next morning 
was lying to about tliree miles to windward. Commodore Dance 
filled and made sail at 9 a.m. on the starboard tack and hoisted his 
colours; upon which the French edged off the wind and stood 
towards him. At i p.m., observing that the French intended to cut 
off his rear, Commodore Dance signalled to his ships to tack in 
succession and edge off the wind to windward of the British rear, 
and engage the enemy on arriving up. This was done with the 
correctness of a well disciplined fleet; the Bcyal George leading, 
followed by the Ganges^ Earl Camden^ Warley^ Alfred^ and others. 
Thus the British ships with a light wind and top gallant sails set 
approached the enemy. At 1.15 p.m. the Marengo fired on the 
Boyal George and Ganges^ the latter returning it in a very spirited 
manner. The Royal George was engaged nearly 40 minutes. The 
whole action lasted 43 minutes, and then the Marengo and her 
consorts ceased firing, hauled their wind, and made sail away. The 
British gave chase for a short time. 

Commodore Dance was knighted for the above action, and I read 
in Orme's list of the H. E. 1. C ships, b the Appendix, that the 
Company presented him with aooo guineas and a piece of plate ; to 
Captain Timmins 1000 guineas and a piece of plate; other captains 
500 guineas and a piece of plate. 

The Patriotic Fund gave swords, value 50 guineas, to all the 
captains, and to Commodore Dance one, value 100 guineas. 



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xii] old rotherhithe families 187 

Dr Gaitskell. 

Among the numerous medical practitioners in Kother- 
hithe was Dr Gaitskell, who lived in a fine house in Paradise 
Street, not far from the old surgeon of an earlier day, Samuel 
Gillam. 

This house is now the Police Station, and its solid 
mahogany doors and spacious hall still testify to its original 
destination for the private residence of a wealthy pro- 
fessional man. 

WooDRUFFE, Roberts, Pearson. 

Several families of consideration formerly lived in good 
houses in Kotherhithe Street, a little eastward of the Parish 
Church. Of these Mr Alexander Roberts and his widow 
after him had a residence here with a large garden attached 
to it. 

Mr Pearson, and after him his daughter Miss Pearson, 
lived in this part also ; and Miss Pearson was so much 
attached to her old Rotherhithe home that when she even- 
tually removed out of this Parish she chose a new home in 
Battersea, overlooking the Thames, that she might still see 
the sailing barges pass her windows. 

Mr Woodruffe was a gentleman of substance who formerly 
lived in the same part of Rotherhithe Street. 

The following inscription is on a tomb in Rotherhithe 
churchyard : 

Mrs Ann Esther Woodniffe 

relict of Wm Woodniffe, Suigeon in the Royal Navy 

died 18 May 1843 aged 80 years 

Richard Geoige Woodniffe 
died 7 October 1850 

Daniel Meilan. 

This gentleman, who afterwards became a resident and 
owner of property in Rotherhithe, was married on June 21, 
1783, at the Church of St Andrew Undershaft, in the City of 



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188 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

London, to Fanny King, of Rotherhithe, by the Reverend 
Samuel Carr, at that time the rector. The witnesses were 
Joseph Waring and Edward Coxe. 

This information we learn from an extract from the 
marriage register of St Andrew Undershaft made Jan. ii, 
1858, attested by Frederick Charles Dalton, of i Fenchurch 
Buildings, for the Reverend F. G. Blomfield. who was then 
rector. 

This certificate was apparently produced in course of an 
action at law. It was given to Canon Beck by the late Mr 
John Talbot, of Rotherhithe, on Sept 6, 1881. 



Amelia Meilan was an owner of houses in Clarence Street, 
which were purchased for the erection of the Ragged School 
in the year 1857. 

The Tucker Family. 

This was an old Rotherhithe family of shipwrights con- 
nected with Mr Peter Mestaires, the shipbuilder down town, 
whose name is perpetuated by the narrow crescent or passage 
which he built — Mestaires' or Mistears' Buildings. 

Mr Tucker left two sons, James and Thomas. The elder 
was originally apprenticed as a shipwright, but gave up that 
business and lived without any definite occupation. At his 
death he left a small legacy to the Amicable Society's School. 

The younger, Thomas, was in a city office, and died 
recently, leaving a family who are still in South London. 

The Grice Family. 

Grice's granaries, near the Church, still perpetuate the 
name of this wealthy family. A Mr Grice was captain of the 
Loyal Rotherhithe Volunteers during the great war, and 
presented colours to the Corps. They formerly hung in the 
Vestry of the Parish Church, and were duly brought out when 
the Rotherhithe Volunteers of a later date came here for 
church parade. On the amalgamation of the Bermondsey 



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XII] OLD ROTHERHITHE FAMILIES 189 

and the Rotherhithe Volunteer Corps into the 3rd Volunteer 
Battalion of *'the Queen's" Royal West Surrey Regiment these 
old colours were committed to the care of the Colonel com- 
manding the new battalion, and they are carefully preserved 
in the drill hall in Jamaica Road. 

The burying-place of the Grice family is on the north side 
of the churchyard, but has no monumental inscription. 



HOSEASON— BERREY. 

Among the numerous enquirers who ask to have the 
parish roisters searched, was recently a lady whose married 
name is Berrey, but whose maiden name was Anne Smith 
Hoseason. She was bom in March, 1831, in the Surrey 
canal dock-house, so that her father must have been dock- 
master here. 

Wooster. 

Mr Thomas Wooster not long since wrote for information 
about his family from Waipawa, Hawkes' Bay, New Zealand. 
It was found on searching the registers that Henry Feather- 
stonhaugh Wooster, a shipbroker, was living in Paradise Row 
(now Union Road) in July, 1839. 

Mr Samuel Brownfield, J.P. 

This gentleman was for many years the resident superin- 
tendent of the Surrey Commercial Docks, and in that 
responsible post exercised great influence in the Parish. 
Mr Brownfield's father was a naval oflicen He succeeded 
the late Mr John Ross as superintendent His intercourse 
with the Norwegian shipowners and timber merchants was 
naturally very intimate, and his character was so highly 
appreciated in that country that the King of Sweden conferred 
upon him the Order of Vasa. 

Mr Brownfield has been appointed Director of the Dock 
Company, and has retired to Blackheath. 



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190 st mary, rotherhithe [ch. 

Mr Charles Jollands Thompson. 

This gentleman, who had held the post of deputy super- 
intendent, has now succeeded Mr Brown field as superintendent. 
He is sprung from an old Greenwich family. Mr Thompson 
married a niece of the Reverend James Wilson, formerly 
Vicar of Holy Trinity Parish, Rotherhithe. He is one of the 
foundation managers of St Paul's National Schools, and also 
of the Amicable Society's School, in both of which he takes 
great interest. 

Mr Francis John Bisley. 

Mr Bisley has been long resident in Rotherhithe, and has 
served all the offices of the parish, being successively sides- 
man and churchwarden, and long a member of the Vestry. 
Though no longer living here he still exercises his profession 
as a valuer and auctioneer, and is greatly respected and 
trusted. He is a trustee of the various charities of the Parish. 

Mr John Bulmer. 

This gentleman settled in Rotherhithe in early life, and 
quickly attained a prominent position in local affairs. He 
was an influential member of the Vestry of Rotherhithe, and 
served all the offices, being successively sidesman and church- 
warden of the Parish Church. His eldest son, Mr John 
Henry Bulmer, is a leading member of the Borough Council 
of Botnondsey, and he has been elected Mayor for the year 
190S-6. 

The Wilson Family. 

Captain Henry Wilson, Commander of the H. E. India 
Company's ship Antelope^ was a resident in Paradise Row 
(now Union Road). His fine portrait is the frontispiece to 
the narrative of the Pelew Islands, on one of which his ship 
was wrecked in the year 1783. His features suggest that he 
was a man of some cultivation, as we know that he was a 
good seaman. 



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XII] OLD ROTHERHITHE FAMILIES I9I 

He lies in the same grave with the young Prince Lee Boo, 
on the western side of Rotherhithe churchyard, and near the 
passage between St Marychurch Street and Rotherhithe 
Street The inscription is much obliterated, but it records 
his preservation and that of the ship's crew under circum- 
stances of great peril. 

The Walker Family. 

This family has been long resident in Rotherhithe ; several 
members of it lie buried in the old burial-ground and in the 
churchyard 

Mr Ralph Walker, of Berkeley Street, was for many years 
an anchor and ship-smith on the north side of the church. 
He was a Wesleyan Methodist of great piety, and he was the 
last person to be interred^ in the churchyard by special 
permission of H.M. Secretary of State on May 25, 1878, 
aged 84 years. 

Mr Walker's two sons, Ralph Westall and John Walker, 
survived him for many years — the elder was, like his father, 
an anchor and ship-smith. He is now dead, but his brother 
still lives in Culling Road. Both brothers were vestrymen of 
Rotherhithe. 

The Talbot Family. 

This family, originally resident in Lambeth, settled here 
and engaged in the barge-building business some 60 years 
since. The head of the family, Mr Edward Talbot, was long 
connected with parochial affairs : he was a respected member 
of the Rotherhithe Vestiy, and served all the offices, being 
sidesman and afterwards churchwarden of the Parish Church. 
He was long a member of the Shipwrights Company, of 
which he was a past-master and treasurer. He died in 1905. 

Hb nephews were Mr Edward James Talbot and Mr 
Francb Thomas Talbot, who were partners in a large busi- 

' One other eotiy 00cm in the old bvrial register— that of Mr John Pcarccy, 
aged 76, of Chnrch Street, on Jnne 34, 1870. He was the owner of the houses 
ladng Princes Street. 



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192 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

ness, building wooden and iron lighter-barges. Both brothers 
were members of the Vestry and churchwardens, Mr F. T. 
Talbot is a member of the Bermondsey Borough Council, of 
which he is an alderman, and he is a very painstaking trustee 
of the Parish Charities. There are other members of the 
family still living in Rotherhithe and the neighbourhood. 



Mr E. Rumney Smith. 

This gentleman, in partnership with Mr Rose, conducts a 
large timber business in the Lower Road. He is a very 
energetic churchman, and, beside serving as churchwarden of 
the Parish Church, he has done much for the new Church of 
St Katharine, of which he is the able choir-master, and has 
trained an excellent choir and orchestra. Though he no 
longer resides in Rotherhithe, he continues to act as a trustee 
of the Parochial Charities. 



Whatever be our merits in Rotherhithe and our services 
to the Country as Shipbuilders and Mariners, we have little 
claim to be distinguished in literature or in art Yet there 
are two persons who must not be omitted in our roll of 
honour. 

A minor poet who gave much innocent pleasure to many, 
especially of the lower middle class, by her poems was Miss 
Eliza Cook, the author of -The Old Arm Chair" and other 
verses of a sentimental character. She was a frequent visitor 
to Rotherhithe and her portrait is still to be met with in 
some of the older houses, where her well-known features are 
pourtrayed with the hair parted on one side and her form 
arrayed in somewhat masculine costume. 

The last survivor of the Pre-rafaellite brotherhood, Mr 
Holman Hunt, whose collected pictures have been exhibited 
in London in the autumn of the present year, 1906, was the 
nephew of a most respected parishioner, the late Mr Alfred 



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XII] OLD ROTHERHITHE FAMILIES I93 

Thomas Hobman, contractor, of Plough Road, and the writer 
has been told by Mr Hobman that his nephew's Christian 
name was in fact not Holman but Hobman. Artists have no 
doubt the privilege of changing their names, but they do not 
thereby deprive their families of the right to claim kinship 
with them, and we in Rotherhithe may be proud of our 
connection, though it may be but a slight one, with the 
distinguished painter whose beautiful pictures have given so 
much pleasure and instruction to generations of Englishmen. 
-The Light of the World" adorns the Chapel of Keble 
Collie, Oxford. Many other of his works are in private 
collections and have been engraved, among the best known 
being "the Scape GoaC "the finding of our Saviour in the 
Temple by His Parents " and « the Shadow of the Cross." 



Among Missionary Clergy who have gone out from 
Rotherhithe should be mentioned the Reverend Canon Sutton 
of Adelaide, South Australia. He was a son of the late 
Mr Henry Sutton, of Almond Tree House, Lower Road, and 
a younger brother of Mr John Sutton, till lately resident 
with his father-in-law, Mr Edward Talbot, in Walker Place. 
Canon Sutton studied at St Augustine's Collie, Canterbury; 
and after his Ordination he devoted himself to work in the 
Foreign Mission Field. 

The Reverend Frank Wells studied for some years for 
Holy Orders with the Rev. L. H. Blakeston, Vicar of All 
Saints', Rotherhithe, and subsequently at the Missionary 
College of St Augustine, Canterbury. He is now a medical 
student at St Mary's Hospital and was ordained Deacon at 
Christmas 1905, and Priest Christmas 1906, by the Bishop of 
London. As soon as he has completed his medical course 
he will go out as a Medical Missionary to one of the Indian 
Dioceses. 



«3 

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CHAPTER XIII. 

PHYSICAL ASPECT OF ROTHERHITHE IN 1800 
{from notes of an old inhabitants recollections^ 

The appearance and state of Rotherhithe have undergone 
great changes since the year 1800. There was nothing then 
to obstruct the view right across the parish, so that from the 
^' Seven Islands" and Blue Anchor Road we could see the 
hulls of the ships at high water passing some open spaces on 
the other' side of the parish, somewhere about the Pageants 
and Cuckold's Point ; it was then a clear, open country, the 
boundary of each holder's land being a ditch full of water. 
That was again divided into fields by ditches. The fields 
contained from two to ten acres each, according to the dry 
or swampy nature of the soil. Every road or lane was 
bounded on each side by ditches. There were no hedges 
or other kind of fence; nothing but ditches, so that they 
formed a complete network of water all over the parish, and 
having communications with each other, and also with the 
river, they could readily be supplied with water in dry 
weather, but it could not be so easily drawn off in wet, 
owing to the level of the land being so much below high 
water in the river ; for the means, either by sluices or sewers, 
were nothing like so perfect as they are now, and that oc- 
casioned extensive patches of boggy ground being under 
water after much rain. The most part of the parish consisted 
of grass land, and when a dry summer took place they were 
sure of a wonderful crop of hay, their means of irrigation 
being so easily supplied. 

And although we had so much more water about, still the 
neighbourhood was as healthy as any other place, for the 



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Houses on the Mill-stream. 



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CH. XIII] ROTHERHITHE IN I8CX) I95 

ditches of late years must not be taken as a fair sample of 
the same fifty or sixty years ago. Then, by clauses in the 
various leases, they were compelled to be kept clean, and 
the water in most of them was as fit for domestic use as most 
part of the water that London is supplied with at the present 
day. Every ditch abounded with eels, and the deepest and 
widest with carp. There were also other varieties, for in 
1802 or 1803, I knew a salmon weighing eight or nine 
pounds to be caught in that ditch that runs by the side of 
Harbord's present rope-ground ; it must first have come out 
of the river into the millpond, and from thence through a 
trunk that supplied that part with water ; but as this trunk 
had not been opened for a month or more, it is clear that 
it must have lived for that time at least in a hole against 
a dam, where it was caught by W. Crout, and as it was in 
full strength and vigour its residence could not have been 
an unhealthy one. 

Besides all the varieties of small singing birds, snipe were 
so numerous all over the district that sportsmen considered 
it a first-rate shooting ground. We had also quantities of 
moorhen, starlings, kingfishers, etc, and in the winter, when 
the marshy parts were under water, sea-g^lls and sometimes 
wild ducks. I have also known several herons to be taken, 
and we have occasionally been honoured by short visits from 
swans, but they came mostly to the Bermondsey part of the 
marshes known as Roll's Marshes and consisting of that part 
that the Bricklayers' Arms branch railway runs through. 
Now Roll's Marshes were always under water in the winter, 
and sometimes formed one sheet of water consisting of scores 
of acres, and had the appearance of a large lake ; and when 
frozen over it was changed into a sort of fair, for skaters 
flocked there from all parts of town. It was a formidable 
rival to the parks and to all other pieces of ice on account of 
its security, for if the ice gave way the worst accident that 
could befall was a cold bath to the legs. 

It was not only an attractive place for fishers, fowlers, and 
skaters, but it formed a rich field for the exploration of the 
botanist I have heard an old man (a simple, as they were 

13— a 



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196 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

then called) declare that they could find in Rotherhithe and 
Its vicinity a greater variety of plants than in any other place 
he had ever visited, especially aquatic plants. 

Also the naturalist must have found it a valuable place to 
collect his specimens, for I have seen collections of flies, shells, 
water-beetles, and that sort of things, and could recognize 
nearly all of them as old acquaintances in the ditches ^nd 
meadows of Rotherhithe half a century ago. 

In 1800 Rotherhithe may be said to be almost destitute 
of trees, for there was no fruit grown for sale (except elder- 
berries). AH that were grown were in private gardens, such 
as the back gardens of Paradise Row and the Island Gardens, 
for the market gardeners did not b^n to plant fruit trees 
for ten or twelve years after, and about the same time there 
sprang up a new and great demand for willow for the manu- 
facture of chip-hats and bonnets, and other fancy articles, and 
the land being favourable for the growth of the trees they 
were planted in great numbers by the sides of the ditches in 
almost every field, and as they grew rapidly in size in a few 
years the aspect of the neighbourhood was quite altered 
And yet the parish was not entirely destitute of trees in 
former days, for there was a noble row of elms along the 
eastern side of the Level. The first two stood close to Mill- 
pond Bridge (then a narrow wooden bridge^ with the sign 
of " The Two Brewers " hanging between them, and then they 
continued close to the millpond bank and round the road as 
far as the parish went. They were all standing when my 
father first came to the place in 1782. Indeed there were the 
remains of some of them not forty years ago to be seen 
where Clare Hall Cottages stand now ; they originally grew 
all round the land side of the parish, at least where the land 
was dry enough for them to grow. Some of them are standing 
at the present time close to where the railway crosses the oM 
St Helena Lane now forming part of the New Road. Old 
people in my time had a habit of saying, instead of ''going 
round the Level ** or "^ the Islands,** *" going round the Grove,"* 
for when the trees were standii^ it was called ** Jamaica 
Grove." 



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XIII] ROTHERHITHE IN l8cX) 197 

In the last century London was girt round with elm, for 
the constantly increasing demand for water-pipes, that were 
then made exclusively of the trunks of elm trees merely bored 
through, caused it to bring a price, that those that held land in 
the neighbourhood had all the benefit of it, for when conveyed 
from a distance a great part of the money received was 
swallowed up by the expenses of the carriage ; and although 
Rotherhithe contributed to the supply, it did not join in the 
demand, for there was no water laid on in the parish until 
within the last thirty or forty years, and then iron pipes had 
entirely superseded elm trunks. The inhabitants before then 
were supplied by rain water, pumps, and wells, and also a 
great number of old men and women partly got their living 
by carrying water to the different houses from the river, the 
millpond, etc. 

At the close of the i8th century, on taking a walk round 
the land side of the parish from Millpond Bridge to Greenland 
Dock, you would have to go round the Level or the Islands, 
and then down the St Helena, or Cobbett's, or Rogue's Lane, 
for it was then known by all the three names; and then 
keeping straight along the Plough Road to the Dock. You 
would have to pass three turnpikes, the Swan, the St Helena, 
and the Plough. Each of these gates had a public-house 
close to it, from the sign of which it took its name. There 
was no Plough Bridge then, as the Surrey Canal was not 
made until 1803. ^^ going from the Swan gate to the 
St Helena, you would pass but two houses in the parish, 
one in the Islands and lately a boundary, but now pulled 
down; the other was Brandon's at that time, afterwards 
Broom's, and at present Gale's, the market gardener's. Besides 
these two houses there was no other building whatever, no 
rope-grounds or factory of any sort, and the opposite or 
Bermondsey side of the road had but two houses until you 
got near the " Blue Anchor," and they are still there : Cork's, 
the market gardener's, then belonging to Read ; and the present 
" Holly Tree," then the residence of W. and F. Crouts Brothers, 
also market gardeners. Bermondsey resembled Rotherhithe at 
that part; the view was unobstructed by trees or anything else. 



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198 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

Going from the St Helena to the Plough turnpike there 
was the half-way house, the " Red Lion " of the present day, 
only it stood with its face to the road that is at the back of 
the present "Red Lion"; for when the alteration was made 
in the Deptford Road twenty or thirty years ago, the house 
was rebuilt with its front turned to the east instead of the 
west for the purpose of trapping the travellers on the new 
made road. 

The only other place that stood in the parish, from one 
turnpike to another, was a notable one, not so much for the 
curious style of the residence as for the eccentric habits of 
the resident, and the curiosity of his profession and royal 
appointment It was upon a narrow strip of ground about 
ten or twelve feet wide, at the south side of the lane leading 
from the Deptford Old Road to the St Helena, that an old 
man named Doyle squatted down about the year 1792. He 
had been removed from his first station on some waste ground 
near the workhouse, and his house being on wheels he made 
a quick and easy move of it By d^^rees he added cabin 
to cabin, wharfing up and building platforms at the back 
of his little crib over the ditch* He at length enclosed the 
whole of that side of the lane from the old turnpike at the top 
to the St Helena. Part of it he made a garden, and some 
of his tenements he Jet off. He had a wife much younger 
than himself, and- several children, and so he occupied several 
of these cabins himself. They were puppetshow-looking 
places with a show-board along the top, and the royal arms 
surmounting that, and a flagstaff behind the arms, on which 
he mostly had the royal standard flying : on the board was 
inscribed.'' Michael Doyle, Bug destroyer to His Majesty.** 
But he was a preserver as well as a destroyer, for he professed 
to cure bad eyes, bad leg&^ and had a famous remedy for the 
ague. Somehow or other about 1800 he was either discarded 
by, or else he discarded, royalty, for he pulled down the 
royal arms, and no more hoisted the standard, but turned 
from a firm Royalist to a decided Republican. His life had 
been an adventurous one, for he was considered to be the 
last survivor of the crew of the " Centurion," and was along 



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On the Mill-stream, Jamaica Level. 



Morton Terrace. Jamaica Level, with Bridge 
across the Mill-stream. 



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XIIl] ROTHERHITHE IN 1800 I99 

with Anson all through that famous voyage round the 
world. This may account for the patronage he received 
from St James's, for that he was well known about the 
palace during the latter end of the i8th century I know to 
be a fact He died about 1808, nearly 90 years of age, and 
had saved £700 or £ioo. 

The Deptford Road from near the top of Paradise Row to 
the St Helena was then quite a lonely road, unwatched and 
unlighted, with an unrailed ditch on each side of it The 
only building on the west side of it was the workhouse, and 
a block of old buildings still there, called the Seven Houses. 
One of them was a public-house — the " Jolly Caulkers," The 
windmill and cottages about it were not built until after the 
commencement of the 19th century. On the eastern side 
the buildings were as few. There was the " China Hall," with 
a few adjoining cottages, and the "Jolly Sailor," opposite 
the workhouse. 

It will be seen that there was no lack of places of 
refreshment along the roads of Rotherhithe, but it was 
the same then on every road within two or three miles of 
London ; full half the houses were public ones. A roadside 
public-house was sure to have attractions for one class of 
customers or another — either an adjoining field for trap-bat 
and ball, or cricket, or a well-kept bowling green ; most of 
them with a tea-garden or some sort of out-door accom- 
modation: but the •' St Helena," then in possession of the elder 
Mr Howard, was equal to any place of the kind in the suburbs 
of town. Formed in 1720, it partook of the formal style of 
those days, its straight-sided fish-ponds the shape of the 
letter T, and well stocked with gold and silver fish, water- 
lilies and other choice aquatics ; the row of alcoves formed of 
yew and kept so neatly clipped; its long arcades formed 
of horse-chestnut, holly and hornbeam, and all kept in form 
by the shears and pruning knife, all with the exception of 
the weeping willows that hung over two Chinese pavilions, and 
stood one in each angle formed by the ponds. Its attractions 
were all natural ones. It required no claptrap to collect 
customers, no brass bands or Ethiopian serenaders, no six- 



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200 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH 

penny masquerades, squibs, crackers or sky-rockets. The 
music consisted of the lark, blackbird, and thrush (the com- 
pany never stopped late enough to hear the nightingale). 
The Rotherhithe Volunteers had their parade ground attached 
to the gardens and a mound thrown up at the further end of 
it for ball practice, and so every Thursday in the summer 
there were the fifes and drums, and on Easter and Whit- 
Monday evenings the fine long rooms were allowed to be a 
dancing room. It was then a respectable and well-conducted 
establishment, and well patronized by families and parties 
who came from all parts of town for a summer afternoon's 
recreation and ramble, not so much for visiting the garden 
as to enjoy the splendid circle of distant scenery that 
surrounded the pleasant roads, lanes, and fields in the 
neighbourhood. 

It was then really an inviting place, the pure air, the hay 
fields and the river, bounded only by the beautiful hills that 
formed a range from east to west, from Shooter's Hill to the 
westward of Sydenham, and then each so different in their 
form and colour : some dark with wood, others yellow with 
com ; then, ag^in, others would be covered with green and 
speckled over with cattle grazing that would only appear as 
mere specks. Then there was not a building of any sort to 
be seen to the southward with the exception of Blackheath 
and New Cross, the first with its brown perpendicular sides 
covered with large mansions, whose windows would reflect 
the setting sun and look like a distant illumination, and the 
second a compact group of humbler houses rising one above 
the other, with no outlying stragglers, and seemed as if they 
were packed against the side of the hill that arose behind 
them. The tel^raph stood on the top of the other hill to 
the right, and on the left stood two curious-looking pyramids 
used as tile kilns. These were the only buildings visible to the 
south, for Peckham and Camberwell were then small detached 
villages and hidden from view by their surrounding trees (elms, 
of courseX and the Kent Road had but half-a-dozen houses 
from the ** Green Man " to New Cross, and four of them were 
public-houses, the ''Black Jack," the "Kentish Drovers," 



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XIIl] ROTHERHITHE IN l8cX) 20I 

the " Five Bells," and the « Turk's Head/* The road itself was 
hidden by high hedges that fenced the sides, and the only 
sign we had of the road being there was the clouds of dust 
that rose along the line of it on the market-day when 
drovers of cattle were coming from or going to Smithfield, 
or a grand review day when lai^e bodies of troops were 
marching to or from Blackheath. 

And turning to the east and north you would have a 
marine view extending from the cupolas of Greenwich Hospital 
to above the Tower of London that could not then be equalled 
by any other port in the world, for the only dock was the 
Greenland, a small aflair and kept entirely for the use of that 
trade. Consequently all other vessels lay in the stream, and 
formed a complete semicircular forest of masts, and with their 
trim white sails and clean rig^ng, and a clear smokeless sky 
for a background, formed a scene that could not be seen with 
so good an efiect from any other point as it could from the 
fields and neighbourhood of Rotherhithe and Bermondsey. 

At that time the East India Company had the whole 
of the trade of India and China secured to them by a charter, 
and all their ships were obliged to make the Thames their 
lading and unlading place. Blackwall was the general rendez- 
vous, but after being lightened they would lie about Deptford 
and Limehouse. They were noble vessels, and in appearance 
might be taken for men-of-war. The Port of London also 
monopolized all the fine West Indtamen and traders to all 
parts of the world. The old navigation laws were then in 
full force, and besides we were in a state of war with nearly 
all Europe and a foreign flag was a rarity in the Thames 
except a French, Spanish, or Dutch ship with the British ensign 
flying to denote that the vessel was a prize to some Port of 
London privateer. The American stars and stripes were 
scarcely known in those days, but yet without any foreigners 
there was such a grand display of shipping as the merchants 
of London might well be proud of. On a grand gala or 
rejoicing day the river would be one mass of flags, but 
especially, above all, on Trinity Monday, when the Trinity 
masters in their State barges, accompanied by the Admiralty 



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202 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

barges containing the great officers of State, the Lord Mayor's 
and other corporation barges, made their grand annual visit 
to Deptford to inspect their almshouses, hear a bist^op preach 
a sermon at the old Church of St Nicholas, and then return 
to a grand banquet on Tower Hill. Trinity Monday was the 
fSte-day of the Thames, and every ship was dressed up in 
its gayest colours to welcome their directors, protectors, and 
friends, and most of them being armed in some way or other, 
they (joined with the guns at the wharves) kept up one con- 
tinual cannonade as the procession passed, so that anyone 
inland could see the whereabouts of the procession by the 
clouds of white smoke that followed it, then the only sort of 
smoke that ever curled over the face of the river. 

Now the finest of these ships are shut up among high 
warehouses in the docks, and when inward and outward 
bound, if not steamers themselves, they are dragged up or 
down the river by ugly steam-tugs. A ship under canvas 
is never seen now, and almost the only indication of the 
proximity of the once noble Thames to be seen is a canopy 
of pitchy black smoke that hangs over it in all its windings 
like a funeral palL 

And then a third distinct scene opened where the shipping 
ceased, and formed a most interesting contrast to the other 
two, the view of London itself: a view that could not be got 
with such advantage from any other side of the town as it 
could from St Helena Lane and Galley Wall, for you were 
at sufficient distance to take all in, and not so far oflf for the 
objects to lose their distinctness, for every steeple, tower, or 
dome that arose above the ordinary height of the houses from 
the Tower to Westminster Abbey could be seen and named 
by anyone conversant with town. There were no tall chimneys 
at that time, indeed they were utterly unknown, and so there 
was no fear of mistaking a steam shaft for the spire of a 
church, or the Monument for a tall chimney. 

There was then little smoke generated in London except 
what arose from domestic operations. Brewers and bakers 
were wanted then as much as they are now, but the first 
never brewed in summer and the second never heated their 



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XIII] ROTHERHITHE IN 180O 203 

ovens with coal, and so on a summer's evening after the City 
dames had taken tea, the town was nearly as free from mist 
or haziness as any other part of the surrounding scene, for 
when the setting sun threw its light on the Highgate and 
Hampstead Hills they could be seen as plainly as Shooter's 
Hill could on our side of it The remaining portion of the 
circle of the horizon from the Abbey to where the Surrey 
Hills again arose in the south-west, and containing about 
30 or 40 degrees, was a blank, looking over Kennington and 
Newington, and there was nothing to be seen but the roofs 
of the houses about Surrey Square and the Paragon, and the 
tops of trees. Still it added to the eflfect of the other scenery, 
for it had the appearance of the outlet from the platform from 
which you viewed the vast and varied panorama around you, 
and formed another contrast in the scene. 

At the close of the i8th and the beginning of the 19th 
century the millpond was one of the curiosities of Rotherhithe. 
It was a well-contrived, artificial collection of water used for 
the purpose of working the flour-mill, and formed what was 
called " The Seven Islands." Some traces of the water-course 
are still left, but they are but faint traces, for then the water 
covered full two-thirds of the area of the whole, as the main 
stream that still runs under Millpond Bridge was there not 
only twice the breadth but the depth was nine feet, and after 
dividing at the back of the Turnpike, as at present, into two 
streams, the two went all round the old and original part, and 
again met at the upper end. 

The intervening space between these two outside streams 
was formed into islands by transverse cuts. Those at the 
upper end ran straight from one main stream to the other, 
but at the lower end the cuttings took a more complicated, 
irregular form. Still, whatever direction they took, they were 
so provided with floodgates, penstocks, or sluices that after 
being emptied in rotation to work the mill on the ebb of the 
tide in the river, they in turn had the reserved water at 
the head turned down whichever one it pleased the manager 
to open the floodgate of, the others being kept shut. 

The head of water consisted of all that space now occupied 



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204 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

by Mr Cork as a market-garden, and was formed in several 
divisions. The part next the road in my memory was one 
large basin of water and consisted of some acres. It was 
flanked towards the workhouse and Brandon's Ground by 
the long reservoir. This had a sluice on the back stream, 
and also others at the upper end of the large reservoir, the 
main sluice of which opened on the main stream near the 
road, and they were admirably adapted to flush each other 
and altogether to send down a stream to the mill that kept it 
at work until the tide rose again in the river. The depth of 
water in the reservoir was 7 feet, giving a fall of 2 feet between 
that and the mill. 

The old parts of the ponds, according to the traditions of 
old people, were flrst formed in the reign of Elizabeth. The 
place was said to be a shelf or deposit of gravel, some in- 
dications of which exist at the present day. This gravel was 
excavated for ballast at the time of the Armada, and used 
for that purpose in those ships which the merchants of London 
fitted out for the defence of the Thames. 

The hollow or excavated part was then embanked and 
connected with the Thames by the present main stream, 
and then had the first water-mill erected on it This first 
reservoir, by the same authority of old people bom on the 
spot and whose ancestors had lived there for many generations 
before them, did not extend further inland than where 
Franklin's osier ground was afterwards. 

After a lapse of time this first head of water became 
choked by the sediment of the river water. To wash that 
away another pond was embanked still further inland, and 
the mud in the first thrown up into islands (all except 
Franklin's osier grounds). This second pond extended to 
the further end of what was called the Old Pond, but like the 
first in time became choked and was fonned into those islands 
that run straight across the upper end. All these changes 
described above must have taken place between the year 
1588, the date of the Armada, and the beginning of the i8th 
century. 

In 1770 it became necessary to extend the work still 



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XIII] ROTHERHITHE IN l8CXD 205 

further inland, and a large reservoir was formed in part of 
a swampy field called the Windmill Field, because it had 
an old windmill in it that stood in the north-west comer, 
close to where the end of Harbord's rope-ground is now; 
but still the mud kept on accumulating, and so in 1785 the 
Long Pond was made. The land previously was a small 
field or paddock attached to Mr Brandon's ground. These 
last two works seemed to complete the plan that had been 
200 years in hand before it was brought to perfection, for 
after that each part reached in such a manner upon the other 
that there was no more accumulation of mud. The ownership 
of the land was as complicated as the water-courses, for while 
the miller claimed the water and some sort of a right over 
the islands, the islands themselves were divided alternately 
between the glebe and the manor in this way : the furthest 
island belonged to Col. Goldsworthy, the next to the Rector, 
and so on until you come to the osier ground, the largest 
of all, for it nearly surrounded the Island House and its 
islands ; that was all glebe, as that within the Island House 
was all manor; so also was an island between the osier 
ground and the road, manor (the " Crown " stands on part 
of it). This island was formed by a half-circle or cut, both 
ends of which ran into the front stream where, near the centre 
of the island, stood a pair of floodgates. There were also 
floodgates at each end of the cut and an undei^round culvert 
that connected it with the south-western comer of the Island 
House ponds, and enabled them to send a flush of water 
through these whenever they required it 

The miller not only claimed the right of casting the mud 
from the ponds upon the island gardens any time (without 
notice) between the 2Sth October and the 25th March, but he 
also possessed a right to be provided with a key to every gate, 
so that his men might have access to the floodgates at any 
time, night and day, for there were two men constantly kept 
for the purpose of working them. 

The whole of the millponds were of course embanked on 
the outside boundary. This embankment from nearly north 
of the Island House ran by the side of Brandon's ground and 



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206 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

the back of the workhouse, and so on to the south side by 
the meadow, and still continuing between the west side of the 
reservoir and the road, went up to the reservoir gate, from 
this gate to Millpond Bridge. The bank was used as a public 
footpath. At the side of the road, the enclosed part of the 
embankment was about two rods wide, and standing outwards 
to a ditch that ran round the entire length of the whole. The 
bank was planted with osiers ; so also were the inside banks 
of the reservoirs, the mill garden, etc., for they produced most 
abundant crops and of first-rate quality. 

The islands, although called seven, consisted of more, if 
the inside islands were reckoned ; and yet, properly speaking, 
there were but seven abutting on the road with eleven bridges, 
for that large one in the centre came twice up to the road, having 
the half-circular one cut out of it, and then throwing as it 
were two arms across, round the inside islands. These islands 
came to a point each side of the Island House bridge where 
the inlet to the inside ponds was. This bridge had rather 
a pretty effect, being nearly 40 yards in length and running 
from the back of the toll-house across the main stream and 
between the two points, and through the centre of the stream 
that supplied the inside ponds formed the only entrance to 
the island tea-gardens and the surrounding island gardens. 
The islands themselves were all rented as private gardens by 
tradesmen and people of property in the neighbourhood, and 
were well, indeed some of them were expensively, kept up 
with their fanciful summer-houses and natty little boats in 
which they could row about the back streams and ponds at 
high water, for it would be as smooth as glass for several 
hours each tide, and then all at once begin to move rapidly 
towards the mill, and when you thought it had nearly run 
out, rush would come another stream : some sluice had been 
opened, and then another down a diflerent cut, perhaps down 
the one at the side of the island you were standing on, and 
carry everything moveable along with it ; and so they would 
go on in rotation, until the tide in the river again rose and 
the fall was no longer available. The island gardens alto- 
gether formed a very desirable spot for anyone who wished 



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The Mill-stream, Jamaica Level, now Southwark 
Park Road. 



"The Rector's Islands/' Jamaica Level, 

Rotherhithe. 

N.B. The Mill-stream is now culverted over. 



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XIII] ROTHERHITHE IN 180O 207 

to enjoy quiet recreation. The rent varied from £2 to ;g'3 
a year, and they were not only very productive in fruit and 
v^fetables, but were so pleasantly situated ; for all the sur- 
roundings being open there was a most extensive view in 
almost every direction, and as every garden had a summer- 
house, so most of them had conveniences to boil the social 
tea-kettle, and to spend many a summer's afternoon holiday 
in such a convenient, inexpensive manner, that is now un- 
attainable. 

The islands were frequented by nearly every description 
of singing birds, besides waterfowl, of which snipe and moor- 
hens were to be seen. The latter would have their nests 
among the osier banks, and breed in great numbers ; and in 
summer and autumn partridges would make it their home ; so 
often would kingfishers; and when Messrs Back had the 
mill they introduced several swans that bred and thrived 
capitally. They also converted that island among the re- 
servoirs, and known as the mill garden, into a rabbit warren, 
and had several thousand in it ; but during the severe winter 
of 1 8 14, when the Thames was frozen over and all the water 
barriers filled up with ice and snow, a great part of them 
escaped, and then the remainder were killed and the warren 
broken up. 

The water had fish of many varieties that came out of the 
Thames, for in those days the river had fish in it I have 
myself seen two salmon caught in the millpond ; they had 
stopped in too long. The first was in 1804. Some boys 
went in and captured it, but as soon as they got it on shore 
a press-gang took it away from them. The other was ten or 
twelve years after that ; it was a most exciting chase by three 
men and in three feet of water. One of the men if unassisted 
would have been drowned, for he had got it by the side 
of the stream in shallow w^ter, and stooping over it and 
grasping its head with both his hands, he was trying to throw 
it out on shore, when it made a sudden spring out of the 
water and gave him a tremendous blow on the side of 
the head with its tail part that sent him a yard or two oflT 
on his face, completely stunned, in the mud and water. He 



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208 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [GH. 

fished no more that day. The fish was ultimately secured by 
passing a line through its gills and dragging it on shore ; it 
was a monster, and weighed 24 lbs. 

The dwellings on the island were few. There was a lath 
and plaster cottage with a large mulberry-tree before it; 
afterwards the front was rebuilt with brick, and for many 
years used as a laundry. Then to the north of that were the 
Island House tea-gardens, rather a pretty place with its snug 
boxes and arbours all round, a fish-pond in the middle, its 
long serpentine bridge, and pleasant situation giving it a fair 
share of patronage among the many tea-gardens of that time. 
It was burnt down about the year 1799, and being a wooden 
house there was scarcely a vestige of it left The present 
''Swan" was built on its site. On the adjoining island, to 
yie north of the Island House, stood the residence of a 
sherifTs officer named Cross. It was a most fanciful-looking 
wooden building, in style something between a fortress and 
a church, flanks by square bastions, a castellated roof with a 
tower in the centre, and a church spire, with a weathercock 
on the top of it, rising out of that ; ten or twelve feet in 
advance of the front, was a dwarf fence or curtain that also 
was full of portholes. The whole was painted red to imitate 
masonry, and armed with a hundred wooden cannon about 
the size of rolling-pins and painted black with a red-hot ball 
half-way out of the muzzle of each of them. At any rate, 
the balls were painted red and looked as if they were hot 
In the front court or yard, or esplanade, I suppose it would be 
called, stood four grim-looking Grenadiers, made out of flat 
deal boards gorgeously painted, and shouldering arms, the 
tops of their bayonets being as high as the bastions behind 
them, and they looked like so many descendants of the re- 
nowned Captain Gulliver mounting guard to protect the 
palace of the Queen of Lilliput And yet» notwithstanding 
all that sham and burlesque, this front only acted as a sort of 
screen to a really formidable place, at the back strongly built, 
with iron-barred windows, and used as a lock-up or sponging 
house for the unfortunate wight who could afford to pay for 
the luxury of living in it The opposite side of the stream to 



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XIII] ROTHERHITHE IN 180O 209 

the north of Cross's, and extending to the millpond bridge, 
being bounded on the east by "Rose and Rummer" Lane 
and on the west by the main mill-stream, was all glebe; 
and although, properly speaking, not forming part of the 
islands, it was similar in other respects, being all private 
gardens like the other with only one house on it (with the 
exception of two or three small old houses and sheds facing 
Paradise Street). This house was a high, square wooden one 
of two storeys with a bleak uncomfortable-looking aspect, 
and built within six or seven feet of the stream in the front 
It had a flat roof covered with lead, and a parapet all round 
with portholes in it, and wooden cannon of larger calibre 
than Cross's pointing out of each of them, and well carved 
wooden representations of the theological virtues ranged along 
the centre. They were all there within my memory, but from 
some cause or other Faith and Charity fled, and Hope alone 
remained perched on her pedestal in the middle of the roof; 
and painted at flrst in the gayest colours, as she always is, 
she remained there for many years alone until destroyed by 
old Time. 

This house was called •• Hill's Folly." It was built by 
a waterman who unexpectedly came into the possession of 
several thousands of pounds, and it was only the centre part 
of the place he intended to complete, for there were to be 
wings and stables, and a superb drawbridge over the pond. 
The bridge was made and partly erected when the owner 
of the mill (it must have been in Mr Hosier^s time) prevented 
the completion of it, for no one had a right to erect a bridge 
across the stream who could gain access to their premises 
from any other quarter, and there was access from Rose and 
Rummer Lane. The miller also had control over the bridges 
that had a right to be over the pond, for no one was allowed to 
put piles into the stream for support because they obstructed 
the navigating a barge that was kept for carrying mud to repair 
the banks. The width of the bridges was also restricted to 
three feet The waterman went to law with the miller, and 
the miller gained the cause. Then other things went wrong. 
The money was frittered away, and the house left in the 
h. 14 



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2IO ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. XIIl 

ruinous state it remained in for a great many years after- 
wards ; and the builder of it fell into a worse stete of poverty 
than that from which he arose. Part of the house still remains, 
the back part entirely removed and the top storey of the 
front taken off. It is reduced into a four-roomed cottage, 
and forms the end house of George's Place. 

In 1800, and for some years afterwards, these islands 
remained a truly romantic place, but like more mighty things 
than millponds, although it took centuries to bring them to 
perfection, a score or two of years completed their fall. The 
continual flushing and scouring of the ponds had formed a 
bank in the river opposite the mill that at low water was 
dangerous to navigation ; and so about 1809 or 1810, the 
City authorities prohibiting flushing except on certain regu- 
lations, this in a short time made it necessary to revert to 
the old system of casting the mud upon the islands. This 
was destructive to the beauty of the gardens ; most of them 
were deserted by the class of people who formerly held them. 
They were succeeded by the humbler lot, who one after an- 
other took up their residence in the gardens by adding by 
d^rees to the summer-houses, until there was not an island 
without a family living on it And as they went on casting 
every two or three years, a great part of the mud found its 
way back down the banks so that the water was greatly 
diminished, and was considered of more expense than profit ; 
and steam, that had been for many years used as an auxiliary 
to the water-power about twenty years ago, entirely super- 
seded it 



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CHAPTER XIV. 

THE SHIPBREAKERS. 

The Fighting Timiraire. The Queen, 

In this year of grace, 1905, all Englishmen have been 
fighting over again the great sea-fight of Trafalgar, Oct 21, 
1805. 

Next to Lord Nelson's flag-ship the Victory none of the 
battle-ships then engaged did more gallant service than the 
TAn&aire^ a " ninety-eight gun " three-decker, commanded by 
Captain Eliab Harvey. 

She came to Nelson's aid, 
The battle's brunt to bear. 
And nobly sought to lead the van, 
The brave old Timiraire. 

And she made her name that day as we all know her — the 
"fighUng" Timiraire. 

In England's song for ever 
She's the Fighting Tim^rture. 

The story of Trafalgar needs not to be retold here ; but in 
Rotherhifhe her name can never be forgotten, for here she 
was broken up, and here some of her timbers still remain. 

One autumn evening of the year 1838*, J. W. M. Turner, 
with Clarkson Stanfield and some other friends, was boating 
off Greenwich Marshes in Blackwall Reach, when the old ship 
passed them tugged by a steamboat to her last berth at the 
shipbreaker's yard. 

> See F mm mtt Figkien 0/iki ftai^ by Edwmid Fraser, 1904. 

14— a 



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212 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH, 

*' There's a fine picture, Turner," said Stanfield, pointing 
to the old man-of-war, now 40 years afloat. And Turner 
went home and painted the picture {** the most pathetic of 
subjects not involving human pain that ever was painted," 
says Ruskin), while the shipbreaker's men of John Beatson's 
yard in Rotherhithe Street were completing the work of de- 
struction which the shot of French and Spanish war-ships 
had failed to effect 

In a church which was built in 1850 within a stone's 
throw of the scene, St Paul's Chapel of Ease, Rotherhithe, 
those who make a pilgrimage to this quaint old-world district 
may see if they will some relics of the Thniraire consecrated 
to the most sacred of uses; for the Holy Table, the altar-rails 
and the Sanctuary-chairs are all made of heart-of-oak carved 
from the timbers of this famous ship^ 



The Queen. 

Thirty years since as one walked down Rotherhithe Street, 
after crossing the Surrey Canal Bridge the first sight which 
met the eye was one or more large figure-heads, trophies of 
ancient war-ships which had been broken up when their sea- 
life was ended. Still lower down the street the successive 
dry-docks each in turn displayed the bows and figure-heads 
of wooden vessels under repair projecting overhead across the 
street, and almost touching the houses on the south side of 
the street. 

This is now a thing of the past : the old figure-heads arc 
gone elsewhere. No shipbreaker's yard remains; the business 
has been long extinct, and Messrs Castle of Millwall and 
Westminster have inherited the carved figures which once 
adorned the bows and galleries of the ships. 

1 Some yean siuce the Vestry of Rotherfaitbe had the opportimity of le-namiog 
one of the streets in the parish which had borne the name of Nelson Street, but 
which from postal reasons had to be changed. In place of some nnmeaning 
names submitted to them for choice, they suggested that Nelson Street shoidd 
be re-named T^n^raire Street and it has borne this name ever since. 



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The ** Queen " heeled over on the shore off 



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: ship-breaker's yard. Rotherhithe Street. 



From the " Illustrated London News. 



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XTV] THE SHIPBREAKERS 21 3 

The last of the old men-of-war which was berthed off 
Beatson's yard for the purpose of being broken up was the 
Queen in 1870, and the story of her coming alongside deserves 
to be recorded. The shipbreaker of that day was Mr Beach, 
who had succeeded Mr Beatson. This Queen was the 
third of her name in the Royal Navy. She was a i lo-gun 
ship and was launched at Portsmouth on May 15, 1839. In 
1854 she took part in the bombardment of the sea-batteries 
of Sevastopol, winning from Sir Edmund Lyons during 
the engagement the compliment of the special signal "Well 
done, Queen** The incident to which we have alluded was 
this: as she was brought alongside Beach's yard the tide 
dropped too quickly for the shipbreaker's men to get her 
properly in position and so she stranded on the shore and 
broke her back, wrenching all her timbers apart. It was said 
at the time that by this misadventure the shipbreaker lost 
;^IOOO of the profit he had expected to realize on his bargain. 

By the kindness of the proprietors of the Illustrated 
London News we are enabled to reproduce a picture of the 
date showing the Queen heeled over on her side. In that 
untoward position she had to be broken up, and from that day 
no more of " the wooden walls of Old England " have found 
their way up the Thames for demolition. The iron-clad 
Queen, the fourth of her name, was launched on March 8, 
1902, at Devonport by their Majesties the King and Queen, 
and when her day of service shall have been closed her 
breaking up will be a widely different affair from anything 
the Rotherhithe shipbreakers can deal with. 



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CHAPTER XV. 

THE MANOR OF ROTHERHITHE FROM 1740 TO 
THE PRESENT DAY*. 

The last Lord of the Manor mentioned in Chapter IV 
was Sir Charles Wager, Knight, 1740-43. 

He was Admiral of the White and Treasurer of the Navy, 
and died May 8, 1743, leaving all his estate to his wife, 
Martha Wager, whom he appointed sole executrix of his 
will, desiring his ^ very good friend Francis Gashry to assist 
her in the management of her affairs.** 

Dame Martha Wager, who was Lady of the Manor 1743 
to 1748, by her will dated 20th Feb. 1747, after bequests to 
her nephew Burrington Goldsworthy and her niece Phillippia 
Goldsworthy, appointed her niece Martha Gashry residuary 
legatee of all her real and personal estate, and her nephew 
Francis Gashry sole executor. 

On April 16, 1748, Francis Gashry proved Lady Wager's 
will, stating that he was the lawful husband of the said 
Martha, the residuary legatee. 

Francis Gashry, Lord of the Manor of Rotherhithe from 
1748 to 1762, was the Treasurer and Paymaster of His 
Majesty's Office of Ordnance ; and died in 1762. 

Martha Gashry, his widow, was Lady of the Manor from 
1762 to 1777. 

By her will dated March 20, 1777, Mrs Martha Gashry 
gave all her manors in the County of Surrey to trustees, the 

> Cootiimed trom Chap. IV 



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CH. XV] THE MANOR OF ROTHERHITHE 215 

Reverend William Butler and Edward Vanburgh, for the use 
and on behalf of her nephew Philip Goldsworthy. 

General Philip Goldsworthy', Lord of the Manor from 
1777 to 1801, was the son of Burrington Goldsworthy who 
died in 1774 and his wife Philippia {nie Vanburgh), sister of 
Mrs Martha Gashry. 

Lieut- General Philip Goldsworthy was Colonel of the 
1st Regt. of Dragoons and in 1788 was appointed Equerry 
and Clerk Marshal of the Mews to His Majesty King 
George III. He was M.P. for Wilton and died Jan. 8, 1801, 
leaving his manor to his sister, Miss Martha Caroline Golds- 
worthy, who was Lady of the Manor from 180 1 to 18 16. 

This lady and Miss Jane Gomm were for many years 
governesses to their Royal Highnesses the Princesses, 
daughters of King George the Third and Queen Charlotte. 
Miss Goldsworthy was appointed in 1774 governess to the 
Princess Royal. 

By her will dated 24 Feb. 18 16 she bequeathed the manor 
to her "good and worthy friend and companion Jane Gomm" 
for life, and from and after her decease to Sophia Louisa 
Gomm, daughter of Lieut-Colonel William Gomm. 

She died March, 18 16, in the 76th year of her age, and 
was buried in the Abbey Church, Bath. 

Miss Jane Gomm, who was Lady of the Manor from 18 16 
to 1822, was the eldest child of William Gomm, Esq. (b. 1753X 
Secretary to the Embassy of St Petersburg and the Hague. 

She was sub-governess to the Princesses with her friend 
Miss Goldsworthy, and the care and education of the three 
younger ones, viz. the Princesses Mary, Sophia and Amelia^ 
fell almost entirely to her charge. 

So great was the aflection and esteem of the Royal 
Family for these two good ladies that they were retained 
about the Court in waiting upon the Princesses till nearly the 
end of the King's reign. They then retired and lived to- 
gether for some years in Hill Street, Berkeley Square. 

Miss Gomm was a most remarkable woman of great piety, 

1 GokUworthy Tenrace, (p the Lower Road, still presenret the name of this 
gentleman. 



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2X6 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

with a mind richly stored with sound learning. After the 
death of her sister-in-law the widow of Lieut-Col. Wm. Gomm, 
55th Regt, she took charge of the three orphan children and 
fulfilled for them a mother's part. 

It was doubtless to her training that the late Field- 
Marshal, Sir Wm. Gomm, owed his good education and the 
genuine piety which* was so conspicuous in his character from 
his youth up. 

The kindly feeling exhibited by the Royal Family to 
Miss Gomm and her nephews is shown by the fact that Sir 
William received his first sword from the hands of the Princess 
Mary.; while many pieces of plate, still retained in the family, 
were;gifts to Miss Goldsworthy and Miss Gomm from different 
members of the Royal Family. 

Miss Sophia Gomm, her niece, who was also named in 
Miss Goldsworthy 's will, died unmarried in 1817, aged 29, 
during the lifetime of her aunt 

This gifted young lady wad the warm friend of the Princess 
Amelia, and she was the only sister of Sir William M. Gomm, 
and it was to her that nearly all his letters during the Penin- 
sula and. Waterloo campaigns were addressed. 

By her will dated May 8, 18 16, she left her estate between 
her two brothers equally. The younger of these, Lt-G>L 
Henry Gomm, of the 6th R^;t, died in 1816 (i.e. in her 
lifetime) of wounds received in the battle of the Pyrenees. 
Consequently the whole of her interest devolved upon her 
only surviving brother. Sir William Maynard Gomm. 

Miss Jane Gomm died in 1822 and she, as well as her 
niece, was buried in. the Abbey Church, Bath. 

The Manor of Rotherhithe thus devolved upon Sir Wou 
M. Gomm; and he held the estate from 1822 to 1875. He 
was bom in Barbadoes in 1784: and received his first 00m- 
mission in 1795, being then only ten years old, and was 
actually in action at the battle of Bergen in 1799 before he 
was fifteen years of age. 

Indeed he once told the writer that he ^ had fought two 
pitched battles when he was of the ripe fighting age of 
fourteen years." These battles were in Holland, and during 



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The late Field- Marshal Sir Wm. Maynard Gomm« G.C.B., Constable of the 
Tower. Lord of the Manor of Rotherhithe. 



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XV] THE MANOR OF ROTHERHITHE 21/ 

one of them he was in danger of being drowned in one of the 
dykes ; for being heavily weighted with his knapsack he was 
sinking in the mud and water. Happily a grenadier found 
him in this perilous plight and ** pulled him out by the scruflf 
of his neck.'* 

His military career thus narrowly escaped a disastrous 
termination, but he lived to be the hero of many a fight 

He served in the Peninsular campaign, and was present 
at the battles of Roli^a and Vimiera, and took part in the 
retreat of Sir John Moore, and the battle of Corunna. He 
was in the unfortunate expedition to Walcheren, and after- 
wards returning to Spain was at the battles of Busaco, Torres 
Vedras, at the storming of Ciudad Rodrigo» Badajoz, Sala- 
manca, Madrid, Burgos and San Sebastian, and at the battle 
of Vittoria, and in the frontier battles up to Bayonne. He 
was Quartermaster-General of Picton's division at Quatre 
Bras and Waterloo, and was in the Army of Occupation of 
Paris. On the walls of his house in Spring Gardens hung 
the picture of his grey charger, " Waterloo George," and on 
his writing table stood an inkstand formed of one of the noble 
animal's hoofs. 

After the Peace he returned home; but in 1839 he became 
Commander-in-Chief in Jamaica, where he found the troops 
decimated with fever in Kingston, and with great difficulty 
induced the home authorities to allow him to build the 
sanatorium at Newcastle in the hills; and he looked upon 
this achievement with greater pride and satisfaction than 
upon his battles on the Continent of Europe. From 1842 to 
1849 he was Governor and Commander-in-Chief in Mauritius. 
From 1850 to 1855 he was Commander-in-Chief in India, 
returning home bdbre the mutiny. In 1863 he became 
Colonel of the Coldstream Guards, the regiment to which he 
had been transferred half a century before for distinguished 
service during the Peninsular War. In 1868 he received the 
Field-Marshal's bdton^ and in 1871 he was appointed Con- 
stable of the Tower. His first wife, who died in 1827, was 
the daughter of Granville Penn, of Stoke Park, Bucks, the 
great-grandson of William Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania. 



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2l8 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

He subsequently married Elizabeth Ann, eldest daughter 
of Lord Robert Kerr and his wife Mary, daughter of the 
Reverend Edward Gilbert, the lineal descendant of Sir 
Humphry Gilbert, the famous navigator of the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth. 

During the peaceful years of Sir Wm. Gomm's life after 
his return to England he became the staunch friend of the 
Reverend Edward Blick and of his successor the present 
Rector of Rotherhithe, upholding every scheme of Church 
Extension and School-building in the parish. The new 
church of Christ Church was built on land given by him; 
the. site for St Mary's National Schools in the Lower Road 
was his gift He laid the first stone of hew schools for Christ 
Church parish which were erected in Paradise Street Every 
Christmas till his death he sent to the Rector ;f lOO for the 
poor, which augmented by biie-half the January pension to 
the widows of Mrs Bayly's Charity. All the Rotherhithe 
schools were- generously aided by his yearly subscriptions. 
Later on he gave largely towards the erection of St Barnabas 
Church . in Plough Road, and to the Gomm Schools in the 
same district which bear his honoured name. • 

During his tinie a considerable portion of the Manor was 
sold for the purposes of the Surrey Commercial Docks, and 
sixty acres of market-garden ground were sold to the Metro- 
politan Board of Works to forni the Southwark Park, one of 
the lungs of South London. 

On March 15, 1875, this truly noble-hearted gentleman 
'* having . served .his generation by the will of God fell on 
sleq> ** in the ninety-first year of his age, after eighty years in 
the. British army, the. longest service on record. He was 
buried in his vault at Christ Church, Rotheriiithc^ after 
service held in the church of St Barnabas, which he had three 
years before helped so generously to biiild. . Her Majes^ the 
Queen and their Royal Highnesses the Prince and Princess of 
Wales sent representatives to follow the coffin. Lady Gomm 
herself had the courage to be present in the church. 

Sir Wm. M. Gomm by his will bequeathed his estates to 
his widow, who thus became Lady of the Manor of Rotherhithe. 



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The late Lady Gomm, Lady of the Manor of Rotherhithe. 



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Mrs Carr-Gomm. Lady of the Manor of Rotherhithe. 



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Hubert Wm. Carr-Gomm, M.P. for Rotherhithe. 



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XV] THE MANOR OF ROTHERHITHE 219 

Lady Gomm only survived her husband for two years* ; 
she died Nov. 30, 1877, ^"d was buried beside him at Christ 
Church, Rotherhithe. By her will she bequeathed the Manor 
in tail to her niece, Emily Blanche Carr. She likewise founded 
by her will a valuable charity for pensioners residing in the 
ecclesiastical districts of St Mary, St Barnabas, and Christ 
Church, Rotherhithe, which is called "The Sir William and 
Lady Gomm's Charity." She further bequeathed a sum of 
money for the benefit of the parish, with which her trustees 
have erected "The Lady Gomm Memorial Hospital" in 
Hawkstone Road, adjoining Southwark Park. This institution 
is managed by the " Sisters of the Church," who confer great 
benefit upon the sick and poor of Rotherhithe. Lady Gomm 
was also the founder of exhibitions for scholars of Keble 
Collie, Oxford, and Sir Wm. Gomm's marble bust is pre- 
served in that Collie. 

The present Lady of the Manor, Mrs Carr-Gomm, is the 
wife of Mr Francis Culling Carr, late of H.M.'s Madras Civil 
Service ; under Lady Gomm's will she and her husband and 
children assumed the name of Gromm after their name of Carr. 

Their eldest son, Hubert William Culling Carr-Gomm, was 
bom June 20th, 1877, and has now (Jan. 1906) been elected 
M.P. in the Liberal interest for the Rotherhithe Division of 
the Parliamentary area of Southwark. He has likewise been 
appointed Assistant Private Secretary to the Prime Minister, 
Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman. 

Mr and Mrs Carr-Gomm have always proved themselves 
good friends to Rotherhithe, taking part in every good work 
in this parish. 

On the occasion of their eldest son's coming of age they 
enfranchised the Public Baths and Washhouses, presenting 
the freehold of the site to the vestry of Rotherhithe. 

* For ft full ftccount of the eftiiier jrcftiB of Sir Wm. Gomm't Cftreer our reftdeis 
ftre referred to ft most intetestlng volame, entitled, *' Letters ftnd Jourmds of 
F. M. Sir Wm. Mftjroftrd Gomm, G.C.B., from 1799 to Wftterloo, iSis," edited 
by Fnmcit Colling Cftrr-Gomm. Mamy. 1881. 



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CHAPTER XVI. 

PRINCE LEE BOO. 

Since King Henry the Fourth made a temporary sojourn 
in Rotherhithe no person of royal descent has ever made 
our town his abode. But in the year 1783 a Prince from 
the North Pacific Ocean was brought here by Captain Henry 
Wilson. The story was a very familiar one to the young 
people of the early years of the nineteenth century, when fewer 
books were accessible than now, and the name of Prince Lee 
Boo was known in most English families. Indeed the present 
writer was told by a former medical superintendent of Guy's 
Hospital that when he came up from Scotland as a young 
student of Guy's, he was so delighted to find himself within 
walking distance of the grave of Prince Lee Boo that his 
iirst expedition was to Rotherhithe churchyard to read the 
inscription on his tomb ! 

An excellent account of the Pelew Islands and of the 
shipwreck of the East Indiaman Antelope on the Island of 
Coo-Roo-Raa, with the subsequent voyage of Captain Wilson 
to England accompanied by the younger son of the Rupack 
or King of the Island, is to be found in a rare quarto volume 
with many illustrations, written by George Keate, Esq., F.RS. 
and S.A. The book is entitled 

An 

Account 

of the 

Pelew Islands, 

Situated in the 

Western Part of the Pacific Ocean 

Composed from 

the Joumab and Communications 

of 

Captain Henry Wilson, 



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ABBA THULLE KING of PELEW. 



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LUDEE one of the Wives of ABBA THULLH 



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CH. XVI] PRINCE LEE BOO 221 

And some of his Officers, 

Who in August 1703 were there shipwrecked 

in 

The Antelope, 

A Packet belonging to the Honourable East India Company. 

By 

George Keate, Esq., F.R.S. and S.A. 

London : 

Printed for Captain Wilson, 

and sold by G. Nicol, Bookseller to His Majesty, Pall MalL 

MDCCLXXXVIII. 

The frontispiece is a fine portrait of Captain Wilson, 
painted by I. Russell, R.A., and engraved by I. Heath. 
The features are singularly beautiful, and of a calm and 
benign aspect 

It appears by a letter of Fhre Jean Antoine Cantova* that 
the inhabitants of the Pelew Islands were reputed to be 
"inhuman and savage; that both men and women were 
entirely naked, and fed upon human flesh ; that the in- 
habitants of the Carolines looked on them with horror, as 
the enemies of mankind, and that they held it dangerous 
to have any intercourse with them.** 

If this dreadful picture of the Pelew Islanders were then 
true, their character must have happily changed before the 
crew of the Antelope were wrecked upon their shore, they 
being the first European visitors who ever landed there. 
For they experienced the greatest hospitality at their hands, 
and might well have exclaimed with the companions of 
St Paul after the shipwreck in Melita: ''The barbarous 
people showed us no little kindness** (Acts xxviiL 2). 

For the whole population of these islands, never before 
visited by Europeans, aided the shipwrecked crew in their 
enterprise of laying the keel of a new ship which might carry 
them back to some Chinese port from which they might 
hope to get a passage to England. They had been driven 
far out of the course of European vessels, and it was beyond 

* LiUns £difiatUa et CurUusa^ vol. XVIII. p. 188. 



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222 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

all likelihood that any trading vessel would come that way 
and pick them up. So they wrought steadily at their ship, 
to the admiration of the natives. 

When the new vessel had been completed and launched 
.the king informed Captain Wilson that he had resolved to 
entrust his second son, whose name was Lee Boo, to his care 
that he might have the. opportunity of improving himself by 
accompanying the English, and of learning many things 
which might at his return greatly benefit his own country. 
.The ship set sail on the 12th day of November, 1783; she 
was named the Oroolang. After a fair voyage they reached 
Macao on Dec ist, and so went on to Canton. From thence 
Captain Wilson took passage in the Morse, Indiaman (Captain 
Joseph Elliott), for England, and they arrived safe at Ports- 
mouth on 14th July, 1784. As soon as Lee Boo reached 
London he was taken to Captain Wilson's house in Paradise 
Row, at Rotherhithe, and was introduced to the family of his 
adopted father. 

After he had been awhile settled, he was sent every day 
to an academy at Rotherhithe, to be taught reading and 
writing. Here he quickly gained the esteem of his master and 
affection of his school-fellows. He always called Mrs Wilson 
" Mother." With the family he was taken to church and 
seemed particularly pleased at going there, behaving with 
the utmost propriety and attention. 

Captain Wilson had from the first guarded his young 
ward froni danger of contracting diseases, especially from 
infection by smallpox. But unhappily he was stricken with 
that dreaded scourge on Dec 16th. Mr Sharp, the ship's 
doctor, was assiduous in watching by his young friend till 
his death. He was aware of his approaching end, and taking 
Mr Sharp by the hand and fixing his eyes steadfastly on 
him, said earnestly, *^Good friend, when you go to Pelew, 
tell Abba Thulle that Lee Boo take much drink to make 
smallpox go away, but he die ; that the Captain and Mother 
very kind — all English very good men ; was much sorry he 
could not speak to the king the number of fine things the 
English had got** He died on Dec 27, 1784. 



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Prince LEE BOO Second Son of ABBA THULLE. 



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XVI] PRINCE LEE BOO 223 

Captain Wilson notified his death to the India House, 
and received orders to conduct his funeral with all proper 
decency. He was interred in Rotherhithe churchyard, the 
captain and his brother attending. The young people of the 
academy were present, and a great concourse of parishioners 
thronged the church. The India Company soon after 
ordered a tomb to be erected over his grave, in which also 
lies the body of his friend and adopted father, Captain Henry 
Wilson. 

The following lines, if not of a high order of poetry, have 
yet an interest in connection with Lee Boo : 

O'er the mighty Pacific, whose soft swelling wave 
A thousand bright regions eternally lave ; 
'Mid rocks red with coral and shell-fish abounding 
The note of the parrot and pigeon resounding ; 
Crowned with groves of banana and taper bamboo. 
Rise the gay sunny shores of the Isles of Pelew. 
From China returning with silk and with tea, 
The tall English vessel sails over the sea. 
Ah ! look ; now she heaves, on the rocks she is stranded 
But the boats are thrown out, and the sailors are landed ; 
What black men are those in the slender canoe. 
Who gaie with such wonder? — the men of Pelew. 
How kindly they welcome the stranger on shore, 
And yams and sweet cocoa-nuts bring from their store ; 
But vain every effort to soften their anguish, 
For home, distant home, the poor Englishmen languish ; 
They build a stout ship, they sail off from Pelew, 
And away with the strangers goes young Prince Lee Boa 
Oh ! what is his wonder and what his surprise 
When in gay, busy London he opens his eyes ; 
Fine shops, coaches, horses. Oh! joy beyond measure. 
Yet, yes ! My dear friends shall partake of my pleasure ; 
' Fine clothes, coaches, horses 111 bear to Pelew. 
What wonder for them ; what delight for Lee Boo ! 

Fond project ! in vain shall his fether explore 
The wide shipless waves : he shall see him no more. 
Oh, chide not the English thy darling detaining, 
And chide not thy son 'mid the strangers remaining ; 
Know death has arrested him far from Pelew, 
And strangers have wept o'er the gentle Lee Boa 

M. C HoOKEV, n/e Heisch. 



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CHAPTER XVII. 



THE THAMES TUNNEL. 



ROTHERHITHE was much before the eyes of the world 
in the third and fourth decades of the nineteenth century, 
from its having been the scene of the great engineering enter- 
prise of constructing a tunnel beneath the river Thames, which 
made the names of Marc Isambard and Isambard Kingdom 
Brunei famous, and which became the model of subsequent 
sub-aqueous tunnels carried out on the like principle and by 
adaptations of the same mechanical device. 

Some brief account of this famous work must find a place 
in the History of Rotherhithe, although the details of it are 
well known and are found in all the encyclopaedias. 

The Thames Archway Company, as it was first called, 
was formed in 1805, ^^^ ^he work was b^^n, but suspended 
in 181 1. The Thames Tunnel Company commenced opera- 
tions in 1825. Twice during the progress of the tunnelling 
works they were stopped by an irruption of the river. But 
the younger Brunei, who was resident engineer to superintend 
the enterprise for his father, was distinguished by untiring 
vigilance and extraordinaiy fertility in inventions for meeting 
these serious difficulties, and numberless bags of clay were 
dropped into the river above the tunnel and the breach was 
stopped. The Thames Tunnel was finally opened to the 
public in the year 1843. 

The shaft which gave access to the tunnel by a winding 
staircase was decorated by a Rotherhithe artist named Hankin 
with a series of well-executed drawings of the wonders of the 
world, including the Leaning Tower of Pisa, the Pagoda of 
Pekin, etc 



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CH. XVII] THE THAMES TUNNEL 225 

The drawings and model made by Brunei remained until 
recent years in the office of the house which was occupied 
by the great engineer and his son during the construction 
of the tunnel. 

It cannot be said that the undertaking was ever a profit- 
able concern, and the shareholders were eventually very glad 
to sell the tunnel to the East London Railway Company, 
the present proprietors. The use of the tunnel by foot- 
passengers has been long discontinued, and the old shops 
which formerly stood in the cross arches for the sale of spun 
glass birds-of-Paradise and other toys have been long since 
removed. Foreign visitors can no longer walk through the 
well lighted arches and admire this great feat of engineering 
skill, but it fulfils a more useful and lucrative purpose, con- 
necting the southern suburbs of London with all the great 
railways of the Middlesex shore of the river Thames. 

At the time of writing (Feb. 1906) a still more remarkable 
engineering feat is in progress. The southern approach to 
the new Rotherhithe and Shadwell Tunnel is being carried 
over and across the railway tunnel, which is the extension 
of the original Thames Tunnel. 

Brunei would indeed have been astonished could he see 
his old work forming part of a great railway system and a 
yet larger tunnel being constructed at right angles to his 
own. His own original shield invented by him and described 
in a small pamphlet by the late Mr W. W. Mason, for many 
years the superintendent of the tunnel, is practically the 
model of that which is now being employed for the tunnel 
of the twentieth century. 



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CHAPTER XVIIL 

THE TIMBER DOCKS OF LONDON, AND THE 
DRY DOCKS OF ROTHERHITHE. 

The first dock dug in London, probably the first in 
England, was formed at the close of the sixteenth century, 
when the entrance to Canute's Dyke was enlarged and con- 
verted into a basin or dock for harbouring men-of-war. It 
was called the Great Howland Wet Dock, after Sir Giles 
Howland, of Streatham, who was a great landowner in that 
part of Rotherhithe. 

This property eventually went by marriage of the heiress 
of the Howland family into the Russell family, Dukes of 
Bedford. In 1763 the Howland Dock and the adjoining 
property was sold to Messrs John and William Wells. At 
this period the Greenland whale fishery assumed such pro- 
portions that it gradually absorbed the entire dock, and 
eventually it was solely used by vessels engaged in that 
trade. Boilers, tanks, and houses for extracting the sperm- 
oil from the blubber were erected, and Howland Dock soon 
became known as the Greenland Dock, the name which it still 
bears. 

In 1806 the Greenland Dock was purchased by William 
Ritchie, Esq., and thenceforward it was used by vessels from 
Norway and the Baltic laden with timber, deals, tar, etc 

In the following year the Commercial Dock Company 
was formed, and purchased Mr Ritchie's property, including 
some land in Plough Bridge Road. The first chairman of 
the Company was Sir Charles Price, Bart, M.P. 

The Company gradually acquired the adjoining property, 
including Lavender Dock, Acorn Pond and Yard, together 



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CH.XVIII] THE TIMBER DOCKS OF LONDON 22^ 

with Lady Dock and Russia Yard. In 1851 they purchased 
the East Country Dock. 

.The Surrey Canal Company had in the meantime been 
growing in importance, and engaged in the construction of 
new basins, inner docks and timber ponds. 

In 1864 an amalgamation was effected between these two 
important Companies, the Commercial Dock Company and 
the Surrey Canal Company, and it is now known as the 
Surrey Commercial Dock Company. The timber trade of 
London is concentrated in these docks, the entire area 
comprising 365 acres of land and water enclosed within the 
dock fence. 

Four entrances were available at different points from 
the river Thames, viz. Greenland Lock constructed in 1599; 
South Lock, completed in 1854; Lavender Lock, opened for 
traffic in 1862 ; Surrey Canal Lock in i860. 

A new entrance has been recently opened after several 
years of laborious excavation, which will save the larger 
ships from the necessity of ascending the river at great 
inconvenience of navigation in that crowded part of the 
Lower Pool. 

In addition to the vast stores of timber of every kind 
there are large granaries fitted with the modem appliances 
for moving the grain from floor to floor. There are also to 
be seen here ice-ships and vessels laden with sulphur from 
Sicily. The Allen Line of Transatlantic emigrant ships 
has lately begun to run their magnificent fleet from these 
docks at intervals of a fortnight to Montreal and Quebec, 
and the Thompson Liners also run to Canada from the 
Rotherhithe Docks. 

The Surrey Commercial Dock Company is exceedingly 
well managed, the directors being practical men engaged 
themselves in the timber trade, and conducting their great 
enterprise on sound principles which commend themselves 
to the great shipping firms as well as to the exporters of the 
Baltic and Canadian ports. 

Timber is indeed the staple of Rotherhithe, as leather is 
of the adjoining parish of Bermondsey, and vast numbers of 

15— a 



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228 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

our people earn their living in connection with these timber 
docks. 

The Company is also a generous friend to the Church, and 
to the National Schools of our parish. 

In Prince's Dock one of the numerous dry docks of 
Rotherhithe Street, was built the Hawk, a fast sailing ship 
designed for the fruit trade. The master was Captain Becco, 
an Italian seaman, who sailed her for some years and made 
his home in Walker Place, Lower Road, where he eventually 
died greatly respected. 

The subsequent history of the Hawk is very interesting. 
She was bought by the Reverend Robert Eden, who was 
afterwards Bishop of Moray and Ross in 185 1, and Primus of 
the Scottish Episcopal Church. His object was to provide a 
missionary ship for the use of his friend Dr Edward Feild, 
who had been appointed Bishop of Newfoundland (including 
Bermuda), in order that he might be able to visit the out- 
harbours of that island which were only accessible by sea. 
After he had presented Bishop Feild with this valuable 
Church ship, Mr Eden had the happiness to know that that 
most apostolic missionary Bishop was every alternate 
summer to be found visiting the distant settlements on the 
Newfoundland and on the Labrador coast, and the Church at 
home as well as the donor of the ship were thrilled with 
enthusiasm at the journals published from time to time by 
Bishop Feild. 

After a time as the Bishop advanced in years he found 
in Archdeacon Kelly a devoted coadjutor who took up the 
sea work, and by this time the Hawk was thought to be 
scarcely seaworthy. A new missionary ship, the Star^ was 
built at Halifax, Nova Scotia, and in her Bishop Kelly made 
several voyages, bringing untold blessings to the fishermen 
and their families in their lonely settlements, ^and when they 
saw the Star they rejoiced with exceeding great joy." The 
journal of one of her missionary voyages was published by 
the Rector of Rotherhithe, who was Commissary to the 
Bishop, and was printed by W. Clinkskell of Rotherhithe. 
On one of these missionary journeys the Star was unhappily 



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XVIII] THE TIMBER DOCKS OF LONDON 229 

wrecked in the narrow entrance to a rock-girt harbour aptly 
named a " Tickle," by the fishermen of Newfoundland. The 
Bishop and his skipper and crew escaped with their lives, but 
all else was lost 

This misfortune led to a very noble act of missionary zeal. 
A young officer of the Engineers, Mr Curling, who had known 
the Bishop when stationed in Bermuda, where he was aide-de- 
camp to the governor Sir Frederic Chapman, on learning the 
news of the wreck wrote to Mr Beck, the Bishop's Com- 
missary, and offered to present his own yacht, the Lavrock^ for 
the missionary service of Newfoundland. This offer was 
gratefully accepted and Mr Curling had her fitted up as a 
Church ship and then himself navigated her across the 
Atlantic But the story does not end there. The Annual 
Day of Intercession for Missions had just been instituted, and 
as the firstfruits of the prayers then offered up, Mr Curling 
next year offered himself to be ordained for missionary work 
in Newfoundland and was placed by the Bishop in the Bay 
of Islands^ 

The venerable Bishop Feild was once on a visit to 
Rotherhithe Rectory, and after preaching at the Parish 
Church on the Sunday morning he expressed his strong wish 
to see the dock in which his old ship the Hawk had been 
built Walking down to St Paul's Chapel for the Evening 
Service we halted at Prince's Dock, where the owner 
Mr Robertson and the foreman shipwright were in readiness 
to receive the Bishop and to show him the dry dock in which 
his much-loved vessel (Se^t^^ Ipvi^ he loved to call her) was 
built, and the foreman assured him that he had worked on her 
with his own hands. He told the shipwrights of her good 
deeds in the Lord's service, and added that while her 
successor had gone to the bottom, she herself was still afloat 
in the coasting trade of Newfoundland. 

^ The Rev. J. J. Curling died Nor. 17, 1906, ms these sheets are being pasted 
throogh the press. 



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CHAPTER XIX. 

THE WATERMEN'S STAIRS AND FOOTWAYS. 

The public stairs or plying-places of watermen in the 
parish of Rotherhithe arc given below in the order in which 
they are situated from west to east 

1. Rotherhithe Stairs, 2290 yds. below London Bridge. 

2. King Stairs at the end of King Street (now called 
Fulford Street). 

3. Prince's Stairs at the end of Prince's Street. 

4. Elephant Stairs at the end of Elephant Lane. 

5. Church Stairs at the east end of the parish church. 

6. Hanover Stairs at the end of Hanover Street (now 
called Neston Street). 

7. Surrey Canal Stairs. 

8. King and Queen Stairs, adjoining the King and Queen 
Granary. 

9. Globe Stairs at the end of Globe Street (now called 
Beatson Street). 

la Horseferiy Stairs by the Horseferry Dock. 

1 1. Pageants' Stairs, adjoining " The Pageants." 

12. Cuckold's Point Stairs, adjoining Cuckold's Point 

13. Acorn Stairs, near " The Acorn." 

14. Dog and Duck Stairs, near " The Dog and Duck.** 

The origin of these stairs cannot be traced. They were 
formed for the purpose of giving free access to the river, that 
the inhabitants might obtain water in days when there was 
no other water supply and the Thames was an unpolluted 
stream fit for drinking as well as for all other uses. 



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Off Rotherhithe. Whistler. 

From the Illustrated London News. 



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The Thames below London Bridge. 
After Whistler. 

From the Illustrated London Newt. 



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CH. XIX] THE watermen's STAIRS AND FOOTWAYS 231 

The Stairs likewise afforded free landing-places for the 
embarking and landing of goods in watermen's boats. The 
passages leading to the stairs are public rights of way, paved 
and repaired by the parisht 

The watermen who ply at the stairs hold their rights 
from the Watermen's Company, to whom they have been 
apprenticed in youth. The hire they are entitled to receive 
for carrying passengers up and down the river and for ferrying 
them across to the opposite shore is fixed by the Watermen's 
Company. 

There were Sunday ferries ako, which were annually sold 
by auction and were a source of considerable profit 

When the Thames Tunnel Company had completed their 
great undertaking the watermen saw the hopes of their gain 
greatly diminished and the future prospects of their craft 
endangered, and they appealed for compensation to the law 
courts. But the financial condition of the Tunnel Company 
was so embarrassed by debt that they were never able to 
pay the compensation awarded to the watermen, whose trade 
is sadly impoverished to the present time. 

The footways are certain approaches to the shore be- 
longing to the parish, affording the inhabitants the privilege 
of landing goods, coal, corn, timber, etc., thus saving wharf 
dues. Some are " five-foot ways " and others ** ten-foot ways." 
They are ten in number, situated 

1. at West Lane. 

2. at Church Stairs. 

3. at Surrey Canal. 

4. between Globe Stairs and the Horseferry. 

5. between the Horseferry and *• The Pageants." 

6. at "The Black Horse." 

7. at Lower Queen Street. 

8. at Brocklebank's Wharf. 

9. at Commercial Dock Pier, 
f a at the Dock below. 



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CHAPTER XX. 

THE MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT OF ROTHERHITHE 
AND THE OLD CIVIL FORCE. 

During the Middle Ages the civil government of the 
parish was probably confided to the parochial vestry, con- 
sisting of the rector and churchwardens, ex officio^ with a 
certain number of the most substantial inhabitants. These 
gentlemen had charge of the highways and byways, the 
watching at night, the lighting of the streets — so far as they 
were lighted — and the protection of life and property. There 
were always Justices of the Peace resident in Rotherhithe in 
earlier days, so that offenders could be speedily dealt with. 
The churchwardens demanded an annual church-rate at Easter, 
and the open vestry made no difficulty in passing it, for the 
care of the church and graveyards, and the maintenance of 
Divine service were recognized public duties. There was also 
a poor-rate for the support of the aged poor, and a general 
rate for all public charges. 

It was noty however, until after the Restoration of King 
Charles the Second in 1660 that the parish vestry was legally 
constituted, and it is to be remarked as showing the great 
influence of the Church on the life of the nation that to the 
chancellor of the bishop of the diocese recourse was had for 
the granting a constitution under which the parishioners might 
meet in vestry to transact the business of the parish. 

The following is the first charter of our vestry, with the 
rules drawn up for the conduct of its business. 



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CH. XX] MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT OF ROTHERHITHE 233 

Extract from the Order of the Bishop of Winchester authorising 
the Parishioners of Rotherhitlie to hold a Vestry, Dated 
November i6th, 1673, and prefixed to the first Minute 
Book of the Vestry, 

Mondeford Bramston Knt, D' of Lawes, and Chancel' to 
the Reverend ffather in GOD, George* by Divine Providence 
Lord Bpp: of Winton lawfully appoynted. 

To all Christian people to whom these presents shall 
come, And especially to the Rector, Churchwardens and 
other pishoners of the Parish of RedrifTe in y« County of 
Surrey and of the Diocese of Winchester Sendeth greeting 
in our Lord GOD everlasting. 

Whereas the Rector Churchwardens and other Parishioners 
of the said parish hath made petition to me for a Vestry to 
be holden and kept within their said parish for the better 
government of all such matters and orders belonging to 
their said parish w**» heretofore have not bin so well carried 
and ordered as the better and graver sort of the said 
parisho" have desired and wished. 

And whereas I am very well certified y* the pson^ here- 
after named are conformable to the government and discipline 
of y« Church of England as it is now by law established, and 
have before me or my Surrogate duely subscribed y« declara- 
tion and acknowledgm^ in the late wholsome good Act 
Intituled an Act for the Uniformity of publicke prayers and 
AdministnLion of Sacram*' and other Rites and Ceremonies, 
And for the establyshing y^ forme of making, ordaining and 
consecrating Bpps, priests and deacons in the Church of 
England according as it is Injoined also by a late act of 
parliament made in the 15^ year of our now dread Soveraigne 
Lord Charles the 2~* by the, Grace of GOD of England Scot- 
land fTrance and Ireland King, defender of the faith or 
Intituled an act for regulating Select Vestryes b^inning 
thus, viz^ for the prevention of the evills w^ may arise from 
y^ Vestrymen not conforming to y^ govemm^ and discipline 

* Le. George Morley, Bishop of Winchester 1669, in succession to Brian 



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234 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

of y« Church of England as it is now by Law established... 
and ending thus viz^ provided y^ this Act shall continue in 
force to y« end of the first Session of Parliam* and no longer. 
I, therefore, according to y« requests well likeing of their 
Godly minds and Christian care therein for the good of y« 
said parishon" and quiet govemm* of the s*" parish by Vestry 
there established, have thought good by y* my handwriteing 
and under the Seale of my office to ratifie and confirme for a 
present and continual Vestry to be holden in the said parish 
of Redriffe these orders and pticulars following, promiseing 
to aid and assist them in the due execution thereof where 
and as offten as occasion shall require. 

The minutes of the first Vestry meeting held on Feb. 12, 
1673, are as follows :— 

At a Vestry then held it was agreed that the Church- 
wardens doe pay five Pounds Towards the procuring an Act 
of Parliament to prevent Vexatious Suites for Trifles, and 
that the said money be paid to Justice Reading for y^ end. 



The Church Officers chosen for the year 1674 were 

Mr Edm* Raynor) ^, , , 
HM Tu nir ^ r Churchwardens. 
Mr Tho: Marten j 

John Alwood) -,. , 
Matt:Gron } S'desmen. 



The Old Civil Force. 

The original watch-house was in Church Passage, but it 
was afterwards removed to the entrance to the new burial- 
ground on the opposite side of .Church Street The parish 
was divided into two districts, each of which had its watch- 
house. The east or lower district was established in 1816, 
and its watch-house was in Trinity Street This parish being 
without the City bounds, its watch was r^^lated by a local 
Act The establishment consisted of a beadle, constables, 
headboroughs, street-keepers, and watchmen. There were 



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XX] MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT OF ROTHERHITHE 235 

14 watchmen for the upper district, and 12 for the lower. 
These men called the hours of the night and the weather : 
" Past ID o'clock ; a fair night ! " or " Past 2 o'clock ; a cloudy 
morning!" They had watch-boxes, wore white overcoats, 
and carried lanthoms. There were besides the patrols or 
silent watchmen, who perambulated all the dark nooks and 
comers ; they were dressed in blue, and wore cutlasses. 

Mr Harrap, the boot and shoemaker, formerly one of the 
patrol, was the last survivor of this primitive body. He held 
the stocks which stood close to the north gate of the church, 
and were last used in 1825. 

These ancient guardians of the night were commonly called 
"Charlies." The following^W/ d^ esprit perhaps explains the 
designation: 

Under a pediment in front of the old Southwark Town 
Hall on St Margaret's Hill was a statue of Charles H which, 
in 1793, was removed to the roof of a watch-house in Three 
Crown Square, High Street. A figure of Justice which, with 
one of Wisdom, had formerly supported the Lord Mayor's 
seat in the Hall, was placed near the bar of a neighbouring 
coffee-house. 

Justice and Charles have left the Hill, 

The City claimed their place ; 
Justice resides at Dick West's still, 

But mark poor Charles' case ; 
Justice, safe from wind and weather, 

Keeps the tavern score; 
But Charlie, turned out altogether. 

Keeps the watch-house door! 

The police force superseded the old watchmen under 
Sir Robert Peers ministry in 1830, and his constables were 
nicknamed " Bobbies " or •* Peelers." 



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CHAPTER XXL 



A CHAPTER OF CRIMES. 



The history of our parish has been happily very free from 
capital crimes. Until the middle of the 19th century had 
passed by no single instance of murder had occurred within 
the limits of Rotherhithe since 1805. This in a locality 
inhabited by a population somewhat rough and quarrelsome 
is certainly a fact to be rejoiced at 

There had, however, in the 1 8th century been some appal- 
ling murders committed, of which some account should be 
given here. 

Mary Edmondson, 1759. 

There was much mystery in this case. This unhappy 
girl was convicted and executed for the murder of her aunt 
She was the daughter of a farmer living near Leeds in York- 
shire. She went to reside with her aunt, a widow lady named 
Walker, in Rotherhithe. She lived with this aunt for two 
years, and conducted herself well and performed her religious 
duties regularly. 

A lady named Toucher having spent the evening with 
Mrs Walker, Mary Edmondson lighted her across the street 
on her way home; and, shortly after her return, a woman 
who cried oysters through the streets observed that the door 
was open and heard the girl cry out, ** Help ! murder ! they 
have killed my aunt." 

Edmondson ran to the house of a Mrs Odell, wringing 
her hands ; and, the alarm being given, some gentlemen who 
were spending the evening at a public-house determined to 
enquire into the affair. 

They found Mrs Walker with her throat cut, lying on her 
right side, and her head near a table which was covered with 
linen. 



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CH. XXI] A CHAPTER OF CRIMES 237 

The girl, on being questioned, said that four men had 
entered at the back door. One put his arms round her aunt's 
neck, another, a tall man dressed in black, swore that he 
would kill her if she spoke a single word. 

Mr Holloway, noticing that the girl's arm was cut, asked 
her how it happened. She replied that one of the men, in 
attempting to get out, had jammed it in the door. But there 
was no appearance of any men having been in the house, and 
the girl Edmondson was at once suspected of being the 
murderess. 

The coroner's jury next day brought in a verdict of wilful 
murder against her, and she was committed to prison. • 

Mrs Walker's executors traced the watch ; and some other 
articles which the girl said had been carried off by the men 
were discovered hidden under the floor. 

She was tried at Kingston assizes, and convicted and con- 
demned to die. 

She asserted her innocence to the last She was executed 
on Kennington Common on April 2nd, 1759. 

CORBETT THE MURDERER, I764. 

There is a narrow and lonely thoroughfare near the 
Deptford boundary of this parish which is known by the 
name of Corbett's Lane. Few now living realize the meaning 
of the ill-omened name. 

William Corbett is believed to have been bom at Ports- 
mouth in New Hampshire, North America, and bred a ship- 
wright. His mother dying when he was quite )^ung, he ran 
away to Connecticut in New England, where he joined a 
sloop and made one or two voyages ; but not living so well as 
he expected on board the ship, he deserted, and when he 
reached Boston he contracted himself with a gentleman who 
dealt in lumber, which he sent in vessels to the West 
Indies. 

Corbett made several voyages in his service, but he became 
much addicted to drink and theft, and incurred frequent 
correction. At length he sailed to Newfoundland vrith one 
Captain Warton, and as he was a good ship's carpenter he 



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238 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

might have done well, but his irregularities obliged the 
captain to dismiss him. He readily found employment in 
repairing fishing-vessels ; but, getting into debt, he took ship 
for Barbados to avoid imprisonment 

After this we hear of him settled at Halifax in Nova 
Scotia. At length he sailed to England, and soon associated 
with the worst company in Wapping and Rotherhithe. 

He took lodgings in the house of a Mr Knight, a publican 
at Rotherhithe. The family consisted only of the landlord, 
his wife, and the maid-servant After only a few weeks he 
conceived the horrible intention of murdering them all three, 
but the servant escaped with her life. 

At the Surrey assizes in 1764 William Corbett was 
indicted for the murder of Henry Knight and Ann, his wife, 
by cutting their throats, and on a further charge of robbing 
the house. He was found guilty on his own confession and 
on a variety of collateral evidence. 

After having committed the murders he rifled the house of 
money, and even put on some of Mr Knight's linen and other 
clothes. He then crossed the river to Billingsgate, where he 
was apprehended. 

After conviction he acknowledged that he had endeavoured 
to set fire to Mr Knight's house. He was executed on Ken- 
nington Common on April 4, 1764, and his dead body was 
then hung in chains on the road between Rotherhithe and 
Deptford. 

There is another account of Corbett, which represents that 
he was an outcast who had been sheltered by the aged couple 
who kept a pubUc-house by the riverside, near the end of 
Cherry Garden Street 

The maid-servant had observed his strange demeanour in 
the silence of the night and had hidden herself under the 
staircase. It is said that when he was brought back to 
Rotherhithe on a Sunday morning the public excitement was 
so intense that his capture was announo^ from the pulpit and 
the service interrupted in the church I He was taken before 
Justice Gillam, and committed to gaol ; and after trial and 
execution his body was gibbetted in the lane near " The Jolly 



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XXI] A CHAPTER OF CRIMES 239 

Gardeners " in Rotherhithe New Road. The horrible spectacle 
attracted vast numbers of curious sight-seers, and the nuisance 
became so great that the parish authorities, after several 
months had elapsed, caused the gibbet to be removed ; not, 
however, until one human life had been sacrificed. 

For a gruesome story is told of a foolish braggart who 
laid a wager at a tavern in Bermondsey that he would cross 
the fields to Rotherhithe in the night and would ask Corbett 
"how he was." 

The rest of the party set out by a shorter route, and one 
of them concealed himself in a tree, so that when the other 
man stood beneath the gibbet and addressed the wretched 
object in the clanking irons, enquiring how he fared, a voice 
replied in sepulchral tones, " Cold, wet, and hungry." The 
miserable wagerer, convinced that it was Corbett's ghost that 
spoke, terror-stricken fled to his home, took to his bed, and 
two days afterwards died from nervous fever induced by the 
fright 

The lonesome spot still bears the criminal's name, " Cor- 
bett's Lane," and from being a haunt of evil characters was 
often called "Rogues' Lane," and sometimes "Cut-throat 
Lane." But at the present time, though still the neighbour- 
hood is occupied by somewhat oflensive trades, slaughter- 
houses, size manufactories, and the like, the spread of building 
operations has brought new streets all round, and the unhappy 
associations which made the spot notorious have been for- 
gotten, and St Katharine's Church and vicarage, with large 
Sunday-schools, minister to the spiritual needs of a thickly 
populated district where the old scandals are unremembered 
by all but a few of the older folk 

Richard Patch, 

Yet another capital crime was committed in Rotherhithe 
at the beginning of the 19th century, and this time the truth 
of the saying " murder will out " was exemplified in a remark- 
able manner, for the artful measures adopted by the murderer 
to divert suspicion from himself and if possible to attach the 
guilt to another entirely failed. 



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240 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

The murdered man was Mr Isaac Blight, a shipbreaker, 
who lived at the farthest point of the parish of Rotherhithe, 
near " Sweeting's Dock," close to the newly formed entrance 
from the river into the Surrey Commercial Docks. Richard 
Patch was his ungrateful servant. Patch was born in the 
year 1770 at the village of Heavitree, near Exeter. His family 
was respectable among the yeomen of Devonshire. The 
grandfather of Richard Patch had a freehold estate in land of 
the value of £so per annum in a neighbouring village. 

His father had the reputation of being a smuggler, which 
was not an uncommon resource of the small farmers near the 
sea-coast in distant parts of the country ; and as it was only 
" defrauding the public revenue " the moral offence was lightly 
regarded, and detection was not easily effected when all the 
neighbours were ready to screen the offender. 

However, the smuggler was caught at last, tried, and sen- 
tenced to twelve months' imprisonment in Exeter gaol, where 
at the expiration of his term he remained as one of the turn- 
keys. In this situation he died. 

Richard, his eldest son, had been apprenticed to a butcher, 
but on succeeding to the small estate he turned his attention 
to farming, but with little success. His farm was soon mort- 
gaged, and in 1803 he quitted Devonshire and came to 
London. 

His sister was at this time living as domestic servant with 
Mr Blight, and another brother was also living there as a 
foreman in the shipping business. 

Mr Blight had formerly been a West India merchant, but 
had failed : upon which he had engaged in the shipbreaking 
business, and was carrying it on with great success, notwith* 
standing embarrassments arising from his former creditors. 

Richard Patch had now entered the service of Mr Blight, 
and his brother, perhaps from jealousy, left and went to sea. 

In 1804 Patch was able to dispose of his land, and received 
a nett sum of ;^350 for it, and he appears to have placed jf 250 
of the purchase money in his master's hands. 

The trial of Richard Patch for the murder of Mr Isaac 
Blight took place after considerable delay at the Surrey 



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XXI] A CHAPTER OF CRIMES 24I 

adjourned sessions, Horsemonger Lane Prison, before the 
Lord Chief Baron, Sir Archibald Macdonald, on Saturday, 
April 5th, 1806, and a graphic account of the proceedings 
has been preserved. 

An extraordinary degree of curiosity had been excited, 
and immense crowds surrounded the approach to the Court 
House as soon as it was light 

The judge arrived in the crowded court at 10 o'clock, 
accompanied by their Royal Highnesses the Dukes of Sussex 
and Cumberland, and his Excellency the Russian Ambassador. 
These illustrious personages took their seats on the bench, 
and remained till the conclusion of the trial. The venue had 
been changed from the assizes at Kingston, where premature 
reports of the case had been spread which might have operated 
to the prejudice of the prisoner. 

The indictment was read. It charged the prisoner that 
he ** in the parish of St Mary Rotherhithe in the county of 
Surrey not having the fear of GOD before his eyes but being 
moved and seduced by the instigation of the devil did on the 
23rd September in the 4Sth year of the reign of our Lord 
the King (1805) in the parish aforesaid feloniously wilfully 
and of malice aforethought assault one Isaac Blight then and 
there being in the peace of GOD and of our said Lord the 
King and that he with a certain pistol of the value of five 
shillings loaded with gunpowder and leaden bullet which he 
then and there held in his right hand at him the said Isaac 
Blight did shoot off and discharge : and the body of the said 
Isaac did punctuate and wound on the right side thereby 
inflicting on him a wound of the breadth of one inch and of 
the depth of nine inches on which he languished and lan- 
guishing did live until the 24th of the same September and 
then died..." 

The prisoner pleaded Not guilty. 

The first witness called by the Crown was Richard Frost : 
he said he kept the ''Dog and Duck." On the evening of 
23rd Sept between 8 and 9 he received an alarm from Hester 
Kitchener. He went directly to Mr Blight's premises. He 
saw Mr Blight sitting in the arm-chair... on the left-hand side 

B. 16 



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242 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

of the fireplace in the back parlour. Mr Patch was standing 
in the room. Mr Blight was... supporting himself with his 
two hands. 

Mr Astley Cooper^ Surgeon* : " I was called in about three 
hours after Mr Blight received his wound... I found him lying 
on the floor... I desired he might be carried up to bed... I 
ordered every person out of the room except the surgeons, 
Patch the prisoner, and a Mr Feiguson....The wounds were 
described... one about two inches from the navel on the right 
side, another in the loin on the same side... the anterior one 
had the appearance of a gunshot wound... the contents of the 
bowels could be seen... the wounds were pronounced mortal....'' 
Mr Cooper staid till next morning at 7... he asked Mr Blight 
whether there was any person whom he suspected of having 
committed the act His answer was: **No— God knows I 
never did any man an injury that could lead him to take my 
life : but Patch has mentioned to me a man of the name of 
Webster." On being questioned Patch said this Webster was 
a man who was suspected of having robbed the premises. 
Mr Cooper suggested that the Bow Street officers should be 
sent for, but Patch objected. 

Mr Blight's affairs not having been settled. Patch fetched 
the will, and Mr Blight directed that the names of Patch and 
Ferguson should be added as executors, and then Mr Blight 
with considerable difficulty signed the will Next morning 
Mr Cooper left his patient and returned with Dr Barrington. 
Mr Blight was dead, and his body being opened his bowels 
were found to be cut in three different places. The will was 
sealed and deposited with Mr Brent 

Other witnesses were the servant, Hester Kitchener, and 
neighbours who were passing and heard the shot fired, but 
deposed that no one passed out of the gate into the street ; 
also the widow of Mr Blight, giving information about money 
transactions between her late husband and Patch. 

The evidence submitted to the jury was, by the nature of 
the case, purely circumstantial, but it satisfied both the Chief 

* This was the famous Surgeon, afterwards Sir Astley Cooper, of G«y*t 
Hospital. 



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XXI] A CHAPTER OF CRIMES 243 

Baron and the jury that he was the murderer of Mr Bh'ght, 
and he was found guilty and condemned to death, and 
executed at Kennington. . 

There remains one further point which is related in the 
Life of Sir Astley Cooper by his nephew and biographer, viz., 
the singular discovery that convinced the great surgeon that 
Patch was the murderer of his master. 

After examining the wounds, Mr Cooper closely examined 
the spot on which the act was perpetrated. He placed him- 
self in the position in which Mr Blight was when he received 
the fatal wound, and with his natural acuteness he perceived 
at once that it was a left-handed man who had fired the shot, 
for only such a person could have concealed his own person 
while firing the pistol This fact made such a deep impression 
upon his mind that he made enquiry whether Patch were in 
fact a left-handed man — and he found that in fact he was so 
— and from that moment he became absolutely convinced of 
Patch's guilt 

Arson. 

Incendiary fires prevailed in Rotherhithe during the 
months of November and December, 1834, the supposed 
perpetrator of this diabolical crime being one Palmer, a police 
constable, who was arrested and committed for trial at the Old 
Bailey Sessions in 1835, but the grand jury threw out the bill. 

This calamitous series of fires happened soon after the 
establishment of the police force, and before it had attained 
the confidence and popularity which it later on enjoyed ; and 
there was a feeling that if possible the stigma which his 
conviction would have entailed on the civil power should be 
avoided. 

Strange to say, all these fires broke out within Palmer's 
beat, and not a single conflagration occurred after his com- 
mittal and subsequent discharge. 

So much alarm and excitement prevailed in the parish 
that the fire-engine was kept constantly parading the streets 
ready for action ; and the inhabitants might be daily seen in 
groups speculating as to the locality of the next night's fire. 

16— a 



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244 ST MARV, ROTHERHITHE [CH. XXI 

The first fire occurred in Gillam's Court, which was 
happily subdued without much damage being done : but the 
second was sadly destructive, the whole of the north-west 
angle of Church Street (Webb's comer), including Scales* 
(Finnister^s) corner of Clark's orchard, falling a prey to the 
flames, which then extended to the opposite side and de- 
stroyed the ancient Europa Tavern, a wooden building. 

Next following was the destruction of the tar merchant's 
premises (Mr Brook's), with the boat-builder's yard adjoining. 

Thames Tunnel Wharf succeeded, and this was the most 
"^ destructive fire of all, involving the destruction of the Blue 
Mountains, a granary (next in magnitude to the King and 
Queen Granaries), together with the Spread Eagle public- 
house, at that time kept by a Mr Poole. 

Then came a fire at Welby's, the carpenter and painter 
(opposite Stokes', in Rotherhithe Street). Many more minor 
fires occurred ; the last was the burning of a collier ship in 
the Surrey Canal, which was scuttled to save it from entire 
destruction. 

Sacrilegious Violation of new-made Graves. 

In the earlier part of the nineteenth century the church- 
yard was still enclosed by a brick wall, which has long since 
been replaced by an open railing on a dwarf wall. The 
surgeons of Guy's Hospital naturally wanted subjects for 
dissection in order to instruct the students in the anatomy of 
the human body, and there were to be found unscrupulous 
men ready to supply the demand. These miscreants were 
commonly called "resurrection men,** and they informed 
themselves as to the interments that had day by day taken 
place in this and other parishes within reach of the London 
Hospitals. 

The writer has been told by one of the older inhabitants 
of Rotherhithe (since dead) that the friends of the deceased 
united to keep watch for a week or so inside the churchyard 
wall lest the grave of their departed friend should be rifled of 
its tenant Science has its claims ; but our feelings of natural 
affection must also be respected. 



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CHAPTER XXIL 

ROTHERHITHE OF TO-DAY. 

The various religious and social institutions which have 
been set on foot for the benefit of the labouring classes and 
other inhabitants of Rotherhithe have been a marked feature 
of our parochial life during the past thirty years, keeping 
pace with the rapid growth of the population ; and in this 
great mo\'ement the Church and the Nonconformist bodies 
have taken part with great zeal and with no small measure of 
success. Happily our religious diflerences can be forgotten 
for a time when the crying need for fresh efforts in the social 
improvement of the masses makes itself heard and felt And 
in this closing chapter it will be well that some brief account 
should be given of the present state of the religious and social 
work of the various bodies of Christians who are to be found 
in the neighbourhood. 

The older Nonconformists of Rotherhithe carried on their 
work on a humble scale. A hundred years ago the Chapel 
in Midway Place was the centre of much earnest work under 
the ministry of the Reverend Thomas Beck, who gathered a 
congregation round him who were much attached to their 
pastor. The Sunday School in connection with this body 
was largely attended by children from the neighbouring 
streets. 

The Wesleyan Methodists have several flourishing places 
of worship. The older Chapel formerly in Albion Street has 
been replaced by the handsome stone building in the London 
Road, and it is conducted with great vigour by the Reverend 
J. Scott Lidgett who is also the Warden of the Bermondsey 
Settlement, a large educational institution planted by the 



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246 ST MARV, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

Wesleyan body some years since in Parncombe Street, to the 
great benefit of the inhabitants of that district. 

There are also other Wesleyan bodies with Chapels in 
Rotherhithe. The United Methodists in Albion Street, the 
Primitive Methodists in the Union Road and the old Silver 
Street Chapel in the lower end of the parish, which is now 
worked from the Southwark Park Chapel in the Lower Road. 
The large Sunday Schools are a great feature of all these 
Methodist congr^ations. 

A Congregational Chapel in Maynard Road upholds the 
principles of that highly progressive body. In Derrick Street 
a Seamen's and Boatmen's Mission has been maintained for 
some years past with considerable success. 

But probably the most successful of all the religious enter- 
prises that have been set on foot in Rotherhithe of late years 
is the large "Free Church/' in the Lower Road, of which 
Mr Thomas Richardson is the pastor. The first pastor and 
founder of this congregation was Mr Golding, who was much 
beloved by his flock, but whose early death was a great blow 
to the cause. 

However his successor Mr Richardson has shown the 
greatest zeal and energy and the congregation has become 
very large. It is understood that the doctrinal tenets of that 
body are those of the Baptists, yet with some distinctive 
differences. The old Baptist Chapel lower down the road, 
formerly under the charge of the Reverend Mr Butterfield, 
would probably be in some points more truly identical with 
the teaching of the original Anabaptists. 

Mr Richardson's social work is a great feature of his plans 
for the elevation of the people. Every Sunday afternoon the 
large Meeting Room of the Rotherhithe Town Hall is filled 
with working men, whom he influences in a remarkable d^^ee 
by his homely method of speech. 

In the present year, 1906, a large Hall has been erected 
by the exertions of Pastor Richardson for his growing work ; 
and the name of " Rotherhithe Fra Church " has been super- 
seded by that of the "^ Rotherhithe Great Halir Neither of 
these designations affords much clue to the doctrinal character 



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XXII] ROTHERHITHE OF TO-DAY 247 

of the instruction there given. But the strength of it h'es in 
the homely and simple enforcement of the old Gospel message. 

But beside these various religious denominations two others 
must be mentioned : — one in Paradise Street, commonly known 
as the Ark, was founded more than forty years since by a 
good Christian man named Reuben Harris, who had been a 
Church Sunday School teacher under the Reverend Edward 
Blick, Rector of Rotherhithe. Mr Harris could not, however, 
be contented with the old Church ways, and set up a place of 
worship with a large Sunday School on independent lines. 
To this work he devoted all his energies, and he was rewarded 
by the love of his followers, and by the esteem and respect of 
all his neighbours till his death. " The Ark " still continues 
as a place of ** undenominational " religion, and is much 
appreciated by those who attend its services^ 

The other Institution of which we must make brief men- 
tion is that founded and conducted by Mr F. Morris in the 
Lower Road, and called by him St Winifred's. It is unde- 
nominational in teaching, and Mr Morris has the greatest 
sympathy with the Church of England and never adopts 
any controversial methods. He has lai^e Sunday Schools 
and clubs. He has recently taken over Dr Billington's 
Chapel. 

It will be observed that the greater number of the Non- 
conformist centres of Christian work are situated in the 
Lower Road, or in very close proximity to it Indeed it 
is essential to their success that they should be well in the 
public eye. In this they of course differ from the Church, 
which always makes provision for the people in the localities 
in which they live, dealing with them in parishes and bringing 
the word of God within easy reach of every parishioner. 

The social work of All Saints, Christ Church, St Barnabas, 
and St Katharine's, as well as of the Clare Collie Mission, is 

> A sister of Mr Harris left her Rotherhithe home in early Uk and settled in 
Canada and snhseqaentlj lived in the United States of America, where she 
married an Irish gentleman named Donohne. They had one son, the Reverend 
Charles Donohne, who is now a Cletgyman of the Episcopal Church of America 
and has a Parish in Grand Rapids in the Diocese of Western Michigan ; he has 
recently paid a visit to his relations m Rotherhithe. 



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248 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. 

a very important feature of their religious organizations ; and 
the Chapel of St Paul in the Mother Church district has of 
late years developed the social side of Christian work with 
remarkable success. Holy Trinity is beginning under its 
new Vicar to do the same. 

The Public Free Library, originally in a fine building 
adjoining Southwark Park, and lately transferred to the 
Rotherhithe Town Hall, provides a most valuable supply of 
books of all descriptions which cannot fail to help those who 
desire to carry on their own education after school age. The 
London County Council has made full use of the sixty acres 
of Southwark Park, inherited from the Metropolitan Board 
of Works, as a playground for this part of South London ; 
and ample provision is made for all athletic games as well as 
for the enjoyment of younger children. 

A very interesting series of Popular Concerts of good 
music were given some years since by the People's Entertain- 
ment Society on Saturday evenings during several winters; 
and these concerts, which were always largely attended by 
workmen and their families, did much to minister to the innate 
love of music in the human heart, to raise the tone of the 
audiences, and to cultivate their musical faculty, which had 
been little in advance of the music-hall style of song. The 
president of this society was Viscount Folkestone (afterwards 
the Earl of Radnor), and Lady Folkestone came every week to 
Rotherhithe with other musical amateurs to delight us with 
their charming songs. On one occasion H.R.H. the late Duke 
of Albany paid us a visit to witness the performance and 
expressed his great interest in the movement 

Natural history and botany may likewise be studied with 
advantage in the collection of waterfowl on the Ornamental 
Water, and in the beautiful Winter Garden, which is always 
filled with flowering plants which equal anything which is to 
be found in the conservatories of the wealthy and are here 
cultivated for the enjoyment of the humblest of our neighbours. 

Our enumeration of the religious influences at work in 
Rotherhithe would be incomplete if we failed to speak of the 
work of the Roman Catholic Church for the Irish population 



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XXIl] ROTHERHITHE OF TO-DAY 249 

which is settled here in large numbers, being chiefly employed 
as deal porters in the Docks. 

A small Church with priest's house at the Lower End of 
Rotherhithe Street sufficed for many years for the needs of 
the Roman Catholic inhabitants, who were mostly attached 
to the large Church of the Holy Trinity in Parker's Row, 
Dockhead. But of late years a day School was erected in 
Paradise Street and to this has now been added a fine Church 
with Presbytery adjoining, and the small Chapel in Rother- 
hithe Street is used in connection with an institution for the 
reclamation of unfortunate women under the direction of 
Sisters of Charity. 

Provision has also been made for the considerable Scandi- 
navian population which has settled in Rotherhithe owing to 
the timber ships from the Baltic trading in large numbers 
here during the summer months. 

The present King of Sweden when he was Prince Oscar 
laid the foundation stone of the Norwegian Church on a site 
given by the Surrey Commercial Dock Company, near Holy 
Trinity Church. The work was at that time carried on by 
Pastor Storjahan, from Bergen, and a Captains' room was 
shortly afterwards opened for the use of the Scandinavian 
seafaring men. A succession of excellent Lutheran clergy- 
men have laboured in this Mission and a convenient parsonage 
house has lately been built 

In 1905 a further development was made under the 
patronage of the Archbishop of Upsala, and the fine library 
buildings vacated by the Bermondsey Borough Council have 
been taken on lease and adapted for the worship of the 
Swedish crews in the Docks. The separation of the Swedish 
and Norw^ian monarchy into two distinct kingdoms has 
coincided with this division of the religious organization, 
which till now had been united under a single pastor. 

Hidden away among *'the stone alleys" leading from 
Rotherhithe to Deptford by the riverside is a small building 
bearing an inscription to the efiect that it is ''the Finnish 
Church." It stands close to the parish boundary and it may 
perhaps be on the Deptford side. 



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2S0 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE [CH. XXH 

The congregation cannot be large, but it deserves mention 
here as it is one of the religious agencies intended for the 
benefit of those who reside, or are for a time sojourners in 
Rotherhithe. 

The Cottage Hospital, which was built some years since 
as a memorial to the late Lady Gomm, close to the Hawk- 
stone Road Gate of Southwark Park, is a most valuable 
institution. It is conducted by " the Sisters of the Church," 
who have a dispensary for less serious cases, and visit in the 
homes of the people, and likewise conduct Sunday Schools 
and help children in preparation for Confirmation ^ 

The character of our parish has in course of years shared 
the progressive tendency of the modem civilization of 
England Yet very much remains of its old-world life, and 
the habits of the people partake of that ancient respectability 
which has been a feature of our life. 

Parts of Rotherhithe are still like a country village, and 
the old respectful behaviour which is characteristic of rural 
life in England prevails in Rotherhithe to this day. ** Good 
manners" are not at all confined to the inhabitants of the 
West End of London ; and visitors to our humble district 
may well feel surprise at the politeness and civility which 
men, women, and children invariably show to those whose 
position or calling places them a little above their neighbours. 
Much of this native good breeding has been fostered and 
cultivated by the influence of the Church Schools and the 
teaching of the Church Catechism which inculcates self- 
respect and respect for others in the spirit of the old motto 
of Winchester School, far-reaching in its significance,** Manners 
makyth man/' 

1 The admirable work of the Queen Victoria Jubilee Nwict ia Tiiitiiic the 
immeroiis tick patienu in their homes and carrying oat the dircctioai of the 
doctors b beyond all praise, and might well call for a longer tribute of grateful 
acknowledgment than we have been able to give it here. 

THE END. 



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APPENDIX. 



The Parish Church. 

In the Church Safes in the Vestry of the Parish Church 
are preserved many deeds and other documents of less value, 
none however without interest. 

13 Nov, 1676. 

(i) Mr Charles Gataker. Lease for a year to Mrs Beatrix 
Brewing of Redrith in the eight and twentyeth yeare of the raigne 
of our soveraigne Lord Charles the Second... 

The lessor was [the Reverend] Charles Gataker of Hoggeston in 
the County of Bucks Gierke sonne and heire of Thomas Gataker 
late of Redrith in the County of Surrey, Bachelor of Divinity 
deceased... 

The consideration was five shillings and the rent one pepper 
come. 

(2) Letter of Administration granted by Thomas Tenison, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, i May 1700, to one of the Church- 
wardens of Rotherhithe to the intestate estate of Ralph Banborow 
on behalf of his child Hannah. 

Thomas Providentia Divina Qant ArchiepGs totius AngUse 
Primas et Metropdnus Dilect Nobis in Xp6 Richardo Short uni 
Guardianoram Ecclls de Rotherhith et Curatori Itime assignat 
Hannae Banborow Infant! filiae nurali et Idinse Radulphi Banborow 
nOp de Rotherhith in Comitatu Surris Vidui defuncti Salutem. 
« « « « « 

Administratorem omniu et singuloru bonoru juriu et redituu in 
usum, et benefidum et durante minoritate die Infantis Ordinamus 
deputamus et consrituimus pr prestes. Dab. Londinii Vicesimo 



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25 2 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE 

primo die mensis Maij Anno Dni millesimo septingesimo primo et 
Nrse Translationis Anno septimo. 

Tho. Wetham Reg"« Dep»« 
Jurat sub xx\ 

P. Decret 



It would appear from the fact that the earliest rector of 
Rotherhithe recorded in the episcopal registers of the See 
of Winchester was John de Toclivc, A,D. 1310-1, that there 
could not have been any parish church here before that date. 
Yet the distance from Bermondsey old parish church is so 
considerable that there would probably have been some chapel 
for the celebration of the Divine service. 

The Rev. Thomas Gataker gives the following description 
of the mediaeval church when he entered on his incumbency 
in 161 1. "As also that the main fabric of the church sup- 
ported with chalkie pillars of such a bulk as filled up no 
small part of the roqm and were found verrie faultie, threat- 
ening a fail, if not a fall, unless speedilie prevented, to the 
ruin of the whole, which to remove and place strong timber 
columns in the room of them would prove a great change." 

Its dimensions were 53 feet in length, 48 feet in breadth, 
and 24 feet in altitude. The tower was 62 feet high and 
contained six bells. 

It is said to have been descended into by steps, and the 
floor to have been paved with tiles. In the year 1705, on 
a Saturday, the tide coming into the church so sunk the floor 
and the pews, that the former had to be new paved and the 
latter raised. The liability to floods from the river have in 
all times been a source of danger to buildings in our low- 
lying parish. 

A Reprint. 
An Hymn to be sung by the Charity Children belonging 
to Saint Mary, Rotherhithe, on Sunday, the i8th of Decem- 
ber 1808, after a sermon in the morning, by the Rev. Samuel 
Burder, M.A., of Clare-Hall, Cambridge ; and after a sermon 



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'M 



wnJcHOOU Shrndtt' 

CHktirrScHcois 



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APPENDIX 253 

in the evening, by the Rev. John Butler Sanders, A.M., late 
Fellow of Worcester College, Oxford ; Curate of St Augustin 
and St Faith, WatHng-Street ; and Lecturer of St Okve, in 
the Old Jewry. 

Come, O come with exultation, 
From your hearts your voices swell, 

To the strength of our salvation, 
To the Lord your transport tell. 

To his goodness for their trial, 

The poor destitute appeal; 
For with Him is no denial, 

When for aid the friendless kneel 

He will always be propitious 

To the orphan in distress ; 
From the wicked and malicious. 

He will shelter them and bless. 

He shall live for everlasting. 

High above all empire rais'd; 
And with oflTrings, prayer, and fasting, 

Daily shall his name be prais'd 

Hallelujah. Amen. 

N.B. The School at present consists of Forty Boys and 
Twenty-Five Girls, who are clothed Yearly, and taught the 
Principles of the Christian Religion. The Boys are also 
taught to Read, Write, and Cast Accounts, and when of age, 
will be put out Apprentices; and the Girls to Knit, Sew, 
Mark, Read, and Write, likewise one of the Girls is taken 
wholly into the School-House, and lodged, boarded, and 
instructed in all sorts of Household Work, (in order to render 
her more completely fit for Service) besides the Schooling, 
which she has in common with the rest of the Children. The 
Eight Free Boys are likewise clothed, supplied with Books, 
and will be put out Apprentices at the chaise of the Charity. 

%^ Divine Service will b^n in the Morning at Half-past 
Ten o'clock and in the Evening at Half-past Six. 



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254 st marv, rotherhithe 

Memorandum as to the Church Plate. 

Received y« 17*** of Aprill 1677 of Mr Henry Oake Late 
Churchwarden of the pish of Rotherithe, One Silver ffi^ggon. 
Two Comunion Cupps of Silver, Three Silver Salvers, one 
Silver Carv'd Dish for Bread, one Pewter fflaggon, one 
Pewter Bason and one Pewter Salver, one Table Cloth. 

I say Rece** by me 

Will: Howard. 

An Acco* of the Church Plate belonging to the Comunion 
Table. Take Aprill y* 7* Anno Dom. 1695. 
One Large Flaggon being the Guift of M' Thomas Stone Jun' 
Aug* y 9* 1666. 

One Carved Dish being the Guift of M' William Stevens. 
One Cupp and Cover being the Guift of M' Matthew Crouch, 
Aug* y« 20*'» 1672. 

One other Cupp and Cover bearing Date 162a 
One Patten being the Guift of M' Aaron Woodcock. 
In all Seven Pieces of Plate. 

Afterwards added One Pewter Patten and One plaine Silver 
Plate being the Guift of M"* Sarah Seaman bearing the date 
of the Lord 1703. 

A Marble Communion Table. 

Fihnuuy rjik 1733. 

We the Minister Churchwardens and Parishioners of the 
Parish of St Mary Rotherhith in the County of . Suny 
Assembled in Vestry pursuant to Notice last Sunday given 
in our Parish Church, Do Agree and Order that the present 
Church Wardens M' John Dinington and M' John Weales do 
with all expedition (with the consent of M" Baker) change 
a certain Marble Slab (given by M' Field) for another, and 
Fit and make the same convenient for a Communion Table, 
and any Sum not exceeding Five Pounds in the Changing 



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APPENDIX 25 S 

and Fitting the same shall be allow'd them in their Church 
Acc^ 

It would be a curious speculation to enquire what became 
of this Marble Slab for the Communion Table. No further 
allusion to it can be traced in the Vestry Books. 

The present Rector -found in 1867 a plain mahogany 
table with a flap serving the purpose of a Communion Table, 
and it is believed that it had been in the Church all through 
the Incumbency of his predecessor (1835-1867). When the 
Church Improvements were carried out in 1876, this most 
unsuitable Table was removed into the Vestry and replaced 
by a handsome Oaken Altar-Table, designed by Mr Butter- 
field, architect 

A Peal of Bells. 

January 19/A 1747-8. 

The Vestry do hereby Agree and Order to have a 
Compleat Set or Peal of Eight Bells and for the Tenor 
to weigh about Sixteen Hundred Weight And for our 
Churchwardens M*^ Robert Saunders and M' Thomas Pew 
to contract with a proper Founder to perform the same. 
And for the Charge (with our Old Bells) not to amount 
to more than Two Hundred Pounds. 

And also for them to Contract with a proper Person 
to make a Good Substantial Bell Frame, with Wheels, 
Stocks, Nails, Ironwork, Nuts, Screws, and so forth all 
which not to exceed Seventy Pounds And for One Third 
of the charge of Casting the Bells to be paid at the Hanging 
of the Tenor, and the other Two Thirds eighteen months 
after that 

Church Organ. 

A^l 34/A 1764. 

Many of the Parishioners having expressed their desire of 
haveing an Organ erected in this Church, "which they 
apprehend would be not only a very decent Ornament 
but also add to the Solemnity of Divine Service" — it 



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256 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE 

was agreed that an Organ would make "a very usefull 
and agreeable addition to the Church" — the same to be 
erected and provided by a Voluntary Subscription. 

December lyih 1765. 

Michael Topping was appointed Organist at a Salary 
of Thirty Pounds a year. 

[28th November, 1820. Mr R. W. Nottingham was 
elected Organist by a great majority of votes.] 

Election of Lecturer. 

March 2Md 179a 
Resolved that the Electors shall be those persons who 
pay to Church and Poor. 



John Randall, shipbuilder, of Greenland Dock, was the 
son of a shipbuilder and carried on his father's extensive 
shipping business. He is recorded to have built vessels 
for the Government In his time the shipwrights mutinied, 
and not only refused to work themselves but laid violent 
hands on those who were sent to work in their place. This 
worthy man entreated them to desist and to return to their 
duties, but in vain. And being himself struck by one of his 
workmen he retired from the scene and was so greatly 
.distressed at the events he had witnessed that he threw 
himself out of his window and was killed by the falL 
^ Randall's Rents " preserved his name, though his high 
character and scholarly attainments as well as his business 
capacity have long since been forgotten. 



In connection with the Waterman's craft a brief allusion 
should be made to their /<v/. John Taylor, the Water Poet, 
though not a Rotherhithe man, was frequently plying along 
our shore, and in several of hb poems describes the scenery, 
e.g. the horns at Cuckold's Point at the farthest end of this 
parish, where it joins the county boundary at Deptford in 
Kent 



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APPENDIX 257 

ROTHERHITHE IN LITERATURE 

Among literary celebrities who have resided in Rother- 
hithe or have drawn their inspirations from its scenes we 
must mention the following: — 

Charles Dickens found many subjects for his novels and 
tales in this immediate neighbourhood. "Jacob's Island" 
indeed is in Bermondsey, but the opening scene in "Our 
Mutual Friend ** describes in gruesome terms a picture which 
may still be seen off the shore at the lower end of Rother- 
hithe. A " bird of prey " is engaged in his operations as he 
sits in his waterman's boat with his drags out, waiting for 
the tide to bring down some unhappy being who has thrown 
himself or been thrown or has accidentally fallen into our 
river. 

A later author, Sir Walter Besant, portrays in "The 
Captain's Room " the features of the lower end of Rother- 
hithe, where the Scandinavian colony has fixed its settle- 
ment The story of Besant's literary visit to Rotherhithe 
is worth recording. The Rev. H. P. Gurney, a former curate . 
here, was a friend of the novelist and suggested to him that 
he might find materials in these quaint scenes for one of 
his popular tales. A single afternoon was sufficient for the 
purpose in view. He came, he saw, he wrote his book ; and 
as might be anticipated the local colouring was somewhat 
indistinct, albeit the tale itself was found extremely interesting 
by those who read it 

Sir Walter Scott, prince of romance writers, has immorta- 
lized a single feature of our parish in a few graphic touches 
in "The Fortunes of Nigel " (chapter XVll). The boat con- 
veying the youthful Nigel and tiie plain-featured Mistress 
Martha Trapbois failed not to attract the remarks of the 
passing watermen in their craft, as it moved slowly down the 
stream: — ^"They were hailed successively as a groccr^s wife 
upon a party of pleasure with her eldest apprentice, as 
an old woman carrying her grandson to school, and as a 

B. 17 



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?S8 ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE 

young strapping Irishman conveying an ancient maiden to 
Dr Rigmarole's at Redriffe, who buckles beggars for a tester 
and a dram of Geneva.. . ." Such was " the boisterous raillery, 
then called water-wit," when James the First was King. 

Lastly the famous Dr Jonathan Swift, Dean of St 
Patrick*s, has connected the hero of "Gulliver's Travels" 
with this old riverside parish. Captain Lemuel Gulliver is 
said to have made Rotherhithe his home after his marvellous 
adventures in Lilliput and Brobdingnag, and the inhabitants 
-were so impressed with the veracity of their new neighbour 
that when they desired to vouch for the unimpeachable 
character of any statement, they would say, " it was as true 
as if Mr Gulliver had said it!" 

In the ** Beggars' Opera," Act i. Scene i, allusion is made 

to Rotherhithe: 

Feachum's House. 

iirs P, Where was your post last night, my boy? 

Filch, I plied at the. Opera, Madam; and considering it was 
neither dark nor rainy, so that there was no great hurry 
in getting chairs and coaches, made a tolerable hand 
on't. — ^These seven handkerchiefs, Madam! 

Mrs P. Coloured ones, I see. They are of sure sale from our 
warehouse at Redriff, among the seamen. 

Filch. And this snuff-box. 

Mrs P. Set in gold I a pretty encouragement to a young beginner ! 

"Our warehouse at Redriff" was perhaps the Europa 
Tavern, in close proximity to the back of the Opera House, 
which was built by subscription about 1700^ and was much 
frequented 

Gay's Epistle (Mary Gulliver to the Captain) has this 
couplet^ not flattering to the ladies of Rotherhithe : 
''In Ave long years I took no second spouse, 
What Redriff wife so long hath kept her vows?" 

The China Hall Theatre was opened in the summer of 
1777* The pieces put upon the stage included ''The 



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A fictitious inhabitant of old Rotherhithe. ^ ^ 

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APPENDIX 259 

Wonder" and *' Lying Valet," "Love in a Village," with 
"Comical Courtship" (a new play). 

In the season of 1778 one of the performers was the 
celebrated George Frederick Cooke. 

In the winter of 1779 the whole building was destroyed 
by fire. 

ElKON Basilike. 

The imagery of this picture is said to have been designed 
by the Royal Martyr himself. The King is kneeling on a 
crimson velvet cushion at a prie-Dieu which is draped with 
a crimson cloth. His eyes are uplifted in contemplation of a 
heavenly vision. He is robed in royal apparel of green velvet 
trimmed with ermine, the outer mantle is of white fur and 
the Collar of the Garter is round his neck. On the ground 
at his feet the royal crown has fallen down with the sceptre 
broken in halves beside it. The words "Splendidam at 
gravem " describe the former, while the motto " Mundi caico " 
expresses his renunciation of all earthly dignities. With his 
right hand he grasps the Crown of Thorns ("gratia" in the 
centre) which lies on the prie-Dieu, ** Asperam at levem " and 
the words "Christi tracto" tell of his choice, while on an 
open book supported on a desk and resting on the table 
before him are the words "In verbo Tuo spcs mea." 

Two cherubs are bringing down a heavenly crown from 
above " Beatam et aeternam,** while the Martyr cries ** Coeli 
aspccto." 

A view of the interior of a Church with columns is 
depicted beneath the angelic vision. 

On the left of the picture are two emblems: (i) the palm 
tree crushed down with heavy weights * Cresdt sub pondere 
Virtus " and (3) the rock standing firm in the midst of the 
buflfeting billows of the sea ^ Immota triumphans." 

PuBuc House Signs in Rotherhithe. 
These are very characteristic, and some of them deserve 
to be recorded. 

The most ancient is the *'Europa" Tavern. Though 
a very common name of hotels on the Continent it is 

17— a 



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26o ST MARY, ROTHERHITHE 

believed to be unique in England. It stands in what was 
once the Market Place. Thirty years since it was still 
adorned with a small gilded bull over the principal entrance 
door. But a new landlord, under whose auspices the old inn' 
was fresh painted, not realising the connection of the bull 
with Europa, caused the classical animal to be removed, and 
it has never since graced our historic tavern. 

Then, as befits a waterside parish, we have names of 
famous ships, e^. the ** Noah's Ark," the " Ship Ai^o," the 
" Old Ship York," the " Swallow-galley," not to mention the 
"Jolly Sailor," the "Jolly Caulkers," and the "Battle of the 
Nile," and many another, far too numerous for the needs 
of the parishioners. 

An appreciation. 

The following extract from a letter received by the writer 
in January, 1888, will be found interesting as a testimony to 
the value of the work of Church and School building initiated 
in Rotherhithe by the Rev. Edward Blick. 

It is dated from Aldworth Vicarage, near Reading, and is 
written by Mrs Catharine Hodge, whose maiden name was 
Lloyd, and who was a niece of Mr Blick. She used often to 
stay at Rotherhithe Rectory, and well remembered her uncle's 
difficulties, discouragements and disappointments, and like- 
wise his persevering faith through all. 

"...It is so pleasant to see illustrations of the promise 'Cast thy 
bread upon the waters and thou shalt find it after many days.' One 
illustration of this was told me by one of the Rotherhithe workers. 
^Vhen Trinity schoolroom was first built, it was licensed for service, 
to collect a congrq;ation, if possible, ready for the Church. A little 
old woman in black was one of the regular attendants. When the 
Church was consecrated she was there, and again a regular 
attendant. 

'^ There was an organized attempt made to visit the whole 
parish, but owing to the large extent and the few workers, the 
locali of this poor woman was not found. Winter came on and the 
old woman was missed from her usual place ; but no one seemed to 
know her, or where she lived. At last one day my informant found 



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APPENDIX 261 

in some poor lodging an old man and woman crippled with 
rheumatism. * Oh, dear ! ' the poor woman said, * I did feel sure 
the Lord would send some one to us at last ! ' She told her history. 
She was a girl at service when her master was taken, and the clergy- 
man was sent for. As she opened the door, he began the service, 
* Peace be to this house,' in an earnest, solemn manner. This 
struck her very much; she heard some of the prayers by her 
master's bedside and attended his funeral From that time she 
went to Church as frequently as she could. Then she married and 
could not go regularly but went as often as she was able. The 
children grew up, and she and her husband came to live in Lower 
Rotherhithe. Still she went up to Church on Sunday as long as she 
could ; at last the walk became too much for her, and she stopped 
at the Wesleyan meeting-house, which stood rather lower down than 
St Paul's. There she went as long as she could till this was too far. 
She was in despair. Then one day her husband came and said to 
her, 'Sarah, good news for you. You will be happy. They are 
going to build down here schools and a Church.' She used to go 
and watch the building with so much interest, and at last with joy 
saw the school opened and service b^^n. The poor old woman 
got better, and both she and her husband were able to go to Church 
when summer came. But a few years afterwards both died, having 
however the comfort of Church ministrations in their last hours." 



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INDEX. 



Addjy Thomas, Rector 41 
Albany, H.R.H. Duke of 348 
All Saints' Church 58, 67, 94, 95, 147 
Allen Line of Transatlantic Emigrant 

Ships SS7 
Allen's Baiiies of ike British Navy 

184, 185 
Aljmgton, William de, Rector 37 
Amelia, Princess S15, si6 
Amicable Society's School 188, 190 
Amicia, wife of Richard, Lord of 

Qare is 
Amos, Andrew 97 
Animal remains found at Rotherhithe 

8n., fo 
"Antelope," East Indiaman sso, ssi 
Apsley, Sir Alan s8 
Ardier, Heiiry, Rector 38 
Archer, William 1S9 
"Ark, the" 147 
Arson 443, *4i 
Ashcombe, Lord 77 
Atkinson, Dr Edward 6s, 63, 80 
Aubrey's Smney 155 
Aodley, Matthew 106 (T. 
Aykfle, William 47 

Bailey, H. R. 80 

Bainbridge, Geof^ge* monament to 143 

Baldwin, William, Rector 4s 

Baptists S46 

Bardsley, Samuel Martyn 96 

Barroby, Martha Elisabeth, John Wing, 
and John, monument to 140 

Barrow, Captain Thomas, and Eliza- 
beth, monument to 145 

Barry, Bishop 80 



Bayly, Hannah, Benefiiction of 55, 

isin., 15s, I74ff., S18 
Bacalgette, Sir J. W. 3s 
Beatson, John 75, 170 
Beatson, Mr, architect 75 
Becco, Captain ss8 
Becher, J. T. 8s, IS3 
Beck, Edward Josselyn, Rector 43, 

61 (T., 76, IS4 
Beck, Thomas S45 
Beck fomily 61 
Bedford, Dukes of 167, 168, i8on., 

ss6 
Beede, Thomas, Rector 41 
Bell, Robert, Benefoction of, 151 
Benbow family 168 
Benedictine Order si 
Benefactions 151 (T. 
Benefactors to building Parish Church, 

list of 155 ff. 
Bennet; John s8 

Bennett, Ambrose, Benefaction of 151 
Bermondsey, Manor of s, si AT. 
Bermondsey Settlement S45, S46 
Billington, Dr S47 
Bing, John 130, 130 n. 
Bisley, Francis John 190 
Bissdiop, John, Rector 38 
Blake, W. J. 64 
Blakeston, Lake Harrison 9s 
Bland, Philip Davison 81, 117, IS5 
Blick, Edward, Rector 3, 43, 56 ff., 

74, 116, 118, isi, IS4, IS7, is8, S47 
Blick, Francis isi 
Blight, Isaac, murder of S40 (T. 
Blomfield, Dr A., Bishop of Colchester 

80 



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264 



INDEX 



"Blue Mountains" 148 

Board School, Albion Street 70 

Boger, Canon 80, 91 

••Bone-House" 148 

Boniface IX, Pope 21 

Bonney, T. G., on the geology of 

Rotherfaithe and of the Thames 

valley 4ff. 
Bossu, Robert, Eaii of Leicester at 
Bowditch, William Lamprey 89 
Bowstead, John 61, 76 
Bracken, Everilda, monument to 143 
Bradshaw, Ebenezer 65 
Bnunston, Mondeford 933 
Biandram's Meadow 59 
Brass, monumental 149, 150 
Brentford, Nidiolas de, Rector 37 
Brok, William at. Rector 37 
Brome, Robert at. Rector 37 
Browne, Bishop Harold 34, 68, 69, 

7^. 77 
Brownfield, Samuel 189 
Brunei, Marc Isambard and Isambard 

Kingdom 3, 194, 935 
Brydale, John, Rector 38 
Buhner, John 190 
Buigh, Elizabeth de 13 
Bumel, Robert, Bishop of Bath and 

Wells 93, 94 ; heirs of 94 AT. 
Bumey, Canon 77 

Burrows, Canon Henry William 6s, 80 
Buss, C. C 80 
Butler, William 914 
Butteriield, Mr, Baptist Minuter 946 
Butteriield, William 67 flf., 74, 79 
Bykyr, Robert, Rector 38 

*< Cambridge Settlement" 78 
Canada Dock 8d., 10 
Cantora, P^ Jean Antoine ssi 
Canute's Dyke 18 It, 996 
Carr, Emily Blanche 919 
Cair-Gomm, Frauds Calling 919, 

fi9n« 
Carr-Gomm, Hubert William Culling 

919 
Caaseldeoy Thomas William I93ii., IS4 
Charity School 57, 64, 151 flf^ i6f 
Charies I, King 1360: 
•• Chariies " 935 



Charlotte, Queen 915 

Charterhouse Mission 78 

Cheetham, Dr 76 

Cheltenham College Mission 78 

Cholera, visitation of 59, 117, 118 

Christ Church 58, 67, 96, 918, 947 

Christ Churdi Schools 57, 918 

Church Institutes 94 

Church Rates, abolition of 194 

Churchill, Charles 66 

Civil Force 934, 935 

Clare, Honour of 93 

Clare College, Cambridge 93, 53, 54, 69 

Clare College Mission 73, 74, 97, 947 

Clark, Charles 117, 199 

Claughton, Dr, Bishop of Rochester 77 

Clergy of District Churches 94 ff. 

CUnkshdl, W., printer 938 

Cockayne, Thomas, Rector 49, 55, 108 

Coins, Roman, found in Plough Road, 
15 n. 

Cokham, John de. Rector 37 

Coleman, William, monument to 139 

Collins, Thomas 75 

Commercial Dock Company 926, 997 

Commissioners for viewing and repair- 
ing the banks of the Thames 30 ff. 

Concerts, Popular 948 

Congregationalists 946 

Cook, Eliza 19s 

Cook, Silas Kemball 119, ii9n. 

Cooper, Sir Astley 949, 949 n., 943 

Cooper, T. S. 98 

Coo-Roo-Raa, Island of 990 

Copping, Samuel Ward, Benefiictioo 
of 159, 176 

Coram, Captain Thomas 183 

Corbetty William, crime of 177, 937 ff. 

Corbett's Lane 937, 939 

Cotham, George Toulson 193 

Cranfidd, Thomas 55 

Crimes, Chapter of 936 ff. 

Cross, Lord 77 

Cross (sheriff*s oflSoer), residence of 308 

Cundy, Dr 80 

Curates of Rotherhithe 81 ff. 

Curling, J. J. 999, 999 n. 

Curling, lliomas. Rector 49, 53, 54, 107 

Danett, Gerard 37 



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INDEX 



265 



Davies, Ann, monament to 138 

Davis, Martha, moDttment to 139 

Dawkins, Boyd 1 1 n. 

Dawson, Ralph, Rector 41 

de Clare, mediseval family of 99, 93 

de Ilandlott, John 15 ; heirs of 95 

Dealtrey, Thomas, Bishop of Madras 

i8f, i8a 
Delap, Loais Bredin 96 
Dodsworth, William 61 
Dog, remains of 11 
Donne, William 89, 90 
Doyle, Michael, "Bug destroyer to 

His Majesty" 198, 199 
Dozell, John 199 
Drayton, John, Rector 39 
Dunton, Pan! de. Rector 38 
Diisantoy, F. P. 63 

Earle's Sluice 30 n. 

East India Company lot 

Eden, Robert, Bishop of Moray and 

Ross 27S 
Edmondson, Maiy, crime of 136, 937 
Edric the Fisherman, legend of 17, 18 
Education Act of 1870 70; of 1903 71 
Edward I, King 99 
Elm trees 196, 197, aoo 
European Maganm 177 
Evans, Sir John 911., iin. 
Eve, George James 133, 193 n. 

Faber (or Fabey), Geoflfrey, Rector 38 

Farren, J. 167 

Fayrwall, Gregory, Rector 39 

Fayrwall, J(^ Rector 39 

Feild, Dr Edward, Bishop of Kew- 

fooBdland stB, 399 
Fenwick, John 6s 
Fcfiy Company 148 
"Fightfaig Tte^niie** 75, 76a*, «ii, 

Finnish Church 949, 950 

Fires 943, 944 

Fisheries, Thames, tithe of 18 

Flook, Thomas 91 

Fotkestooe, Visooiuit, and Lady 948 

Foot, R. G. 117 

Footways 931 

Foniham, Peter, Rector 38 



Forster, W. E. 70 
Foundling Hospital 189 
Free Church 946 
Free School 150, 151 

Gaitskell, Dr 187 

Galley- Wall Road 90 

Gardner, John Ludford 89, 193 

Garth, Jonathan 171, 179 

Garth family, tomb of 148, 171, 179 

Gashry, Francis 914 

Gashry, Martha 914 

Gatacre, Thomas 45, 46 

Gataker, Thomas, Rector 3, 49, 44 flf. ; 

Bene&ction of 151 
Gataker Street 53 

General Steam Navigation Company 1 73 
Geology of Rotherhithe 4 AT. 
George IH, King 915 
Gillam, Samuel 177, 178, 187, 938 
**Gillam's Court" 178 
Globe Dock 75 
Gloucester, Manor of the Honour of 

99, 93 
Godwin, J. P. 97 
Oolding, Mr, first Pastor of the Free 

Cliurch 946 
Golding-Bird, John Percival 90 
Goldsworthy, Lieut.-General Philip 914, 

Goldsworthy, Martha Caroline 915, 916 
GokUworthy Terrace 9t5n. 
Gomm, Jane 915, 916 
Gomm, Lady Elizabeth Aim 68, 918, 

919; Bendactions of 159, 919 
Gomm, Lieut -Col. Henry 916 
Gomm, Sir William Majrnard 3, 98, 

58, 67, 916 ff. 
Gomm, Sophia Louisa 915, 916 
Gonm Schools 67, 87, 918 
Goode, John, Rector 49, 53 
Grammar School 59, 89 
Great Wet Docks 19, 90, 39, 996 
Greenland Dock 996 
Gretham, John, Rector 38 
Grice fiunily 148, 188, 189; tomb of 

I43> 189 
Gumey, Henry Palin 76, 80, 87 ffl, 196 

Hambrook, James 65 



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266 



INDEX 



Hamilton, George Fenton 91 

Hankin, artist 114 

Hanover Street, or Hanover Bay 168, 

180 n. 
Hardwicke, Dr Thomas 56, IT5, 110, 

191 

Harrap, Mr 135 . 

HarriSy Reuben 947 
Hartley, Thomas, Rector 38 
Harvey, Captain Eliab an 
Hatherley, James John 199, ii9n. 
Hawise, daughter of Robert, Earl of 

Leicester tt 
"Hawk," missionary ship 118, 919 
Hawks, Edward, monument to 149 
Hawks, Robert Shafto 64, 174 ^m 

Bene&ction of 159, 175 
Hawks family 174 (T. 
Hay, Charies 170, 171 
Hay, Francis Theodore, Charity in 

memory of 170, 171 
Hay &mily, tomb of 146, 170, 171 
Henry I, King 99, 93 
Henry IV, King 33, 2W 
Henry Lord Morley 37 
Hewett, John Short, Rector 43, 56, 

119 
Higfaam, Edgar Percy 93, 116 
'•HiU's FoUy" S09, 3IO 
Hills, Peter 150; Beneiaction of 150, 

151 
Hind, Charks 117, iia 
Hine, C. 83 

Hobman, Alfred Thomas 193 
Hookey, M. C. (nie Heisch) 333 
Home, William, Rector 37 
Horse, remains of 10 
Hoscason fiunily 189 
How, Biihop Walsham 90 
HowMd, W., Bcnefiictk)P of 151 
Howland, Sir Giles 936 
Howland Dock $«• «96 
Hmnphfies, Henry 99 
Hunt, Holman 199, 193 
Hurd, James 64 
Hutchinson, Louisa 60 
Htttddnson, Sarah 60 
Hutchinson, William Pike Haigood 

59 ff^ Si, 116, 119 
llyndman. Miss 96, 170 



Inscriptions in the Parish Church 1 34 ff* * 

150, 179. 183 
Irish population 948, 149 
Island House 905'ff. 
*< Islands, the Seven" 903 AT. 

*' Jamaica Grove" 196 

James, 3rd Earl of Salisbury 18 

James, 4th Earl of Salisbury 98 

Janeway, James 165 flf. 

Jervis, John 91, 95, 96 

Jesus College, Cambridge, Mission 78, 

79 
Joan of Acre, daughter of Edward I 93 
Johnson, T. C. 73, 97 
Johnston, Mrs Richmond 91, 137 
Johnstone, John 116 
Jolley, John «8 

Jones, Robert 91, 94, 95, ti6, 119 
Jones, Sarah Maigaretta 54 
Jute Warehouses 15 n. 

Keate, George, account of the Pelew 

Islands aio, an 
Keble College, Oxford 919 
Kelly, Bishop 138, 139 
Kelsey £unily 183 
Kent Zoological and Botanical Gardens 

I7« 
Kershaw, E. D. 80 
Kid, James, Benefaction of 151, 176 
King, A. E. 97 
King and Queen Granary tSi 
Kingston-upon-Thames, Archdeaconry 

of 76, 77 
Kitchin, William 65 
Knight, Henry, and Ann, murder of 938 

Lady Gomm Memorial Hospital 119, 
• 150 

Lady Margaret ^fission, Walworth 78 
Lake, John 113, ny 
Lambarde 53 

Langford, Richard de. Rector 38 
LatreiUe fiunily ison. 
"Lavrock," Church ship 199 
Lawrence, Ganon C D. 76, 93 
Law-suit of Abbot of Westminster 18 
Leake, Admiral Sir John 169 
Lee, E. M. OUara 97 



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INDEX 



267 



Lee Boo, Prince 109, 147, 191, aaoff.; 

monuinent to 139 
Lewis, J. Hardwicke 137 
Li<Jg«tt, J. Scott 145 
Ltncoln, T. A. 115 
LodingtoQ, J. W. i«i 
London Gregorian Choral Association 

80 
Lonsdale^ Cecilia Mary lai, iim. 
Lovd of Tichmarsh, John Lord 14 ff. ; 

heirs of 16 
Lovell, Dr Edward, Rector 49, 53, 

106, 107 
Lyons, Sir Edmund S13 
Lysons, Environs of London 36, 167 

Macdonald, Sir Archibald 141 
Maitland, account of Canute's Dyke 

(1739) 19,* lo; on the population of 

Rotherfaithe 130 
Maitland, Herbert Thomas 84, 85 
Mammoth, remains of 8 n. 
Manning and Bray's History of Surrty 

168 
Kfarillier, William 59, 193, 113 n. 
Mary, recess 915, 916 
Mason, W. W. 195 
Mather, Herbert 85, 86 
Maud, Empress ii 
Meilan, Daniel 187, 188 
MeUitus, 6rst Bishop of London 16 (T. 
Men's Brotherhood 97 
Meriton, Henry 183 (T.; monument to 

183, 184 
Meriton fiunily 183 fU 
Mestaires, Peter 188 
Millpond 903 It 
Mitdiinson, Henry Clark 96 
Monasteries, dissolution of the 40 
Monastic period 3, «i £ 
Mooumcntal Brass 149, 150 
Monuments of the Parish Chuidi 134 C; 

JMT «/i# Inscriptions 
Moore, James 64, 83, ii8, 1^4 
Moore, Sir John 917 
Moriey, George, Bishop of Winchester 

Morris, Ambrose 64, 83, 84, 118, IS4 
Morris, Arthur Julius 84 
Morris, Edmund James 90 



Morris, F. 947 

Murche, Vincent Thomas 199, rii n. 
Murray, Henry Leigh 91, 93 
Myddleton, Dr Robert, Rector 43, 55, 
56, 108, 109, 114 

National Schools 169 

Neatby, Joseph 1S4, 194 n. 

Negus, Mrs S. M., Benefactions of, 54, 

55t 154 
Negus, Thomas, Rector ^, 54, 107, 

108 
Nelson, Lord 76 n. 
Nelson Tomb 148 
Newton, E. T, 8n., 10 
Nonconformist Sunday Schools 945 (T. 
Nonconformists 165, 167, 945flr. 
Norman and Plantagenet period 3, 9 1 AT. 
Norris, Joseph 69, 75 
Norwegian Church 949 
Nottingfaiim, Miss 65 

Ornamental Water 948 
Oscar, Prince 949 
Ox, remains of 10 

Parish Registers io9ir., 131 if. 

Patch, Richard, crime of 939 flf. 

Pearson family 187 

Peel, Sir Robert 935 

Peele, Henry Evan Brandram 93, 94, 

196 
Pdew Islands 990 AT. 
People's Entertainment Society 948 
Perry, Frederick 96 
Philips, Miss EdeU 83 
Phillips, Captain William 173, 174 
Phillips fiunily 173, 174 
Physical aspect of Rotheriiitbe in 1800 

194 C 
Pierson, John 106 
Pig, ffemains of 11 

Plate belonging to Pivish Church 98 C 
Polak, Jacob Everts Reysek 93 
P<^oe 119, 191, 935 
Popham, Sir John 45, 48 
Popolatkm of Rotherhithe, Menumnda 

concerning 130, 131 
Potcnte, William, Rector 38 
Pre-rafaellite Brotherhood 19a 



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268 



INDEX 



Prescne, Bartholomew, Rector 39' 

Price, Sir Charles m6 

Pridie, J. R. 97 

Primitive Methodists 346 

Prince's Dock 118, 119 

"Prior's Park" 14, 15 

Public Baths and Washhouses 919 

Poblic Free Library 948 

Pablic-houses 199 

Punnett hmUy 169, 170 

Puritan period 3 

"Queen," battle-ship 113 

Queen Victoria Jubilee Nnnes 150 n. 

Raby, William, Rector $tf 

Ragged School 188 

Raynes, William 80 

Rebuilding Parish Churdi, 159 AT. 

Rectors of Rotherfaithe, lists of 37 ft^ 
41 ff. 

Red Deer, remains of 8 n^ 10 

Restoration period 3 

** Resurrection men" 144 

Revolution of 1688 3 

Reynolds, Nidiolas, monument to chil* 
dren of 135 

Richard II, King s r, t$ 

Richardson, Thomas S46 

Rider, Henry, Bishop 44 

Rigaud, Dr Stqihen Jordan 6t 

Rigg, Thomas, and Catharine, monu- 
ment to 144 

Ritchie, William 436 

River-wall 9, 15, i6, 19 It 

Robert, son of Heniy I «i| hcin of 

Roberts, Isabella 95 

Roberts, William, and Ann, moimiDent 

to I4« 
Roberts fiunily 187 
Rochester, Diocew of S5f 76» 77 
Roll's Marshes 195 . 
Roman Catholic Quudi 148; 149 
Roman occupation etc. s, 7, 11, 15 
Rose, Mr 167 
Rotewell, Mr 166 
Rosher, George 179 
Rosher fiunily 148, 17$, 173; tomb of 

«4«. 173 



Rosherville Gardens 17a 
Rotherhithe, Manor of a, a i, 12, 914 ff. 
Rotherhithe and Shad well Tunnel 1 4n., 

94, 149. ««5 
"Rotherhithe Free Church" 246 
"Rotherhithe Great Hall" 146 
Royal Arms 150 
Royal Thames Yacht Club 179 
Russell, Robert 67, 86, 87, 96 
Ryder, John, Rector 41, 43 

Sacrilegious violation of new-made 

graves 944 
St Alban's, Diocese of 76, 77 
St Andrew's waterside Church Mission 

91 
St Augustine 16 
St Augustine, Order of si 
St Barnabas' Church 66, 67, 85, 86, 96, 

«i8, «47 
St Bartholomew's Church, Barkworth 

Road 73 
St Birinus, 6nt Bishop of Winchester 16 
St Edward the Confessor 17 
** St Helena," public-house 199 
StJohn'sColl^ge, Cambridge, Mission 78 
St Katharine's Church 73, 96, 97, 939, 

«47 
St Mary de Gratiis 96, 35 
St Mary Overie, Southwark ii, 35 
St Miry, Rotherhithe (Parish Church) 

<3. 34ff» ^ff-. 79 
St Mary's National School, 57, s 18 
St Olave's Grammar School 59 n., r76 
St Paul's Cathedral 16, 159 
Sk Pud's Chapd-of-eaie 57, 66, 74 ff^ 

8i, fS5, n6^ 4ia, 948 
St Pteil's Infimt School 57 
St PMer, Abbey of 16 AT. 
St Sftvkmr,Cftt]iedral of, Southwark 35 
St Saviour, Piiocy or Abbey of, Ber- 

noodaey 3, «iC, 40 
St Swithun, Bishop of Windiester ii 
St Winifred's t47 
Salmon, capture of 195, 907, 108 
Sanders, C H. 184 
SunnderB, J. C. 116 
Saxon and Danish period 3, 16 
5kales, Lord t6 
Scandinavian population S49 



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INDEX 



269 



Scarth, Canon 80, 84 
Scawen, Thomas 98 
School Board system 70^ 71 
School of Industry 57, 114 n. 
School Treats 59, 161 
Scovell, Thornton 179 
Scndamore, Henry Toke 99 
Sea-captains 3, 174 
Seamen's and Boatmen's Mission 246 
Sebert, King 17 
Sedger, John Small 180 
Sedger, Thomas lai, I93> T13 n. 
Sedger family 180 flf. 
Sdby-Hele^ Henry Home 80 
Seman, John, Rector 37 
« Seven Islands" 903 ff. 
Sheep, remains of 10 
Sherman, John 109 
Shipbreakers 11 1 £ 
Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge 47 
Simson, Harriet Stephenson, monu- 
ment to 144 
Small, Hannah Kibett 65 
Smith, E. Rumney 193 
Smith, Henry, Boiefaction of 151 
Smith, Thomas 179 
SomerviUe, C. D. B. 79 
Soper family, monument to 140, 141 
Sophia, Princess 315 
Southwark, Archdeaconry of 76 
Southwarkf Diocese of 35, 77 
Southwark PArk 3, 73, a 18, 348 
Speare, James, Rector 43, 56, 114 
Speck, Robert, and Saiah, monument 

to 143. 144 
Spnmt» John, Benefaction of 133 n., 

i5«, 17^ 
Stain, Watermen's 330, 331 
Stanewegh, John de. Rector 38 
Stanfidd, Clarkson 3ii» 3i3 
Stanley, Dean 17 
'^Star," missiooary ship 338 
Steam Ferry Company 148 
Stephen, King 33 

Stern, Dr John, Bishop of Colchester 47 
Stevens, Captain William, Benefaction 

of 151, 167 
Stevens, Richard Carolns 89 
Stokes, James J. 64, 175, 176 
Stokes, Thomas, monument to 140 



Stone, Captain Thomas, monument to 

135 
Stoodley, George, Rector 43 
Storjahan, Pastor 349 
Stowe's Londan 134, 135, 145 
Stranack, Captain Robert 63, 173 
Stnmack fiunily 173 
Stubbs, John 133, 133 n. 
Sumner, Dr Richard Charles 61 
Sunday Schools 55, 163 
Surrey Canal Company 337 
Surrey Canal School 57, 58 
Surrey Commercial Dock Company 337, 

338y 349 
Surrey Commercial Docks i, 3, 9 n., 

10, 33, ^^ 189, 318 
Suthwerk, William de, Rector 37 
Sutton, Canon 193 
Swales, Francis 96 
Swedish Qiurch 349 
Sweeting, W. D. 83, 131 

Tait, Bishop 63 

Talbot, Dr, Bishop of Southwark 35 

Talbot, Edward 191 

Talbot family 191, 193 

Tarver, Canon Charies F^ral 137 n. 

Teall, Dr J. J. H., 13 n. 

''T^m^raire,** battle-ship 75, 76 n., 311, 

313 

Ten Churdies' Fund 73 

Thames Embankment 33 

Thames Steam Ferry Company 148 

Thames Tunnel 3, 116, 138, 174, 334, 

335, 331 
Thames valley 4 ff. 
Thompson, Charles JoUands 190 
Thomptoo Liners 337 
Thomey Isknd, Isle of Thorns 16, 17 
Tboiold, Dr Anthony Wilson, Bishop 

of Rochester 35, 77, 78 
Timber trade i» 337 
Titian's "Entombment of Christ," copy 

of 9«t «37. »38 
Tocklive, John de^ Rector 37 
Todman, Eleanor 76 n. 
Tomlinsoot Routh 85 
Torr*s Fiehl 59 
Tower Bridge 148 
Trafalgar, battle of 311 



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270 



INDEX 



Tringham, H. R. P. 81, 97 

Trinity Church 58, 67, 81, 81, 941 348 

Trinity Church Schools 57 

Trinity College Mission 78 

Trinity Monday on the Thames obi, 

101 
Trinity Parsonage 58 t . . 
Tucker £unily 188 

Taring, J. R. 8a, 94, 117 1' 

Turner, J. W. M. «ii, an 
Turton, Dr 61 

Tweddle, Christopher 90, 91, 95 
Tweedy, Captain Roger 164, 165; 

monument to 135, 136; Benefaction 

of 151, 164, 165 
Tyacke, Mrs 64 

United Methodists 146 

United Society School 57, 167 n., 168 

Upsala, Archbishop of 949 

Vanburgh, Edward 914 

Vestry, Parish, constitution of 433 ff. 

Volunteers, Loyal Rotherfaithe 3, 67, 

188, 900 

Waddington, H. F. 159 
Wade, E. J. 8a, 193 
Wade, Joseph, monument to 141, 14a 
Wager, Lady Martha a 14 
Wager, Sir Charles a8, af4 
Walker, Mrs, murder of a36, a37 
Walker, Ralph 191 
Walker family 191 
Wahie, Alfred 83, ia4 
Waljrngford, John de. Rector 37 
Watch-houses and Watchmen 934, 935 
Watermen's Company 931 



Watermen's Stairs and Footways, 930 

Webb, Dr 6a, 63 

Wellington College Mission 78 

Wells, Frank 193 

Wells, Henry 73 

Wells, John and William aa6 

Wesleyan Methodists 945 

West, Dr William Delanqr 95 

Westminster, Abbey and Convent of 

i6£ 
Westminster Assembly of IMWnes, 49, 

Whale fishery aa6 

Whitaker, W. 8n., 90., 1411. ^ 

White, Henry G^ AfteraooQ Lectnrer 

113, 118 
White, WiUiam a8 
Wilberforce, Bishop 67 
Wilberforce Mission 78, 90 
William Rafas 99 

Wilson, Captain Henry 147, 190^ 990 C 
Wilson, James 59, 89, ii7» 118,' 190 
Wilson family, tomb of 147 
Winchester, Dtooeie of 16, 54, 77 
Winter Garden 948 
Wood, Captain Anthonj. mommiCBt 

to 134 
Woodlock, Bishop of Winchester 43 
Woodruff, Thomas 197 
Woodruffe fiunily 187; txmb of 146, 

147. 187 
Wooster fiunily 189 
Wyllis, Richard, Rector 39 



York* Thomas 99; 
memory of 99, 137 



pictiire to the 



CAMBRIDQK : PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M. A. AT THK ONIVUtSITY PEUt. 



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